三泰虎

42%的人生活在贫民窟,新冠疫情将孟买笼罩在阴影下

 With 42% living in slums, virus casts long shadow across Mumbai

42%的人生活在贫民窟,新冠疫情将孟买笼罩在阴影下

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MUMBAI: In 1898, colonial authorities created the Bombay Improvement Trust on the heels of a devastating plague to upgrade living conditions in the city. The trust opened up congested neighbourhoods, built housing for workers, and laid down strict rules for ventilation and sanitation. Their measures shaped modern Bombay.

孟买:1898年,在一场毁灭性的瘟疫之后,英国殖民当局成立了孟买改善信托基金,以改善孟买人的生活条件。该信托基金建立了拥挤的社区,为工人建造住房,并制定了严格的通风和卫生规则,此举塑造了现代孟买。

Amidst a new pandemic, it’s clear the lessons of the last have been long forgotten. The coronavirus that entered the city largely through its elite is now a threat to its most vulnerable, many of whom live in conditions not too distant from those of the 1890s.

在一场新的大流行中,过去的教训显然早已被遗忘。新冠病毒主要通过精英阶层传入孟买,现在对孟买最脆弱的人群构成了威胁,其中很多人的生活条件与19世纪90年代的生活条件差不多。

Recent data shows the wards with the most cases are mostly those with the largest slum populations (Dharavi, Kurla, Govandi) or highest population densities (Byculla, Worli). Meanwhile the outbreak is beginning to slow down in some affluent areas that saw the first cases —like parts of D ward — as the middle-class have sealed themselves into apartments and gated communities.

最近的数据显示,病例最多的病房大多在人口最多的贫民窟(达拉维、库尔拉、戈万迪)或人口密度最高的地区(拜库拉、沃里)。与此同时,随着中产阶级将自己禁足在公寓和封闭社区中,一些富人区的疫情开始减缓,第一批病例就是在这些地区出现的。

The spillover from highrises to slums isn’t surprising—42% of Mumbaikars live in slums, as per the 2011 census. When other low-income housing are included, up to 57% families live in one-room homes where physical distancing is impossible. Public housing, sanitation, and health infrastructure for the poor has been largely stagnant in the past few decades. Despite high-profile programs, there is a 1lakh shortfall in community toilets and an estimated 11lakh shortfall in affordable homes.

从高楼到贫民窟的溢出效应并不令人惊讶——根据2011年的人口普查,42%的孟买人住在贫民窟。如果算上其他廉价住房,多达57%的家庭住一居室,这样不可能保持社交距离。过去几十年,为穷人建设的公共住房、卫生设施和卫生基础设施基本停滞不前。尽管有一些备受瞩目的项目,但社区厕所仍存在10万的缺口,经济适用房也存在110万套的缺口。

The neglect reflects in the delayed measures in poorer areas. “Migrant workers and slum-dwellers have been an afterthought,” says Arun Kumar, CEO of Apnalaya, an NGO that works in slums.

这种忽视反映在贫困地区的措施滞后上。在贫民窟工作的非政府组织Apnalaya的首席执行官Arun Kumar说:“民工和贫民窟居民已经被遗忘了。”

Dharavi is the hotspot of the epidemic but the decadesold settlement is relatively well-supported by NGOs and the municipality. By comparison, slums in the sprawling suburbs of Malad, Bhandup, and Govandi have fewer resources and get less attention. The M/East ward that includes Govandi, for instance, has close to 80% living in slums. The ward ranks bottom on the human development index and could be the next hotspot, says Amita Bhide of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. (However, M/East assistant municipal commissioner S M Dwivedi said testing and facilities are expanding and fatality rates declining.) Slum cases may be limited to a degree by the exodus of poor migrants—an echo of the mass departures during the 1890s plague. Thousands have already left Govandi and Kurla for their distant villages, say local representatives. Still, many who remain are at risk. Near Mithi River in Kurla, people seek help only when they find it difficult to breathe, says local corporator Ashraf Azmi. “We take them to hospital, they are put on ventilators for a couple of days but they do not make it,” he said.

达拉维是疫情热点地区,但这个已有几十年历史的定居点得到了非政府组织和市政当局的大力支持。相比之下,马拉德、班杜普和戈万迪郊区的贫民窟获得的资源更少,得到的关注也更少。例如,包括戈万迪在内的中/东区有近80%的人生活在贫民窟。塔塔社会科学研究所的Amita Bhide说,该区在人类发展指数上排名垫底,可能成为下一个热点。(不过,中/东区助理市政专员S M Dwivedi说,正在扩大检测范围,死亡率正在下降。)

民工的离去可能会在一定程度上缓解贫民窟的形势——19世纪90年代瘟疫期间,也有大量民工撤离。当地代表称,成千上万的人已经离开戈万迪和库尔拉,返回在遥远村庄的家里。尽管如此,仍有许多人处于危险之中。当地企业负责人阿兹米说,在库尔拉的米提河附近,人们只有在出现呼吸困难时才会寻求帮助。他说:“我们把他们送到医院,让他们戴上呼吸机,但还是没救活。”

Apnalaya’s Kumar suggests more testing in areas with high populations or large slums. Azmi says there is no point increasing testing unless more beds are made available. “Where do I take them for treatment?” he asks.

非政府组织Apnalaya的库马尔建议在人口密集地区或大型贫民窟进行更多的检测。阿兹米说,除非提供更多的床位,否则增加检测也没有意义。他问道“如果没有床位,我带他们去哪治疗?””

以下是印度时报读者的评论:译者:Jessica.Wu

Sarang Nath

Vote Bank Politics by allowing illegal hutments This Zuggies are bound to act like Nuke Bomb for Mumbai.

批准非法搭建,充实自己的票仓。

这些贫民窟就像孟买的核弹。

 

Rabinder Nath Patney

No wonder Udhav Thackeray wants the lock down to continue.

难怪首席部长乌达夫·萨克雷想延长封城。

 

Raja Pillai

nothing will work unless we get rid of this shanties

除非拆了这些贫民窟,否则做什么都无济于事。

 

kkm

No govt is willing to take action on slums as they are the votebanks of them

没有一个政府愿意对贫民窟采取行动,贫民窟是他们的票仓啊。

 

S S Rajguru

The whole of Mumbai is almost a slum with pockets of rich habitats. But this covid has shown the mumbai its true place. Almost a hell hole.

整个孟买几乎是一个贫民窟,但也有许多富人区。新冠疫情向我们展示了孟买的真实面貌,简直是个地狱。

 

Mahesh Doddaiah

There should be a very dynamic and strict administration required to curb this pandemic. The current political leaders are miserably failed to tackle it.

应对这一流行病需要采取严格的管理措施。不幸的是,印度领导人未能做到啊。

 

Anthony Kalia

at present no middle class can afford to buy small house also in Mumbai city which goes to crores, and result slums and shanties

目前,没有一个中产阶级能买得起孟买的一套小房子,一套就要几千万卢比啊,贫民窟和棚户区应运而生。

 

Nemar Naidoo

Since partition took place and Congress becoming govt of India, they should take full responsibility for the condition this country is in. For sixty-five odd yrs, they were in power simply ignored the state of the poor class. Only recently since the new govt took over, there's a ray of hope of upliftment in their lives. Never again let this happen.

国大党执政的65年里,忽视了穷人阶级的状况。印度新政府上台后,他们的生活才有了一丝希望。

 

arvind rai

Incompetent state govt and policies since independence have brought the city to it's knees.

自从独立以来,无能的印度政府,失败的政策已经让这座城市屈服了。

 

rahul ahuja

This is right time to dismantle slums in Mumbai

现在正是拆除孟买贫民窟的好时机啊

 

Tanmay Chakrabarti

The greatest problem is that the state is running by a power-hungry man.

最大的问题是,这个邦是由一个渴望权力的人管理的。

 

vishal patel

it is time to control population of India. otherwise it will be too late.

是时候控制印度的人口了,否则为时晚矣。

 

Biju G

Mumbai is for all practical purposes one big slum

孟买实际上就是一个很大的贫民窟

thyjuki

Isn't it true for most of India?

印度大部分地区不都是吗?

 

Biju G

No other city in India can match Mumbai either in the kind of wealth generated or squalor.

论财富,印度其他城市没有孟买多;论脏脏程度,印度其他城市也不如孟买

 

Vilas Durge

Why focus on Mumbai. Shift business centres out of Mumbai to some other place and stop calling it Financial Capital from here on.

为什么关注孟买?

把商业中心从孟买迁到其他地方吧,从现在开始别再称孟买为金融中心了。

 

Dutta Pawle

it is time to eliminate people living in slums. release poisonous gases in all the slums and multiple problems will be solved in one go.

印度是时候消灭住在贫民窟的人了,在贫民窟释放毒气,所有问题一次性解决。

I M Indian

hmm an animal like you can advise this...

你这样的畜生才会提这样的建议……

 

raja suri

provide them good housing facilities. Blame all earlier go nments of Maharashtra

为贫民窟居民提供更好的住所。要怪就怪马哈拉施特拉邦早期的政府

 

Nitin

Trains & ST Should have restarted from At-Least 15th April..?? Many of them could have Gone Safely back to Home Towns.. May be Our Lock-Down was Too Early & Too Much Strict..?? That Also Created Dead-lock for Economy..??

铁路客运应该至少从4月15日开始重启。很多人本可以安全回到家乡的。也许封城太早了,太严格了,造成了经济停摆。

 

Dreet

What about slums in other Metropolitan cities? Don't just mention Mumbai as a scapegoat

那其他大都市的贫民窟呢?不要单单挑孟买说啊

 

Amit Padmayya

dude Mumbai has the most slums and dirtiest of all metro cities. FYI born in Mumbai so know how it has gone to the dogs

孟买的贫民窟最多,最脏。我出生在孟买,知道孟买是如何走向没落的

 

Hemanshu Kothari

Dude Mumbai is worst affected due to poor management.

由于管理不善,孟买受到的影响最严重啊。

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