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印度有14亿人口,为什么GDP这么低

A total of 140 crore people live in India, so why is India's GDP so low?

印度有14亿人口,为什么GDP这么低?

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以下是Quora网友的评论:

Santhakumar V

The value of production by each Indian is small compared to may other countries of the world.

The capital embedded in the production of each Indian is very small.

和其他国家相比,每个印度人的产值很小。

每个印度人用于生产的资金非常少。

 

 

 

Kalyan Subbu

To cut the long answer short, India’s economy had not been growth-driven post-1947 until the BoP crisis of 89–91. As a relief to the crisis-hit economy, the then GoI led by PM Narasimha Rao, with the support of key opposition parties(he was heading a minority Congress government with outside issue-based support of other parties) decided to de-regulate the Indian economy. Until then India’s economy was based on the Nehruvian socialist model. Indian economy.

简单点说,印度经济在1947年后一直没有什么起色,还在1989-1991年遭遇了经济危机。为了缓解经济危机,纳拉辛哈·拉奥总理领导的印度政府在主要反对党的支持下,决定放松对印度经济的监管。在那之前,印度经济一直采取尼赫鲁的社会主义模式。

Post liberalization of 1991, with the license raj being shelved in several industry sectors, foreign investments were invited and the growth momentum picked up. IT, automotive, power, and BFSI were some of the sectors in which foreign investors showed interest. The period between 1996 to 1999 was that of political instability leading to a slowdown in economic growth. In 1999, the first BJP government led by Mr. Vajpayee assumed office, and the next five years were spent boosting infrastructure development. Vajpayee continued with the reforms initiated by the erstwhile Congress-led government. GDP growth again picked up but was short-lived only up to 2004. The India Shining campaign spearheaded by the BJP didn’t propel the party to power in the general elections that year.

1991年经济改革后,几个行业取消了许可证制度,引入了外国投资,经济增长势头回升。IT、汽车、电力、金融服务和保险业都是外国投资者较为兴趣的一些行业。1996年至1999年,印度政治动荡导致了经济增长放缓。1999年,瓦杰帕伊领导的第一届人民党政府上台,接下来的五年都在推动基础设施的发展。瓦杰帕伊继续推行从前由国大党政府发起的经济改革。印度GDP增长再次回升,在2004年前出现了一段短暂的增长。印度人民党发起的“印度之光”运动并没有推动该党在当年的大选中获胜。

In the year 2004, with the lack of a clear mandate for any single party, an alliance led by Congress by the name of UPA assumed power. There was much anticipation from this government as it was headed by Dr. Manmohan Singh, who was regarded as one of the architects of the economic reforms of 1991. Singh was at the helm for two terms from 2004 to 2014. His drawback was that he was a consensual candidate of UPA partners and didn’t have a mandate on his own. During this period, the PMO became so compromised that there was an extra-constitutional authority created by the name of the Chairperson of UPA to have a greater say on policy matters than the PM himself. The treasury bench in Parliament owed their loyalty to this extra-constitutional authority than the head of the government. The prime minister became a mute spectator to a series of scams spearheaded by his cabinet colleagues. The situation was so grave that by 2013, India’s economy was rated under “Fragile Five” by global credit agencies with its banking system on the verge of collapse due to accumulated NPAs during the 9-year tenure of the UPA government. Added to this, as an after-effect of the 2008 global meltdown, inflation was at its high in double digits, rupee tumbled against the dollar and there was total policy paralysis on the part of the government to take any key economic decisions.

2004年,国大党领导的团结进步联盟上台执政。这届政府受到了印度人民的很多期待,因为该组织由曼莫汉·辛格博士领导,他被视为1991年经济改革的建筑师之一。辛格自2004年到2014年,担任了两届总理。他的问题在于他只是团结进步联盟的自愿参选人,本人并未获得任命。所以他变得软弱妥协,甚至以团结进步联盟主席的名义设立了一个宪法外的权力机构,并在国家政策问题上具有比总理本人更大的发言权。

比起政府首脑,议会中的财政部法官们更忠于这个宪法外的权力机构。情况越来越严重,2013年印度经济被全球信贷机构评为“脆弱五国”,印度银行系统也因团结进步联盟执政9年内积累的不良贷款而濒临崩溃。此外,2008年全球经济危机让印度通胀率攀升到两位数,卢比兑美元的汇率暴跌,印度政府无力采取任何重大经济决策。

In the 2014 general elections, the BJP attained power with Mr. Narendra D. Modi at the helm as the PM of India. The period between 2014 to the present(Nov 2023) is the period when India has seen consistent GDP growth notwithstanding the two-year downturn owing to the global pandemic and the subsequent geopolitical issues affecting the global economy. Today India attained a GDP size of $ 4 trillion and will be a $ 5 trillion economy in 2025–26.

在2014年的大选中,印度人民党党首纳伦德拉·D·莫迪当选印度总理。2014年至今2023年11月,虽然新冠疫情和随后影响全球经济的地缘政治问题导致了两年的经济低迷,但印度的GDP仍保持增长态势。今天,印度的GDP规模达到了4万亿美元,并有望在2025-26年达到5万亿美元。

In a nutshell, 75 years of growth has been achieved only during the 9-year tenure of NDA under Mr. Modi. Hence the GDP is yet to grow proportionately to the size of our population. By 2030, India will attain a $ 10 trillion GDP and by 2047, the centenary of our Independence, India will be a developed country with a $ 30+ trillion GDP.

简而言之,印度独立75年以来的增长是在莫迪领导的9年全国皿煮联盟任期内实现的。因此,印度GDP还未能与我们的人口规模形成同比例增长。等到2030年,印度GDP将达到10万亿美元,到2047年,也就是印度独立100周年之际,印度将成为GDP超过30万亿美元的发达国家。

 

 

 

Mohan Kalaiselvan

Our technology is old, people are unskilled and our political leaders are substandard. So the productivity is low.

