三泰虎

印度和中国都是文明古国,为什么喜马拉雅山没有中文名字?中国也可以从境内看到喜马拉雅山呀

If India and China are both ancient civilizations, why doesn't the Himalayas have a Chinese name? China can surely see the Himalayas from its side

如果印度和中国都是文明古国,为什么喜马拉雅山没有中文名字?中国也可以从境内看到喜马拉雅山呀

index.jpg

以下是Quora读者的评论:

Mani Duraisamy, History Geek

I did a quick Google search after reading this question and it looks like Himalayas does have a Chinese translation, called- xǐ mǎ lā yǎ shān mài,

在看到这个问题后,我在谷歌上搜索了一下,貌似喜马拉雅山脉确实是有一个中文译名的,叫—xǐ mǎ lā yǎ shān mài。

However, if you are asking for a name which has its roots in core Chinese, then I need more time to search.

如果你问的是中文起源的名字,那么我需要更多的时间来仔细研究一下。

However, there is a possible explanation as to why Himalayas (the Indian name- called the ‘Abode of Snow’) is more popular and widely used across the world today rather than its Chinese equivalent (if it exists).

不过有一种可能的解释是,为什么喜马拉雅山脉(印度名字——被称为“雪的住所”)在当今世界比它的中国名字更受欢迎、更为广泛使用呢?

Here is a map of the ancient Indus and Ganges river basins:

这是一张古印度河和恒河流域的地图

main-qimg-7e1a059ae8157cf63f38a05790c1aafb.webp.jpg

You can see that both the Ganges basin and the Indus basin is closer to the Himalayas.

Now look at the map of the Chinese civilizations:

你可以看到,恒河盆地和印度河盆地都更靠近喜马拉雅山。

现在看看中国文明的地图:

main-qimg-f724b83fac1227a65fa59159bf19871c.webp.jpg

The Huang Ho river basin and the Yanngtze River Basins are far away from the Himalayas.

黄河流域和扬子江流域都远离喜马拉雅山。

This is also one factor why Indians have more closer cultural ties with Himalayas compared to China. The proximity of the mountains acts as an advantage. The Chinese side of the Himalayas faces the cold Gobi desert, hardly has any rivers carrying the amount of silt like Ganga in UP and Bihar. There is no sea coast in which can be accessed like how we used to access both Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea by river transportation via Ganga and Indus respectively.

这也是为什么印度人与喜马拉雅山的文化联系比中国更为紧密的一个原因。靠近喜马拉雅山脉本身就是一种优势。喜马拉雅山的中国一侧面对寒冷的戈壁沙漠,几乎没有任何河流能像北方邦和比哈尔邦的恒河那样携带如此多的淤泥。没有哪个海岸可以像我们过去那样通过恒河和印度河的水路运输同时到达孟加拉湾和阿拉伯海。

Riverian plains form the base for agriculture, industries and transportation. These three are needed for a civilization to thrive.

河流平原是农业、工业和交通的根基。这三者是文明繁荣发展的必需要素。

India has this advantage and China does not. Thus the Indian civilization being closer to the Himalayas- named the mountains after the words which has its roots in Indian languages.

印度有这个优势,而中国没有。因此,印度文明更接近喜马拉雅山-给这座山命名,这个名字的根源在于印度语。

 

Abhijit Raghunathan, A connoisseur of Indian sport

Well, for those who have done an extensive reading of the Himalayas, they will know where exactly the mountains lie. Of course, you have a small chunk of the ranges and even the foothills in both India and China, but the ranges are predominantly present in Tib and Nepal.

好吧,对于那些对喜马拉雅山有过深入了解的人来说,他们会知道山脉的确切位置。当然了,印度和中国都有一小部分山脉,甚至还有山麓小丘,但这个山脉主要还是坐落于中国西 藏和尼泊尔。

As far as names go, I really don't know how well you know your history, but there is definitely a Nepalese and a Tiban name for the mountain.

