三泰虎

印媒:调查显示印度人可能没有大家认为的那么有抱负

 View: About the survey that shows Indians may be less aspirational than everyone thinks

观点:调查显示,印度人可能没有大家认为的那么有抱负

By Chetan Bhagat

In a mood of the nation survey reported last week, the go nment and the top leadership secured record high ratings. Over 77% of the respondents are happy with the go nment. Ratings on the go nment’s handling of key issues — coronavir s, , Ram temple, Article 370 — are excellent.

在上星期公布的全国情绪调查中,本届印度政府和最高领导层获得了创纪录的高支持率。超过77%的受访者对本届印度政府感到满意。印度政府对关键问题的处理获得了很高的评价,包括疫情、罗摩神庙、370条款等。

Many experts were left scratching their heads about what exactly is going on. At a time when an already weak economy is in a tails due to Covid-19, there isn’t even a ripple of dissatisfaction, at least according to this survey. So what happened to the theory that people ultimately want jobs and growth?

许多专家都摸不着头脑,不知道到底是怎么回事。在疫情导致本已疲弱的经济陷入混乱之际,人们甚至没有表现出不满,至少这次调查显示的是这样。人们不是想要工作和增长吗?

Many experts attribute the survey results to an almost a cult-like, blind following of Modi. That is not true. All the experts are missing a crucial point. That is, we are simply not that economically aspirational anymore. The assumption that Indians ultimately want jobs and growth is massively flawed. The truth is that we do need jobs and growth, but we care about other things a lot more. How is that possible? How can a society not want growth, a better standard of living and more money?

许多专家将调查结果归因于对莫迪近乎狂热的盲目追随。这不是真的,所有的专家都没有抓住关键的一点,即我们在经济上不再那么有雄心壮志了。认为印度人最终想要就业和增长的假设存在严重缺陷。事实是,我们确实需要就业和增长,但我们更关心其他事情。这怎么可能?一个社会怎么可能不想要增长、不想提高生活水平,不想要更多的钱呢?

To understand why this is the case, let’s go back to the 1980s. Per capita incomes then were around $300, translating to less than $1/day. Life becomes a dread at that low level of income. Even food security becomes an issue. In 1991, we liberalised the economy to get a bailout from the IMF. At that time, India had aspirations, as we were really poor. What followed was a period of massive growth for the next 25 years. Per capita incomes shot up to $2,000, translating to $5.5/day. It’s still not a lot of money (the developed world is at $60,000 annual per capita, or $165/day. is at $27/day). However, $5.5/day is a lot more than $1/day, which is how Indians used to live. $5.5/day means good food is no longer an issue. Local Indian food, whichever region you are in, is affordable and seriously delicious. A plate of chhole bhature in the north, or ghee dosas in the south cost much less than a dollar. Ditto for vada pav in Maharashtra and kachoris in Rajasthan.

要理解为什么会这样,让我们追溯到20世纪80年代。当时印度的人均收入约为300美元,相当于每天不到1美元。在那样低的收入水平下,生活变得令人恐惧。甚至粮食安全也成了一个问题。1991年,我们开放了经济,获得了国际货币基金组织的救助。那个时候,印度是有抱负的,因为我们当时真的很穷。接下来的25年是一段高速增长的时期,人均收入飙升至2000美元,相当于5.5美元/天。这仍然不算高(发达国家的人均GDP是6万美元,相当于165美元/天。的人均收入是27美元/天)。然而,5.5美元/天远远超过了印度人过去的1美元/天。5.5美元/天意味着吃上好的食物不再是一个问题。无论你在哪个地区,当地的印度食物都是物美价廉的,而且很美味。在北方,一盘chhole bhature或在南方,一盘ghee dosas的价格远低于1美元,马哈拉施特拉邦的vada pav和拉贾斯坦邦的kachoris也是。

Another ch item is 4G data. Almost every Indian can afford several gigabytes a month, opening up a magical world on people’s phones for just a few cents a day. From WhatsApp groups to online shop to porn to video games to movies, data for Indians is frankly ecstasy. $5.5/day also means you can buy clothes, have the occasional outing and even have a roof on your head. What is the need for growth, really?

另一样便宜的东西是4G流量。几乎每个印度人每个月都能负担得起好几个G的流量,每天只需几美分就能让人们在手机上开启一个神奇的世界。从WhatsApp群组到网上购物,从色情片到视频游戏到电影,流量简直令印度人狂喜。5.5美元/天还意味着你可以买衣服,偶尔外出,甚至有住所。增长真正需要的是什么?

The Indian social structure and culture also puts relatively low pressure for people to keep rising higher and higher. Yes, people want a job, but a ‘choti-moti naukri’ is okay. Buy a car? Well, it would be nice, but autos are also okay, ?