We give a lot of respect to our farmers but do nothing to change the age old unproductive agricultural practices. That keeps the productivity of agriculture low.

We have not developed the Industrial sector fast enough to absorb excess agricultural workers so that agriculture sector couldn't be modernised.

我们的技术老旧,劳动力技能不足,政治领导人水平堪忧。所以印度的生产力很低。

我们很尊重农民,但也没有采取任何措施来改变老旧落后的农业生产方式。这使得农业生产力很低。

我们的工业发展速度不够快,无法吸收过剩的农业工人,因此农业部门也无法实现现代化。

We hardly spent anything on education. Even what we spend is not monitored well for quality.

The Research and Development is just a joke on India, enriching few career scientists who actually stiffle real research.

我们几乎没有为教育做任何投资,甚至也没能对支出进行很好的质量监控。

研发在印度就是一个笑话,只是让那些实际上阻挠科研的职业科学家们中饱私囊而已。

 

 

 

Sandeepan Bose

70% of them are subsistence farmers or landless labour. They hardly consume any manufactured goods other than clothes and footwear.

What ever GDP we have is attributed to 4% of 140 crores who pay substantial income tax.

26% non-agricultural sector dependent population has low productivity.

Productivity is the ability to add value.

印度70%的人口是自给自足的农民或没有耕地的劳动力。除了衣服和鞋子,他们几乎不会购买任何制成品。

印度GDP都是140亿人中的4%创造的,他们缴纳了大量的所得税。

26%的非农业人口的生产力十分低下。

生产力是增加商品价值的能力。

An unskilled labour in cities and towns makes max Rs 500 a day. An Uber driver makes Rs 1000 a day.

A few days ago I hired a driver to drive my car for an airport pickup late at night. He charged Rs 400. I texted him my address but he wanted location. I sent it. I asked him why doesn't he drive an Uber. He said he can't read English.

在城市和城镇,没有技术的工人每天最多只能挣500卢比。优步司机每天能赚1000卢比。

几天前,我雇了一名司机在深夜开我的车去机场接机。他收了我400卢比。我给他发了我的地址,但他让我发定位。我问他为什么不去开优步。他说他看不懂英语。

 

 

 

Siddharth Verma

I will compare Indian GDP with the Japan GDP.

First of all we need to understand what are the various components of the GDP of a country.

GDP= Consumer spending + Investment made by Industries +Excess of Exports over Imports + Government Spending.

我来对比一下印度和日本的GDP。

首先,我们需要了解一个国家GDP的组成部分。

GDP=消费者支出+工业投资+出口超过进口+政府支出。

1) Consumer spending is the biggest component of the GDP of a country. Consumer confidence has a very significant bearing on economic growth. Consumer spending in India is approx 1.54 trillion USD while it is approx 2.7 trillion USD for Japan.

2) Investment made by Industries in India for 2014 was approx 0.2 trillion USD and for Japan it is 1.0 trillion USD

3) Balance of trade for India is approx -0.133 trillion USD and for Japan it is -0.087 trillion USD

4) Government Expenditure in India is 0.292 trillion USD while in Japan it is 0.9 trillion USD.

1) 消费支出是一个国家GDP的最大组成部分。消费者信心对经济增长有非常重要的影响。印度的消费支出约为1.54万亿美元,而日本约为2.7万亿美元。

2) 印度工业投资约为0.2万亿美元,日本为1.0万亿美元

3) 印度的国际贸易差额约为-0.133万亿美元,日本为-0.087万亿美元

4) 印度的政府支出为0.292万亿美元,日本为0.9万亿美元。

So, Now you can visualize what are the factors which make Indian gdp  look smaller in front of GDP of country like Japan and other.

所以,现在你应该知道了,印度的GDP为什么在日本和其他国家面前显得这么低了。

 

 

 

Krishna

India is one of the major economies among the emerging countries.

印度是目前世界主要的新兴经济体之一。

India is at 3rd position after China and Japan among Asian countries. India shares 8.50% of total Asia's GDP (nominal).

印度在亚洲国家中排名第三,仅次于中国和日本。印度占亚洲GDP总量的8.50%(名义GDP)。

 

 

 

Tehleel T

The pandemic has had a significant impact on India's economy, leading to a contraction in GDP in 2020. The pandemic and related lockdowns led to a slowdown in economic activity across sectors, including manufacturing, construction, and services. Even before the pandemic, there was a slowdown in demand in various sectors due to factors such as a decline in consumer confidence, reduced investment, and low job creation. India has been grappling with various structural issues that have hindered its economic growth, including a complex tax system, bureaucratic hurdles, and a lack of infrastructure development.

疫情对印度经济产生了重大影响,导致2020年GDP回落。疫情和封城导致制造业、建筑及服务等行业的经济活动放缓。在疫情爆发之前,由于消费者信心下降、投资减少和创造就业机会少等因素,各行业的需求也有所放缓。印度一直在努力解决阻碍其经济增长的各种结构性问题,包括复杂的税收制度、官僚主义和基础设施建设不足。

 

 

 

Rajeev Kumar Jaiswal

When will India have a GDP of 50 trillion?

Whole India is going through lockdown so all the supply chain deemand and supply is worstly affected so nearly all the bussinesses is under loss or not working now. It's been 2 months and still many factories have not started to operate into normal function properly.

印度GDP什么时候能达到50万亿的规模?

上次疫情期间,整个印度都因疫情而封城,所有供应链的需求和供应都受到了严重影响,几乎所有的企业现在都出现了亏损或停工。两个月过去很多工厂无法正常运转。

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