至于名字,我真的不知道你对自己的历史了解多少,但这座山肯定有一个尼泊尔名和一个xz名。

It is called Chormalungma in Nepal, named after some God/Goddess I think while it is called Sagamartha in Chinese (not sure of these spellings). Apart from that, when one attempts to traverse the path to Everest from the Nepal side, they have to cross over the Khumbu glacier and the Lhoste summit. Both these are thriving places and cities in Nepal. (I am still unsure about Lhoste).

在尼泊尔语中,它被称为Chormalungma,我想也许是以某个神/女神的名字命名的,而在汉语中它被称为Sagamartha(拼写对不对不敢保证哈)。除此之外,当人们试图从尼泊尔一侧穿越珠峰时,他们必须穿越昆布冰川和洛斯特峰。这两个地方都是尼泊尔的繁荣之地。

 

Ankhi Mun, Hometown in the (pre-)historical city of Varanasi

The ancient Chinese civilization was quite far away from the Himalayan ranges. They named nearby ranges only, e.g. Kunlun Mountains - Wikipedia, Qin Mountains - Wikipedia etc.

中国古代文明距离喜马拉雅山非常遥远。他们只给附近的山脉命名,如昆仑山-维基百科,秦山-维基百科等。

All ancient Civilizations are mainly plains based where farming is plentiful. And naming Geographical features is dependent on proximity and mostly for usage as a landmark, either near a village or path. For example, Mount Everest - Wikipedia has the real (in my opinion and the original Everest would have agreed with me) name of Sagarmatha in Nepali (and surrounding plains languages), the Chinese here took the Tiban name Qomolangma (again cause Tibans were in proximity and had named it).

所有的古代文明都主要是以平原为根基,那里的农业很发达。而对地理特征的命名则依赖于地理位置的邻近性,主要是作为地标来使用,要么是在村庄附近,要么是在小路上。例如,珠穆朗玛峰—就有真正的(只是我的看法)尼泊尔名—萨加玛塔,而中国人采纳了xz语的名字—珠穆朗玛峰。

 

Mani Than, former Self Employed

The factual reason is India is having portion of Himalayas in its territory. So they gave a name to the mountain range.

事实原因是喜马拉雅山脉的一部分就座落在印度的领土上。因此他们给这条山脉起了个名字。

Greater part of Himalayas lie in Tib. Which had a mild chinese influence.

喜马拉雅山的大部分位于中国西 藏。它对中国的影响不算大。

 

Yash Sharma, Managing Director at Myka Organics LLP (2017-present)

Since all the languages have been derived from Sanskrit , that’s why it has such a name.

因为所有的语言都起源于梵语,所以喜马拉雅的名字就是这么来的。

That’s why a suffix “sthan” which in Sanskrit means PLACE.

这就是为什么“sthan”的词尾后缀在梵语中是地方的意思。

For example ,

1.Uzbekistan

2.Turkmenistan

3.Kazakhstan etc.

例如,

1.乌兹别克斯坦

2.土库曼斯坦

3.哈萨克斯坦等。

And these places are far away from INDIA , in a recent answer by MR.Duriaswamy he said that it is because of the proximity of the mountains , it has nothing to do with the proximity of himalayas. These places are nowhere close to India but still includes the sanskrit suffix.

这些地方离印度很远,在Duriaswamy先生最近的回答中,他说,这是因为他们靠近山脉,但这与喜马拉雅山没有任何关系。这些地方离印度很远,但仍有梵文后缀。

 

K Sree Harsha, studied Mechanical Engineering

Well even China got the name from sanskrit of Indian origin from the word चीन ( chin ) !

就连中国的名字也是来源于印度的梵语词चीन ( chin ) !

Culturally speaking India has more connection towards himalaya (spiritually and environmentally ).

从文化上来说,印度与喜马拉雅有更多的联系,不仅是精神上,还是环境上的

 

Yuki Liu, works at AIESEC UNNC, Mainland of China

Because in ancient China, Chinese people have no idea what is Himalayas because it is thousands kilometres away from the central China(where most Chinese people lived). But for India, if you look at their map, how far is the Gangetic plain from Himalaya?