印度的社会结构和文化给人们带来的压力相对较低,并没有要求人们不断地爬得越来越高。是的,人们想要一份工作,但是做choti-moti naukri也可以。买车?这当然很好,但是骑摩托车也OK,对吧?

Indians have also culturally shunned materialism. Staying content, living with less is appreciated. The and Americans, for example, have far more hunger to rise up in life and make more money. I am not judging which lifestyle is better, but to grow, you need a population which has a fire in its belly. We, frankly, don’t. We are quite happy — and who is to judge?

印度人在文化上也回避物质主义。知足常乐是值得赞赏的。例如,和美国人更渴望出人头地,赚更多的钱。我并不是在评判哪种生活方式更好,但要想增长,你需要充满激情的人口。坦率地说,我们没有,我们很快乐——谁来评判呢?

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Indians may want jobs, but it is okay if your bhaiyya has a job and you don’t – because bhaiya will support us. Indians don’t ask kids to leave home at 18, in fact, staying with your parents at 28 or even 48 is okay, maybe even encouraged. Where is the need for more then?

印度人可能想要工作,但如果你的兄弟有工作而你没有,那也没关系,因为兄弟会支持我们的。印度人不会要求18岁的孩子离开家,事实上,28岁甚至48岁仍和父母住在一起也是可以的,甚至是提倡的。那还有什么更多的要求呢?

Indians aspired and achieved per capita income growth, and then suddenly shifted priorities. Things became comfortable, and now Indians want to focus on other important issues. Ensuring past Hindu injustices get sorted, solving Bollywood cases, making temples, nationalism — we think these things are far more important than growth. What’s more, we have a go nment that’s so responsive to exactly these priorities. What’s not to love about it?

印度人渴望并实现了人均收入的增长,然后改变了优先事项。事情变得轻松了,现在印度人想要关注其他重要的问题。确保印度过去的不公正得到解决,解决宝莱坞案件,修寺庙,民族主义——我们认为这些事情比经济增长重要得多。更重要的是,我们的政府对这些优先事项反应迅速。为什么不喜欢印度政府呢?

Where will all this lead us? Like I said, who are we to judge, if people don’t want growth? If people are happy with $5.5/day, or don’t mind going to $4/day but have some social agendas sorted, then it’s their choice. However, there will be some issues. Current income levels are not enough for good healthcare, education and infrastructure.

这一切将把我们引向何方?就像我说的,如果人们不想要增长,我们又有什么资格去评判呢? 如果人们对5.5美元/天的收入感到满意,或者不介意只赚4美元/天,那么这是他们的选择。然而,会有一些问题,目前的收入水平不足以提供良好的医疗、教育和基础设施。

Countries like Australia and Sweden aren’t exactly super aspirational or growth hungry. However, they are already at a high income level. They have excellent health, education and infrastructure. Without growth, we will never have that. Our standard of living also won’t rise further. Our youth will remain in low-end jobs. We will become a nation of clerks, support staff and low-level employees.

像澳大利亚和瑞典这样的国家并不是超级渴望增长或渴望增长。然而,他们已经处于高收入水平。他们有良好的卫生、教育和基础设施。没有增长,我们永远实现不了这些。我们的生活水平也不会进一步提高。我们的年轻人仍将从事低端工作。我们国家将成为一个充斥着职员、后勤人员和底层员工的国家。

However, we will always have chhole bhature. Try them with freshly cut onions, lemon and pickle. You will forget economic woes, I promise.

然而,我们总能吃上chhole bhature,配上新鲜的洋葱、柠檬和腌菜一起吃。我保证,你会忘记经济困境的。

 

印度经济时报读者的评论:

译文来源:三泰虎  http://www.santaihu.com/p/50597.html 译者:Jessica.Wu

Describe

However reality does not care about our aspirations and science predicts that in 50 years ( with consumerist aspirations everywhere) India would be like the Sahara desert and one billion of its population dead and gone.

然而,现实并不能如愿,科学预测,50年后,印度将像撒哈拉沙漠一样,10亿人口将死亡消失。

 

rajnairkp

The survey itself is so wrong, po itically biased, hiding reality. Believing a fake survey as correct itself is a poor judgement. Reality is, widening of rich-poor gap, reality is hate creation, joblessness and all that you see on ground, not on news.

这项调查本身就有问题,带有偏见,掩盖了现实。相信一项虚假的调查本身就是错的。现实是,印度的贫富差距扩大,怨声载道,失业率高,现实中所看到的并没有上新闻。

 

lvs Venkatalingareddy

Majority of Indians are aspirational.only lazy people may be less intrested in not earning much.Now a majority of people want better comforts, good house education, better house, vehicle etc

大多数印度人都有抱负。只有懒惰的人才会对挣大钱不感兴趣。现在大多数人想要过更舒适的日子,住更好的房子,享受更好的教育,开上更好的车,等等

 

Diepak Paul

I grew up in a small educational township. We had a German teacher who used to say: The biggest strength and weakness you Indians is you contentment with what you get.

