三泰虎

独立50周年:孟加拉国的故事,人均收入比印度更高

 The Bangladesh story

孟加拉国的故事

BANGLADESH is celebrating its 50th anniversary. Once called a “basket case” by Henry Kissinger, it is now considered as a role model. Bangladesh’s national income has multiplied 50 times, per capita income 25 times (higher than India’s and Pakistan’s), and food production four times. Population growth was contained at 2.5 times, raising per capita food availability. Exports have grown 100 times and poverty is down to 20 per cent from 60pc in 1990. Life expectancy has risen to 72. Most social indicators are better compared to regional countries except Sri Lanka. The value of the Human Development Index increased 60pc.

孟加拉国正在庆祝建国50周年。曾被亨利•基辛格称为“毫无希望”的孟加拉国,如今被视为榜样。

孟加拉国的国民收入翻了50倍,人均收入翻了25倍(高于印度和巴基斯坦),粮食产量翻了4倍。

人口增长被控制在2.5倍,提高了人均粮食供应。出口增长了100倍,贫困率从1990年的60%降至20%。

预期寿命已经上升到72岁。除斯里兰卡外,大多数社会指标都比该地区国家好。人类发展指数值增长了60%。

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Most of the progress has been achieved in the last three decades as the first two experienced anaemic growth and po itical turmoil. To put their progress in perspective, Pakistan’s per capita income in 1990 was twice as much as Bangladesh’s but has fallen today to only seven-tenth. Between 2011 and 2019, before Covid struck, Bangladesh’s average GDP growth ranged between 7pc and 8pc — almost twice as fast as Pakistan’s.

大多数进步都是在过去三十年里取得的,最初独立的二十年孟加拉国经历了增长乏力和政治动荡。

从他们的进步来看,1990年巴基斯坦的人均收入是孟加拉国的两倍,但如今已下降到仅为孟加拉国的七分之一。

2011年至2019年,在新冠肺炎疫情爆发之前,孟加拉国的平均GDP增长率在7%至8%之间,几乎是巴基斯坦的两倍。

The Bangladesh story is an attractive one. How can a country so vulnerable to natural cmities outperform its much larger, better-endowed neighbours — India and Pakistan — in most socioeconomic indicators? Bangladesh went through difficult times, setting up a new administration, rehabilitating displaced persons, dealing with the assassination of its founder and top po itical leadership and several aborted and successful military coups. The military remained in power until 1991 when Gen Ershad decided to restore parliamentary de acy (there was a brief interruption in 2007 when a caretaker go nment ruled for two years).

孟加拉国的故事很吸引人。一个如此易受自然灾害影响的国家,在多数社会经济指标上的表现为何超过其规模大得多、资金更充足的邻国——印度和巴基斯坦?

孟加拉国经历了困难时期,建立了一个新的政府,让流离失所的人恢复了正常生活,应对了其创立者和最高政治领导人被暗杀以及几次失败和成功的军事政变。

直到1991年艾尔沙德将军决定恢复议会民 主(2007年临时政府执政两年,议会民 主曾短暂中断),军方才开始。

The two major po itical parties, Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League and Khaleda Zia’s BNP, have alternated in power since 1991. Since 2009, the Awami League has ruled, having won three consecutive ions. The Battle of the Begums has remained intense and bitter. Khaleda Zia boycotted the ions and has remained in jail for quite some time along with many of her stalwarts. Hence, it is interesting to examine how the country could make substantial economic and social headway with such fierce po itical rivalry and perceived instability.

谢赫•哈西娜的人民联盟和卡莉达•齐亚的民族主义党这两个主要政党自1991年以来一直轮流执政。自2009年以来,人民联盟已经连续赢得了三次选举。Begums之战依然激烈而苦涩。卡莉达·齐亚抵制了选举,并和她所在政党的许多中坚分子一起在里待了很长一段时间。因此,在如此激烈的政治竞争情况下,研究这个国家如何能够取得实质性的经济和社会进展是很有趣的。

以下是巴基斯坦黎明报读者的评论:译者:Jessica.Wu

Shahid

Leadership matters a lot.

In pakistan, institutional imbnce is so deepened that all play foul game ag inst one another. Power grabbing at the cost of other has dged everything. Military role is critical during the last 7 decades.

领导层非常重要。在巴基斯坦,制度上的不平衡是如此的严重,以至于所有人都在互相耍卑鄙的把戏。以牺牲他人为代价攫取权力已经破坏了一切。在过去70年里,军方的作用至关重要。

 

Fastrack

Naya Pakistan has greatly improved relations with BD brother.

巴基斯坦已经大大改善了与孟加拉国兄弟的关系。

 

Omveer

Greetings and best wishes for Bangladesh.

向孟加拉国致以问候和良好祝愿。

 

Skeptic2

The author missed the biggest factor in Banladesh’s success. It spends very little on military and all those savings go to benefit the people. Compare that to true security establishment spending in Pakistan including, the regular military budget, the military pension & benefits and arms purchase. It’s more than a quarter of Pakistan’s budget. A journalist ought put the total.cost of security expenditure and it will be shocking.