因为在古代中国,中国人不知道喜马拉雅山是什么,因为这座山距离中国内地有几千公里之遥。但是对于印度来说,如果你看看他们的地图,恒河平原离喜马拉雅有多远呢?

 

Gwydion Madawc Williams, Read a lot about this

The Himalayas tower over North India. They are remote from the population centres of China. China’s link with Tib only began in Tang times

喜马拉雅山高耸于印度北部,却远离中国的人口中心。内地与xz的连接始于唐代

 

Srikant Sekhar, lives in India

Ancient China lived almost entirely close to the eastern coast, which is rather far from the Himalayan ranges. They also lived somewhat more to the north than the eastern edge of the Himalayas. On the other hand, a lot of Indians lived along the rivers (like Ganga) emerging from the Himalayas, which run extremely close to the mountain range.

古代中国人几乎完全生活在离喜马拉雅山脉相当遥远的东部沿海地区。他们更多地住在喜马拉雅山脉的北边,而非东边。另一方面,许多印度人生活在喜马拉雅山脉附近的河流(如恒河)沿岸。

 

Richard Parker, Historian

Indus valley Civilization belongs to the Dravidians, the modern day South Indians. There is nothing called North Indian or Indian civilization. The Central Asian Nomads who settled down here don’t belong to India at all. They are Nomads

印度河流域文明属于德拉维人,即今天的南印度人。没有所谓的北印度或印度文明。定居在这里的中亚游牧民族根本不属于印度。他们是游牧民族。

 

Yang Lei

You India must eager to be part of China. But we do not want to rule such a poor and dirty place.

你们印度肯定渴望成为中国的一部分。但是我们并不想统治这样一个贫穷肮脏的地方。

 

Derek Y.H. Chen

First, China is too vast, also mountainous in the south, plain in the north, more plateaus and basins in the west. Himalaya is only one of the most towering mountains in China, also too distant from plain and populous areas.

首先,中国幅员辽阔,南部多山,北部多平原,西部多高原、多盆地。喜马拉雅山只是中国最高的山脉之一,距离平原和人口稠密的地区也太过遥远了。

Second, the Classic of Mountains and Seas, which dates back to about 4000 years ago, could be the first literal document of the Himalaya. The textologists of Qing dynasty asserted the first chapter (南山经, Nanshan Jing, which means records of the southern mountains in Chinese) should be based on the mountains and lakes in Tib, the Himalaya for example. Maybe then Tibans and ancient Chinese were of the same ethnic who share the same language. Nowadays, all of us Chinese and Tibans still speak Sino-tiban languages. Additionally, it's under argument why and who wrote this classic. One thing is fixed - it was not authorized by orthodoxy Chinese who supported the authority, maybe even not a Chinese but a minority I guess. It told us how the ancient good kings imprisoned persecuted and killed each other, not like what traditional Confucians thought.

第二,《山海经》可以追溯到4000年前,它可能是涉及了喜马拉雅山脉的第一部文字文献。清代的考据学家称第一章(南山经,记录了中国南部的山)应该是基于xz的高山和湖泊的,例如喜马拉雅山。也许那时xz人和古代中国人是同一民族,说的是同一种语言。现在,我们所有的中国人仍然说汉藏语。此外,为什么以及谁写了这本经典著作也存在争议。但有一件事是固定的——它没有获得支持权威的正统中国人的授权,我想可能甚至不是一个中国人而是少数人。书里说到了古代的好国王如何受到囚禁、迫害、彼此杀戮,跟传统的儒家思想并不相符。

Thirdly, we took the other way to india, the Tea Horse Road - Wikipedia and later the silk road.

第三,我们选择了另一条路去印度,那就是茶马古道——维基百科,也即后来的丝绸之路

The safer route is through Yunnan and Burman jungles. This completely avoided the Himalaya. Between China and India is not only the Himalaya, also Southeastern Asia

比较安全的路线是穿过云南和缅甸丛林,完全避开喜马拉雅山。中国和印度之间不仅有喜马拉雅山脉,还有亚洲东南部。

 译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/49611.html 译者:Joyceliu

 

Sahil Chatta, Amazed and disturbed, my life as an Indian.

