三泰虎

为什么印度东部和西部沿海各邦之间的经济差距如此之大

Why is there so much economic disparity between the eastern and western coastal states of India?

为什么印度东部和西部沿海各邦之间的经济差距如此之大?

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以下是Quora网友的评论:

Debjit Banerjee

I am with Jiji. Needless to say, I agree with that have said. But I do disagree with Jiji on one thing. Kolkata is like any other metro in the world. I live in Bengaluru and I have lived in Hyderabad and Vizag (Vishakapatnam) and I can say crime is very little (if any) in south India. Compared to south India, Kolkata is hell. But then our own capital is "affectionately" called the "rape capital" of the world. And Washington DC is known as the "murder capital" of the world. Bengalis per se are usually too busy arguing than commiting crimes. They simply don't have time. They can argue why ISS is falling apart or why ISIS is right and vice-versa but ain't got time to fix their fucking homeland. Yeah I say this being a Bengali myself.

我支持Jiji。不用说,我同意他说的。但有一点我有不同意见。加尔各答和世界其他城市一样。我现在住在班加罗尔,我也在海德拉巴和维扎格生活过,我可以说印度南部的犯罪很少。和印度南部相比,加尔各答简直就是地狱。但我们自己的首都被“亲切”地称为世界“强奸之都”。华盛顿特区被称为世界“谋杀之都”。孟加拉人通常只会忙着口舌之争,不会真的犯罪,他们根本没有时间。他们可以争论为什么国际空间站要解体,为什么ISIS的行为没有问题,但他们没有时间建设他们的家园。没错,我自己就是孟加拉人。

 

 

 

Jiji Thattil

Waited for Dr. Balaji Viswanathan to finish so that I don't repeat him. Thank you. I agree to a large part of when you credit the seaways with economic development. Historically, that should have made the British set up capital in Bombay rather than Calcutta. Company rule in India.

Understanding why the eastern coast is prosperous by delving into history would undermine the progress of the western in modern times. I am grateful to both of you for naming the exact states so that I can explain better. Maharashtra and Gujarat were one before 1 May 1960.

我等Balaji Viswanathan说完,就不再重复他的话了。谢谢你!你把经济发展归功于海上航道,我在很大程度上是同意的。从历史上看,这应该会让英国将首都设在孟买,而不是加尔各答。

通过深入研究历史来理解东海岸为什么会繁荣,会削弱西方在现代的进步。我很感谢你们两位指出了具体的邦名,让我能够更好地进行解释。马哈拉施特拉邦和古吉拉特邦在1960年5月1日之前是一体的。

While both had ample sea coasts, what they did with the advantage is testament to why they have different rates of industrial growth. Gujarati are tradesmen and labour is beneath their dignity. Marathi are not ashamed to work the land and get their hands dirty. While Gujarat traded, Maha built factories. Both are revenue generating power-houses. Karnataka on the other hand is blessed with ample precipitation and ahead in software development. With agriculture, it has also attracted out-sourcing FDI to Bangalore.

虽然这两个国家都有漫长的海岸线,但它们利用各自优势采取的不同措施证明了它们的工业增长率为何出现了不同。古吉拉特人是商人,他们不喜欢体力劳动。但马拉地人不怕耕种,不怕把自己的手弄脏。古吉拉特邦发展贸易的时候,马哈拉施特拉邦则修建工厂。两者都是创收大户。另一方面,卡纳塔克邦拥有充足的降水,在软件开发方面遥遥领先。卡纳塔克邦的农业也很发达,吸引了外国直接投资将外包业务落地班加罗尔。

Personally, I know that Bangalore employs cheap labour to supply garment markets overseas. If you see an embroidered and stitched garment in GAP or Bon Mache, chances are it was made in India. Orissa was and remains sadly ignored. I wish the Govt of India took notice of the drought, famine and natural calamities that revisit the state so often. But political leadership has taken no interest in the State. West Bengal is strangely home to the most intellectuals as well as social workers yet prone to Maoist violence. Tribal uprising in Naxalbari led to the coining of this brand of terrorists as Naxals. Why the State has not progressed industrially, is no mystery given how little attention the Centre pays North East. Kolkatta is the only metro I have not visited because I am told that anti-social elements roam the streets and police does not care.

就我个人而言,我知道班加罗尔雇佣廉价劳动力来供应海外服装市场。如果你在GAP或Bon Mache看到带有刺绣的服装,它很有可能就是印度制造的。令人遗憾的是,奥里萨邦长期被忽视。我希望印度政府多关注这个经常遭受干旱、饥荒和自然灾害的邦。但政治领导层对这个邦不感兴趣。很奇怪,西孟加拉邦有众多知识分子和社会工作者,但却容易受到毛派主义暴力的影响。纳萨尔巴里邦的部落起义导致了恐怖分子纳萨尔的诞生。鉴于印度中央政府对东北部的关注少之又少,这个邦的工业没有进步就不足为奇了。加尔各答是我唯一还没去过的城市,因为我听说反社会分子在街上游荡,警察压根不管。

Kerala is mainly agricultural because co unists have not allowed industry to grow. Tamilnadu has attracted maxmum investors from foreign countries and diverted the technical expertise to setting up their own plants in Chennai and Coimbatore. Although farmers do well in rural areas, they encourage their children to study engineering and follow a different career. LTTE was and is to this day, the only terrorist organization with its own air force. Andhra Pradesh has not utilized any of the natural resources to its advantage. Embroiled in political posturing and feudal wars, the State has yet to emerge as a major contributor to the GDP.

喀拉拉邦主要依赖农业,因为不允许工业发展。泰米尔纳德邦吸引了最多的外国投资者,并将技术转移到金奈和哥印拜陀,建立自己的工厂。虽然农民们在农村生活得很好,但他们鼓励孩子学习工程学,从事不同的职业。直到今天,猛虎组织仍然是唯一拥有自己空军的恐怖组织。安得拉邦没有充分利用任何自然资源,还没能成为印度GDP的主要贡献者。

Hope this addresses your question. I invite you to correct my assessment by commenting so that I can edit this answer to your satisfaction.

希望上面的回答能解答你的问题。我邀请您通过评论来纠正我的回答,我可以编辑答案,包您满意。

 

 

 

Dr. Balaji Viswanathan

Historically, both Odisha and Bengal were prosperous regions. In case of West Bengal there are a variety of things where they went wrong. Here is my detailed take on this. Where did West Bengal go wrong?

While the western ports have some advantage due to its proxmity to India's traditional trading partners - Europeans and Arabs, in most parts the advantage is evened out due to other factors. Coastal Andhra [east] has greater development than coastal Karnataka [west] and in economic terms Tamil Nadu [east] and Kerala [west] are comparable.

Now, coming to the outliers - Gujarat, Maharashtra and Odisha.

历史上,奥里萨邦和孟加拉邦都是经济繁荣的地区。西孟加拉邦有很多地方出了问题。以下是我对此的详细看法。西孟加拉邦哪里出了问题?

虽然因为临近印度的传统贸易伙伴—欧洲人和阿拉伯人,西部港口具有一些优势,但在大多数情况下,其他因素又抵消了这种优势。沿海的安得拉邦(东部)比沿海的卡纳塔克邦(西部)发展得更好,在经济方面,泰米尔纳德邦(东部)和喀拉拉邦(西部)势均力敌。

现在,让我们来看看几个例外—古吉拉特邦、马哈拉施特拉邦和奥里萨邦。

Until the modern era, coastal Odisha and Maharashtra were probably comparable in incomes. However, with the arrival of Europeans came the discovery of the extraordinary natural harbor in Mumbai that was established 4 centuries ago. This superior port has made Mumbai among the most important city in the world and certainly the most important city in the subcontinent.

Until Paradip was built after independence, Odisha didn't really have a major port. While the port was built, Mumbai has all the other infrastructure built over centuries that cannot be rivalled. Odisha also didn't have major modern centers, until Bhubaneswar was built in the last century.

直到现代,沿海的奥里萨邦和马哈拉施特拉邦的财政收入都不相上下。但随着欧洲人的到来,人们发现了4个世纪前在孟买修建的天然良港。这个卓越的港口使孟买成为世界上最重要的城市之一,当然也成了次大陆最重要的城市之一。

印度独立后,在建造巴拉迪布港之前,奥里萨邦没有真正的大型港口。虽然巴拉迪布港建成了,但孟买几个世纪以来积累了其他基础设施,巴拉迪布港无法与之相比。在上世纪布巴内斯瓦尔建成前,奥里萨邦一直没有主要的现代中心。

The Mumbai port is complemented by a huge fertile land - the black soil of the Deccan that grows cash crops such as cotton and sugarcane. Most of Odisha is dense forests with not as much agriculture. Marathas also had a upswing just before the British era and thus were able to get political movement going well into the contemporary era. Odisha's empires were gone well before the British and thus its political movement didn't get going for a long time.

与孟买港相得益彰的是大片肥沃的土地—德干地区的黑土,种植了棉花和甘蔗等经济作物。奥里萨邦的大部分地区都是茂密的森林,农业并不发达。马拉地人在英国殖民之前也曾蓬勃发展,能够展开政治运动进入当代时代。奥里萨邦的帝国在英国殖民之前态势良好,因此它在很长一段时间内都没有爆发政治运动。

Gujarat also has plenty of natural harbors and its close proxmity to the Arabs made a great trading point for getting goods into India. It probably has the longest coastline in India and unlike the Bay of Bengal in Odisha this sea is calmer, with less frequent cyclones and quick access to major trade routes. In the recent times, Gujarat has had some notch growth due to more market friendly leadership. Odisha's political leadership has not been as good.