作者忽略了孟加拉国成功的最大因素,该国在军事上的花费很少,这些节省下来的钱都用来造福人民了。

相比之下,巴基斯坦的防御支出包括常规军事预算、军队养老金和福利以及武器采购。

这超过了巴基斯坦预算的四分之一。

记者应该把总数写出来。防御开支的成本是惊人的。

 

Rush Sahota

"Bangladesh also doesn’t face any serious external threats," is one of the key factors. Bangladesh's military budget for 2021 was around four billion US dollars as opposed to 8.78 of Pakistan's, even though Pakistan's overall GDP is below that of Bangladesh. Both are Mus m countries and India is the common neighbor. One treats it as a friend and the other as a foe. The key lesson: focus on improving economy not manufacturing external animosities; it's easier to make enemies than friends.

“孟加拉国也不面临严重的外部威胁”,这是关键因素之一。孟加拉国2021年的军事预算约为40亿美元,而巴基斯坦的军事预算为87.8亿美元,尽管巴基斯坦的GDP低于孟加拉国。印度是他们的邻国。一个视之为朋友,另一个视之为敌人。关键的教训是:专注于改善经济,不要树敌,树敌容易,交友难。

 

Fastrack

This is 2021. Every Pakistani is now a defender of Pakistan's ideology and integrity. The enemy learnt that a very hard way in 2019 and in 2021.

现在是2021年。每个巴基斯坦人现在都是巴基斯坦意识形态和领土完整的捍卫者。敌人在2019年和2021年经历了惨痛的教训。

 

M Emad

Indians aren't going to like this

印度人不会喜欢的

 

ram kumar

India per capital is higher than bangladesh. It is pakistan whose per capital is 1/2 of bangladesh

印度人均GDP高于孟加拉国。巴基斯坦的人均GDP是孟加拉国的二分之一

 

CClements (UK)

The fact is that there is no caste sy em in the country and they are not re gious fanatics.

事实是,这个国家没有种姓制度,他们不是宗教狂热分子。

 

Lord Ickenham

Oh and they never needed to make a strong army knowing that India is not a threat (real or imagined)

他们从来没有必要建立一支强大的军队,他们知道印度不是一个威胁(真实的或想象的)。

 

Agha Mahazeb Khan

Pakistan is stuck and the roadmap Bangladesh followed and remained successful is hard to be obtained here because here po itics and personal interest is perseued everywhere.

巴基斯坦被困住了,孟加拉国遵循并保持成功的路线在这里很难实现,这里人人都在追求政治和个人利益。

 

Shobhit

Bangladesh per capita income is lower than India.

Due to a statistical anomaly it was $3 more than India in 2020 but it now again lower than India.

孟加拉国的人均收入低于印度。由于统计异常,2020年孟加拉国的人均收入比印度高出3美元,现在再次低于印度。

 

Ontrack

Bangladesh lives in the real world, it recognizes that it is best to have good relations with India, and has done so since its independence, thereby saving a lot on defense expenditures.

孟加拉国比较现实,它认识到最好与印度保持良好关系,并自独立以来一直这样做,从而节省了大量国防开支。

 

KKKhan

Success of Bangladesh is because of enforcement of women's s, stable economic environment without being impacted by re gious fanaticism and po itics which have invited direct foreign investments in the country. Bangladesh had settled all it's boundary disputes with India and hence has reasonably good trade.

孟加拉国的成功,归功于妇女权利的落实,稳定的经济环境不受宗教狂热和政治的影响,这些都吸引了外国直接投资。孟加拉国已经解决了与印度的所有边界争端,两国之间的贸易相当活跃。

 

Ashfaq ahmd

All happened within a short period and opposite of what happened in Pakistan. The best part of the story is the ruling parties did ALL for the progress of the country and DID NOT siphon money out of the country like did our two main ruling parties. We should feel ashamed and guilty.

这一切都是短时间内发生的,与巴基斯坦的情况相反。执政党为国家的进步做了一切,不像我们的两个主要执政党那样把钱吞了。我们应该感到羞愧和内疚。

 

Aafiyat Nazar

Bangladesh's story of development is really impressive one. The role of leadership has been pivotal in steering the "basket case" country to a leading one. Will Pakistani leadership and high-ups learn anything from Bangladesh? It appears far from distant unfortunately. Every indicator of progress and development in Pakistan makes us gloomy.

孟加拉国的发展故事确实令人印象深刻。这个“境况不佳”的国家能一跃成为领先国家,孟加拉国的领导层发挥了关键作用。巴基斯坦领导人和能从孟加拉国学到什么吗?不幸的是,这似乎离我们很远。巴基斯坦进步和发展方面的每一项指标都使我们感到沮丧。

 

SATT

Because Bangladeshis are proud of their language and culture.

孟加拉人对他们的语言和文化感到自豪。

 

Justice

The real question is why Pakistan is doing so badly compared to Bangladesh?

问题是,为什么巴基斯坦的表现比孟加拉国差?

 

Ajo

Good to see healthy competition in the region

很高兴看到该地区的良性竞争

 

Abdullah

While here in pakkstan.incompetence has taken over.

在巴基斯坦,无能者

 

Justice

Pakistan has a lot to learn from Bangladesh and India which were all one country.

巴基斯坦有很多东西要向孟加拉国和印度学,他们曾是一个国家。

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