The answer lies in the geographical location of these civilizations and their proximity to Himalayas.

答案在于这两个文明的地理位置以及它们与喜马拉雅山的距离。

The history of Indian civilizations begins with the Indus valley, which was situated alongside river Indus and came to be identified with it. Himalayas had still not come into prominence because of limited expanse of this civilization.

印度文明的历史始于印度河流域,它位于印度河沿岸,后来因此得名。由于这种文明的传播有限,喜马拉雅山并没有十分显眼。

The Chinese civilizations in the form of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, in chronological order began taking shape in succession in the far East, in the yellow river valley.

中国文明在远东、黄河流域开始形成,按时间先后顺序出现了夏、商、周三朝。

500 BC

公元前500年

This was followed by the rise of Mahajanpadas which were situated mainly around the Gangetic plain and as these expanded, they reached the periphery of the plains which were the foothills of Shivalik, one of the three parts of Himalayas. Hence, the geographical significance of Himalayas became established. Also, due to it being uncharted, it became a part of myths and legends, becoming known as the abode of Gods in the Vedic religion. Hence, the cultural prominence.

随后是摩诃永陀的兴起,它主要位于恒河平原周围,随着它们的阔张,它们到达了平原的边缘,也就是喜马拉雅山脉三部分之一的什瓦里克山麓丘陵。至此喜马拉雅山的地理重要性得以确立。此外,由于它是一片秘境,成为了神话和传说的一部分,成为吠陀宗教中著名的神之住所。

At the same time the Zhou dynasty breaks into smaller states and is yet restricted to the east of China with still no contact with the Himalayas.

与此同时,中国的周朝分裂成许多小国,依然只存在于中国的东部,与喜马拉雅山仍然没有交集。

1 AD

公元1年

Indian civilizations expand and north and western India are under the Scythians while the East comprises of small kingdoms, confined to the north by Himalayas and to the East by dense forests. To north of Himalayas are the Tiban tribes with little political or cultural influence in the region.

印度文明阔张,印度北部和西部在斯基泰人的统治下,而东部由很多小王国组成,北部受限于喜马拉雅山,东部受限于茂密的森林。喜马拉雅山以北是在该地区几乎没有政治或文化影响力的西 藏部落。

The Chinese under the Han expand further but are yet to reach the Pamir plateau. No contact with Himalayas still.

在汉朝的统治下,中国人进一步阔张国土,但仍未挺进帕米尔高原。尚未与喜马拉雅山有交集。

1000 AD

公元1000年

The rise of Tiban Empire in the north of the Himalayas and the small Rajput kingdoms in the south. Chinese kingdoms expand in the east.

西 藏帝国在喜马拉雅山北部崛起,拉其普特小王国在喜马拉雅山南部崛起。中国王国在喜马拉雅山东部阔张。

1700 AD

公元1700年

The Chinese Qing dynasty ann-xed Tib and marked the expansion of Chinese territory to the northern edge of South Asia, north of Himalayas. By the time it happened, most of the world was already named including the Himalayas. The word ‘Himalayas’ had already entered the lexicon of over a dozen languages and become even more ingrained in the local cultures and traditions of Indian subcontinent. And since India had extensive trade relations with the rest of the world, the name was carried on to other cultures as well

中国清朝收了西 藏,标志着中国势力来到了南亚的北部边缘,喜马拉雅山北面。当时世界上大部分地方都已经有名字了,包括喜马拉雅山。“喜马拉雅”这个词已经进入了十多种语言的词典,在印度次大陆的当地文化和传统中更是根深蒂固。由于印度与世界其他地方有着广泛的贸易关系,这个名字也在其他文化中得以流传。

三泰虎原创译文,禁止转载!:首页 > 印度 » 印度和中国都是文明古国,为什么喜马拉雅山没有中文名字?中国也可以从境内看到喜马拉雅山呀

()
分享到: