三泰虎

印地语是印度在文化上分为北印度和南印度的主要原因吗?

Is Hindi language the major reason behind dividing India into north India and south India culturally?

印地语是印度在文化上分为北印度和南印度的主要原因吗?

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以下是Quora读者的评论:

Rakshith S Ponnathpur, studied Public Policy at National Law School of India University, Bangalore (2020)

Yes! Not culturally, but linguistically.    

Reasons for cultural division: 

是的!但不是文化方面的,而是语言方面的。

文化割裂的原因:

The Hindi heartland of India was under one common dynasty or ruler for most parts of modern history, and the other parts of India, the North-East, the East, the South and the South West were under different rulers and dynasties and were not under a single ruler/dynasty. 

在现代历史的大部分时间里,印度印地语的中心地带处在一个共同的王朝或统治者统治下,而印度的其他地区,东北、东部、南部和西南部是在不同的统治者和朝代统治下。

Due to this and a variety of other reasons, while all the regions mentioned above had their own distinct languages and cultures which flourished under the respective rulers and dynasties, the Hindi heartland saw similar cultures and languages grow under the common dynasties and the rulers they had. 

由于这个原因和其他各种各样的原因,虽然上面提到的所有地区都有自己独特的语言和文化,在各自的统治者和朝代下蓬勃发展,印地语的中心地带见证了相似文化和语言在他们共同的朝代和统治者下成长。

What about Hindi?

印度语呢?

While the other parts of India had no similarities with the other territories of the same region, the Hindi heartland had a lot of similarities with other territories of the same region. This made Hindi the most spoken language in India since the entire stretch of Hindi heartland knew and talked in Hindi, which has a heavy influence of Urdu and Hindusthani. 

虽然印度的其他地区与同一地区的其他地区没有相似之处,但印地语的中心地带与同一地区的其他地区有很多相似之处。这使得印地语成为印度使用人数最多的语言,因为整个印地语中心地带都使用印地语,而且印地语对乌尔都语和印度斯坦有很大的影响。

On the other hand, since the other languages and cultures were restricted to their own territories, they were less spoken than Hindi though the number of speakers were considerable. 

另一方面,由于其他语言和文化被限制在自己的领地之内,虽然使用人数相当多,但还是比说印地语的人少。

Demand for making Hindi our national language 

让印地语成为国家语言的需求

Since many prominent political leaders were from the Hindi heartland, they were strictly rooting for Hindi to be made the sole national language of India, as it was the most spoken language of India. But this was opposed by many territories within India which had their own languages widely spoken by people in their territories. 

由于许多著名的政治领导人来自印地语的中心地带,他们强烈支持印地语成为印度唯一的国家语言,因为它是印度最普及的语言。但这遭到了印度许多地区的反对,这些地区的人们广泛使用自己的语言。

The logic of making Hindi the national language because it was the most spoken in India, was rubbished by a parliamentarian from Madras who said and I quote "If you are saying that Hindi should be made the national language of India because it is the most spoken language in India, then by your same logic, why have you made the peacock the National Bird of India, and not the crow?", receiving thunderous applause from the house. 

因为印地语是印度最普及的语言,所以应该成为国家语言的逻辑,被马德拉斯国会议员狠批了一顿,他说“如果你们说印地语因为最为普及,就应该成为印度的国家语言,那么按你们的逻辑,为什么把孔雀宣威印度的国鸟,而不是乌鸦?”他的话在众议院获得雷鸣般的掌声。

Anti-Hindi Sentiments and struggles

反印地语情绪和斗争

In the 1960s, when Hindi was to be made the only National Language in India, there were huge anti-Hindi protests in South India, and especially in the state of Tamil Nadu where the Congress, which dominated the state with Bharat Ratna K Kamraj at the helm, lost to an anti-Hindi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Even Kamraj lost in his own constituency to some trade union leader. 

在1960年代,印地语是印度唯一的官方语言,南印度爆发了许多反印地语抗议,尤其是国大党管辖下的泰米尔纳德邦,当时该邦的领导是获得印度国宝勋章的K Kamraj,输给了一个反印地语的Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam。甚至连Kamraj也在自己的选区输给了某个工会领袖。

The Government cancelled the plans of making Hindi the sole National Language of India. But still, even after 50 years of the event, no national party has been able to get back power in the state of Tamil Nadu, from the regional Dravidian parties which rose to dominance because of the anti-Hindi struggle. 

政府取消了印地语成为印度唯一国家语言的计划。但是,即使在50年后的今天,仍然没有一个全国性的政党能够从地区性德拉威党手中夺回泰米尔纳德邦的郑权。德拉威党由于反印地语的斗争而崛起并占据主导地位。

This has been the level of resistance offered to the imposition of Hindi by the other regions of India, especially the South. 

这就是印度其他地区,特别是南部地区,对强制推行印地语的抵制程度。

Why always South India?

为什么问题总出在南印度?

Some other states of other regions have also been against Hindi imposition, but the noise is always created by the Southern states and so, Hindi has always been a controversial topic of debate between the Northern Hindi heartland and the Southern Diverse Linguistic Region, or in your words, has divided South and North India based on language and culture. 

尽管其他邦或其他地区也反对印地语,但南方各邦的反对声一直更劲,因此印地语一直是印地语的腹地北部和南部之间的一个争议话题,或者用你的话说,印度因语言和文化的不同分为了南印度和北印度。

What the South Indians think of Hindi and what we would like to say to everyone?

南印度人怎么看印地语?我们想对全体印度人说什么?

Hindi always brings mixed emotions to us. While we all have nothing against the language, all our strong reactions have been/will be to safeguard our historical, classical languages and stop Hindi (another historical, classical language) from sidelining them. 

印地语总是带给我们复杂的情感。我们针对的不是这种语言,我们的强烈抵触是为了保护我们的历史、古典语言,阻止印地语(另一种历史、古典语言)将它们边缘化。

What we do not want is the forceful imposition of a language that we don't actually require, that we aren't actually used to, especially at the cost of sidelining our own languages. Same can be said about our culture. 

我们不希望被强加一种我们并不需要、我们并不习惯的语言,尤其是以将我们自己的语言边缘化为代价。我们的文化也是如此。

We are not against Hindi. We respect Hindi and we have no problem with any Hindi speaking person. All we want is the reciprocation of the same from others. We want our languages to be recognized and respected, and we want our languages to be the languages of our respective states. We want them to have the same status as any other language in India has. Thankfully, that is the status quo as of now. 

我们不反对印地语。我们尊重印地语,我们跟所有说印地语的人都和谐相处。我们想要的只是别人同等的回应。我们希望我们的语言得到承认和尊重,我们希望我们的语言成为各自邦的语言。我们希望它们能拥有和印度其他语言一样的地位。谢天谢地,这就是目前的现状。

Last but not the least, Hindi is not the National Language of India. Please don't tell that to us.

最后一点,但一样重要的是,印地语不是印度的国语。请不要跟我们说这种话。

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/49324.html 译者:Joyceliu

 

Aravind K, Interested in how languages develop and influence each other

The cultural division isn’t so much the division between Hindi and the major South Indian languages so much as that between the Indo-Aryan languages in the South and the Dravidian languages in the South. Hindi, along with most major North Indian languages, is an Indo-European language. As such, it’s closely related to Awadhi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Bengali, etc., less closely related to Farsi, Pashto, Balochi, etc. and related, although somewhat distantly, to English, German, Latin, French, and a huge number of European languages. Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, and a variety of other (smaller) languages spread out around India (there are a few in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh as well) are from a wholly unrelated language family. There’s no genetic connection, then, between Tamil and Sanskrit, Malayalam and Bengali.

文化上的割裂与其说是印地语和南印度主要语言之间的割裂,不如说是印度南部的雅利安语和南部的德拉威语之间的割裂。印地语,和大多数主要的北印度语一样,属于印欧语系。因此,它与阿瓦底语、旁遮普语、古吉拉特语、孟加拉语等语言关系密切,与波斯语、普什图语、俾路支语等语言关系不太密切,与英语、德语、拉丁语、法语和大量欧洲语言虽有关联,但关系较远。泰米尔语、泰卢古语、马拉雅拉姆语、卡那达语,以及其他一些分布在印度各地的小语种(也有一些分布在巴基斯坦、阿富汗、尼泊尔、不丹和孟加拉国),都来自一个完全不同的语系。泰米尔语和梵语、马拉雅拉姆语和孟加拉语之间没有关联。

But the distinction isn’t even this; not really. It’s much more about the fact that there hasn’t really always been very close cultural contact between the two parts. Obviously, we’re all Indians, and we’re similar in a million different ways, but we in the South have for long periods of time had the privilege of living in cozy isolation.

但区别还不止于此。更重要的是,这两者之间并不是一直都有非常密切的文化联系。很明显,我们都是印度人,我们在很多方面都很相似,但是我们南方很长一段时间都生活在舒适、与世隔绝的环境中。

 

Sumiteshwar Choudhary, Lawyer in Delhi Courts for last 16 Years at Delhi

Hindi is not the national language but official language or Rajbhasha along with English. English was made official language for 15 years only but it continued to be used till date to communicate with States who are not comfortable in Hindi.

印度语不是国家语言,而是官方语言,和英语一起称为“Rajbhasha”。英语成为官方语言的时间只有15年,但长期以来,人们用英语来跟非印地语的邦交流。

Hindi is not any divisive factor as there is not only North India or South India but India can be divided into 6 principle zones: North India, South India, East India, West India, Central India and North East.

印度语没有任何分裂因素,因为除了北印度或南印度,印度一共被分为6个主要区域:北印度、南印度、东印度、西印度、中印度和东北。

All of them have govt. recognized regional languages. Besides all 5 South Indian States have different regional languages of their own and there is no uniformity of languages among them as well. Same goes to other States/Parts of India. There is nothing common between the language of Kashmir with language of Punjab although they are neighbours and technically belong to the same block of North India. Same holds for Gujarat and Rajasthan or Bihar and Bengal or Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

他们都有政府承认的地方语言。此外,南印度的5个邦都有各自不同的地区语言,他们之间也没有统一的语言。印度其他邦/地区也是如此。克什米尔语和旁遮普语之间没有任何共同之处,尽管它们是邻邦,严格来说属于印度北部的同一地区。古吉拉特邦和拉贾斯坦邦、比哈尔邦和孟加拉邦、安得拉邦和喀拉拉邦也是如此。

Hindi became a subject of controversy or rather jealousy due to its prime dominance in India and Indian administration and politics. States of Bihar, Jharkhand, UP, Uttarakhand,  Chattisgarh,Delhi, Haryana, Himachal and Rajasthan are all connected via land and have Hindi as their primary language with a bit of regional twists.

由于印地语在印度和印度行政和政治中的主导地位,它成为了争议的话题,或者说是嫉妒的对象。比哈尔邦、恰尔肯德邦、北方邦、北阿坎德邦、恰蒂斯加尔邦、德里、哈里亚纳邦、喜马偕尔邦和拉贾斯坦邦都是通过陆路连接在一起的,他们的主要语言是印地语,但带有一点地方特色。

 

Jayasangar Narayanan

Yes, North Indian people were forcibly converted into Pakistani language people i.e. Hindians after their state go nments abandoned Indian language and took up the Pakistan Islamic origin language Hindi.

是的,北印度人在他们的邦政府放弃了印度语言,转而使用起源于巴基斯坦ysl的印地语之后,被迫变成了说巴基斯坦语的人。

South, East and partially the West of India retained their Indian language, but East and West India also mugged up Pakistani language Hindi and converted themselves into Pakistani language people.

印度南部、东部和部分西部保留了他们的印度语,但东部和西部的印度人也采用了巴基斯坦印地语,并把自己变成了说巴基斯坦语的人。

Before the South becomes also Pakistani language states, the people need to oppose the Hindi traitors tooth and nail.

在南方也成为巴基斯坦语国家之前,人民需要坚决反对印地语卖国贼。

Pakistani language Hindians abandoned their Indian culture and took up Islamic culture.

说巴基斯坦语的印度人放弃了他们的印度文化,转而接受了ysl文化。

Indian culture is now only being mostly retained in the Non-Pakistanified parts of India, which is mostly South of India and also North East

印度文化现在只保留在印度非巴基斯坦化的地区,主要在印度南部和东北部。

 

Harpreet Singh Kahllon, my rooots

it is not the major reason but plays a small part in it.

这并非主要原因,但在其中起着很小的作用。

historically power has been concentrated with the north and Hindi evolved from the languages spoken in these regions

历史上,权力一直集中在北方,印地语是从这些地区的语言演变而来的。

and South India was like a combinations of various cultures,(quite similar to the northeast) , and both the civilizations evolved separately, and the British also started from the north and a majority of the independence activities happened in the north and this the north and south are culturally divided just like every other state in India which has its own unique language, culture, etc, but we are still united as one nation

南印度则像各种文化的融合(非常类似于东北),两种文明都是分开发展的,英国人也是从北方开始的,大多数独立活动发生在北方,北印度和南印度就像印度的其他邦一样,在文化上是分开的,印度的每个邦都有自己独特的语言、文化等,但我们仍然是一个统一的国家。

 

Puneet Sapaliga, Software Engineer

Yes. Even today people complain about each other for not knowing the language(Hindi). We (Indians) give more priority to English since landing in to a good job requires us to speak, write, read and understand English well. If you are living in a region/city where a common language other than English and the local language is required for day to day communication then Hindi can be used ( for eg: Mumbai, Pune).

是的。即便到了今天,人们仍然因为不懂印度语而互相抱怨。我们(印度人)更重视英语,因为我们需要掌握英语的听说读写才能找到一份好工作。如果在你生活的地区/城市,日常交流需要使用当地语言,不能用英语,那么也可以使用印地语(例如:孟买,浦那)。

We Indians keep quarrelling, complaining, etc over such petty issues. We must remain united.

我们印度人为这些小事不停地争吵、抱怨等。我们必须保持团结。

 

Ashutosh Jha, Games the ppl play

Its Dravidian and Aryan race-> Dravidian languages vs Indo- European languages -> South and North. Last time I checked India was united. North and south India is just for discussions sake. And singling out a single language for that folly is going a bit too far. 

德拉威人和雅利安人的种族->德拉威人的语言vs印欧人的语言->南和北。我上次查的时候,印度还是统一的。北印度和南印度只是讨论的话题。一定要选出一种语言,简直荒唐过头了。

So my answer is a plain no.

所以我的回答很简单:不是。

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