我在一个小镇长大,我们有一位德国老师曾经说过:你们印度人最大的优点和缺点就是知足,安于现状。

 

Ruchin Kumar

$1 in 1991 & $5.5 now in 2020. You based ur article on this data ?? What abt inflation ?

1991年,日均收入1美元,2020年是5.5美元。

你的文章是基于这些数据的吗?

没考虑通货膨胀?

 

U S Datta

INDIANS HV EARNED FAIRLY WELL IN THE LAST TWENTY YEARS ,SO THEY HAVE SAVINGS AS BACKUP. AS WE GO FORWARD IT WILL DEPLETE AND SAVINGS FROM EARNINGS TOO WILL BE MEAGRE AS EARNINGS WONT GROW LIKE IN PAST AS THE WORLD IS TIGHT ON MONEY .

印度人在过去20年里赚了不少钱,所以他们有积蓄。但生活将耗尽我们的收入,积蓄也将变少,因为收入不会像过去那样增长,全世界都缺钱。

 

Chandan Joshi

A nation who forgets own glorious past, feels ashamed can not grow. A resurgent Hindu will bring more glory to India.

一个忘记自己辉煌过去的民族,为不能实现增长而感到羞愧。复兴的印度教将给印度带来更多的荣耀。

 

Madhu Babu

I see this first hand in Telangana and Andhra. People are so happy with go nment handouts

我在泰伦加纳和安得拉邦亲眼目睹了这种情况,人们对政府的救济感到非常满意

 

venkat rn

Below middle and poor class's mentality, Education, thinking are all suppressed by the po iticians, both at central and state level from independence.

Less aspirational/ complacent set-up has to be maintained for their survival. Hope the same will be there after 75 yrs when celebrating 150 yrs of independence.

印度中下层阶级的思想都受到了中央和邦一级的压制,使他们无法独立。为了生存,印度人必须保持不那么雄心勃勃或者说知足的状态。希望在75年之后庆祝独立150星期年的时候,还是这样。

 

SN

Per capita is not of relevance Total GDP is more relevant.

人均不重要,GDP总量更重要。

 

Hemant Pisat

Astonishingly true but dangerous. Aspirational talent has always seen flight and thrived in other economies, whereas India remained poor on demanding the health, education and infrastructure.

这是事实,令人惊讶,但也很危险。有抱负的人才总是流向其他经济体并在那里飞黄腾达,而印度对卫生、教育和基础设施方面的需求仍然很低。

 

Raunak Chakrabarty

Haha that was a really funny article, funny and true, we Indians do not really have high aspirations, or else why would there be 650 million people directly or indirectly associated with agriculture. Why would policy changes be so slow, it took 34 years to change our education sy em, not one educational institution ranks among the top 100 in the world

哈哈,这真是一篇有趣的文章,有趣又真实,我们印度人并没有很大的抱负,否则为什么会有6.5亿人直接或间接地从事农业相关的工作。为什么政策变化会这么慢,为什么花了34年才改变我们的教育体,为什么印度没有一所大学跻身世界100强

 

Venkatrn Srinivasan

Economic growth does not lead to satisfaction. only spiritual growth leads to more and more satisfaction. Our Gt is ly taking us in that direction

经济增长不会给民众带来满足感。只有灵性上的成长才能带来越来越高的满足感。我们的政府正把我们引向那个方向啊

Ranjan Kumar Ghosal

And to grow spiritually you should starve because spirit feels stiffled in a full stomach.

为了灵性上的成长,你应该挨饿,因为在饱腹时精神会感到压抑。

 

Amit

I appreciate the view, the author has put into. I was also thinking, What is India ? (obviously and its people). After thinking for days, I concluded that India is a unique country in the world which do not match with any other country .

我很欣赏作者提出的观点。我也在想,印度是什么样的国家? 印度人又是什么样的人啊。

经过几天的思考,我得出结论,印度是世界上独一无二的国家,是其他国家无法匹敌的。

 

Abhishek Das

India is actually world fastest growing major economy since last 5 years, only overtaken previous year due to some structural reforms. Go nment is building Highway, metro, expressways and big infrastructure and renewable energy projects. Why not be satisfied

实际上,过去5年来,印度是全球增长最快的主要经济体。得益于一些结构性改革,印度经济一年比一年增长快。政府正在建设公路、地铁、高速公路大型基础设施,实施可再生能源项目。为什么不满足?

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