古吉拉特邦也有很多天然港口,它靠近阿拉伯人,是货物输入印度的一个很好的贸易点。它可能拥有印度最长的海岸线,与奥里萨邦的孟加拉湾不同,这片海域更平静,飓风较少,可以快速接入主要贸易路线。最近,由于更扶持市场发展的领导,古吉拉特邦取得了一些增长。奥里萨邦的政治领导能力比较弱。

 

 

 

Anonymous

given a chance, you would invest in your own home rather than someone else home.

till independence east india in particular bengal was the most industrialised in india since british had their base and things were focussed there..

after independence, central govt is controlled by people from west india and north india, they tend to be biased and focus on regions of their birth and even if they are impartial, the people from their constituencies tend to request for favours and not allow them to be impartial.

如果有机会,你会投资自己的家乡,不会投资别人的家乡。

在印度独立之前,印度东部,尤其是孟加拉,是印度工业化程度最高的地区。

印度独立后,中央政府由来自印度西部和北印度的人控制,他们更关注自己的出生地,就算他们自身公正,他们选区的民众也会开口要求援助,迫使他们无法做到完全公正。

 

 

 

Jignesh Bar

There are several factors that contribute to the economic differences between western and eastern states in India. Some of the main factors include:

有几个因素导致了印度西部和东部邦之间的经济差异,其中一些主要因素包括:

Historical factors: Western India has a longer history of trade and commerce, which has led to the development of a more robust and diversified economy.

Industrialization: Western India has a higher concentration of industries, particularly in states like Maharashtra and Gujarat, which have attracted large numbers of migrants and led to economic growth.

历史因素:印度西部拥有更悠久的贸易和商业历史,这促进了更强劲、更多元的经济发展。

工业化程度:印度西部的工业集中度更高,特别是马哈拉施特拉邦和古吉拉特邦,这吸引了大量移民,促进了经济增长。

Infrastructure: Western India has better infrastructure, including roads, ports, airports, and power supply, which has facilitated industrial development and trade.

Education: Western India has a higher literacy rate and more educational opportunities, which has led to a more skilled workforce and higher productivity.

基础设施:印度西部拥有更好的基础设施,包括道路、港口、机场和电力供应,这促进了工业发展和贸易。

教育:印度西部的识字率更高,教育机会也更充足,这造就了更熟练的劳动力和更高的生产力。

Government policies: Government policies have also played a role in the economic differences between western and eastern India. For example, the government's focus on investment and development in the western states has led to greater economic growth and development in those areas.

Natural resources: Western India has a more diverse range of natural resources, including fertile land, minerals, and ports, which has led to greater economic opportunities and development.

政府政策:政府政策也在印度西部和东部的经济差异中发挥了作用。例如,政府对西部各邦投资和发展的关注促使这些地区获得了更大的经济增长和发展。

自然资源:印度西部拥有更多样化的自然资源,包括肥沃的土地、矿产和港口,这带来了更多的经济机会和发展。

Agriculture: Western India has a more developed agricultural sector, which has led to a more diversified economy and higher incomes for farmers.

Demographics: Western India has a higher population density and urbanisation, which has led to greater economic activity and opportunities.

农业:印度西部的农业部门更发达,这导致了更多样化的经济和更高的农民收入。

人口结构:印度西部的人口密度和城市化程度更高,这带来了更多的经济活动和机会。

Social and cultural differences: Western India has a more cosmopolitan culture and a greater presence of various ethnic and religious groups, which has led to more diverse economic opportunities and greater economic integration with the rest of the world.

Access to capital: Western India has a more developed financial sector and greater access to capital, which has enabled small and medium-sized enterprises to grow and develop.

社会和文化差异:印度西部拥有更为国际化的文化,各种种族和宗教团体也更多,这带来了更多的经济机会,也和其他国家进行了更深入的经济融合。

获得资本的机会:印度西部的金融行业更为发达,有更多机会获得资本青睐,中小型企业可以更好地成长和发展。

It is also important to note that these factors are interrelated and that economic development in one area can lead to further development in other areas. Additionally, government policies and programs have been implemented in recent years to address regional disparities and promote development in eastern states of India.

我们还要注意到,这些因素是相互关联的,一个地区的经济发展可以促进其他地区的进一步发展。此外,近年来,印度政府还实施了一些政策和项目来缩小地区差距,促进印度东部各邦的发展。

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