三泰虎

印度在二战中扮演了什么角色

What role did India play in WWII?

印度在二战中扮演了什么角色?

 以下是Quora读者的评论:

Pranav Mehta, Sophomore at BITS PILANI KK BIRLA GOA CAMPUS

Very few Indians would know the fact that India contributed 2.5 million volunteer soldiers to fight for the Allies during World War II (WWII), and 1.5 million soldiers during World War I (WWI). These extremely brave soldiers came from very humble and poor backgrounds but they fought ferociously on land, at sea, and in the air.

In both the wars, the British Indian Army raised the world’s largest volunteer force, a feat not known by the current generation in the country and even lesser recognised in the daily discourse of modern India.

They were heroes, some recognised but mostly unsung, who played vital roles during the war and the list is long. But one name that does stand out is of Noor Inayat Khan, the daughter of Ustad Inayat Khan, a well-known musician of Indian classical music. In 1942, she joined the Special Operation Executive (SOE), a secret British organisation, mandated to work behind enemy lines.

She was trained as a wireless operator and was dropped into France to work alongside French resistance and inform the British forces on German military activity. On arrival, she discovered that her unit had been exposed but still she continued to work alone, transmitting coded messages over wireless to the British military command.

很少有印度人知道,在第二次世界大战(二战)期间,印度为盟军贡献了250万名志愿兵,在第一次世界大战(一战)期间贡献了150万名士兵。这些极其勇敢的士兵出身卑微,家境贫寒,但他们在陆地、海上和空中都英勇作战。

在两次战争中,英属印度军队都培养了世界上最大的志愿军,这一壮举在印度当代人中并不为人所知,甚至在如今也不太为人所知。

他们是英雄,有些得到了认可,但大多数都默默无闻,他们在战争中发挥了重要作用,名单很长。但有一个名字确实很引人注目,那就是努尔·伊纳亚特·汗,他是印度著名古典音乐音乐家乌斯塔德·伊纳亚特·汗的女儿。1942年,她加入了英国秘密组织特别行动执行局,受命在敌后工作。

她经过训练,成了一名无线电操作员,被空投到法国,与法国抵抗组织并肩作战,并向英国军队通报德国的军事行动。到达后,她发现她的小组已经暴露,但她仍然继续独自工作,通过无线向英国军事指挥部发送编码信息。

She was captured by the Germans in 1943, tortured and finally executed. Her invaluable contribution to the war effort won her the Croix de Guerre with Gold Star from the French go nment, and the George Cross from the British go nment in 1949. Both were awarded posthumously.

The Indian soldiers, on the ground, fought courageously in every battle and built an envious reputation which the Indian Army has carried forward to this day. Their exploits were seen in East and North Africa, Italy, Burma, and as far out as Singapore, Malay Peninsula, Guam, and Indo China. The role played by Air Force pilots from India are legendary and well documented. Pilots like MS Pujji and Prithpal Singh’s feats are among many who left their mark. The list of names and achievements is indeed long.

In the East, the Indian soldiers, as part of the British Indian Army, fought against the Japanese and were responsible for ultimately securing South East Asia that included Singapore, the Malay Peninsula and Burma. Were it not for the Indian soldiers, history could have been very different for the countries of this region.

Over 36,000 Indian soldiers lost their lives, 34,000 were wounded and 67,000 were taken prisoners of war. Indian soldiers of the British Army earned 17 Victoria Crosses, the highest military honour under the British.

译文来源:三泰虎  http://www.santaihu.com/48230.html 译者:Joyceliu

1943年,她被德国人俘虏,受尽酷刑,最终被处决。1949年,法国政府授予她英勇十字勋章,英国政府授予她乔治十字勋章。两枚勋章都是在其去世后授予的。

印度士兵在每一场战斗中都表现得英勇无畏,并赢得了令人羡慕的声誉,这种声誉一直延续到今天。他们的足迹遍及东非、北非、意大利、缅甸,甚至远至新加坡、马来半岛、关岛和印度。印度的空军飞行员所扮演的角色是具有传奇色彩的,并且作战记录优异。像Pujji女士和Prithpal Singh这样的飞行员都名留青史。

在东部,印度士兵作为英属印度军队的一部分,与日本人作战,负责保卫东南亚,包括新加坡、马来半岛和缅甸。如果不是因为印度士兵,这个地区的国家的历史可能会大不相同。

超过36,000名印度士兵丧生,34,000人受伤,67,000人成为战俘。英国军队的印度士兵赢得了17枚维多利亚十字勋章,这是英国军队获得的最高荣誉。

 

 

Kishore Prabhala, Principal at PLNM Degree College, Guntur, AP, India (2002-present)

There were 2.3 millin Indian army fought in World War II, British never gave credit, but Gandhiji felt after war India would get Independance but Churchill denied.

Over 89,000 Indian soldiers died fighting on behalf of British arm / navy / airforce.

The Fourteenth Army, a multinational force of British, Indian and African units turned the tide in Asia by recapturing Burma for the Allies. Thirty Indians won Victoria Crosses in the 1940s.

Numerous people sweated behind the scenes to secure supply lines and to support the Allies.

There were non-combatants like cooks, tailors, mechanics and washermen, such as a boot-maker to the Indian army named simply as Ghafur who died at the battle of Keren in present-day Eritrea and whose grave can still be seen there today.

第二次世界大战期间,印度军队贡献了230万兵力,英国从未给予过肯定,甘地认为战后印度将获得独立,但丘吉尔否认了。

超过89,000名印度士兵在代表英国陆军/海军/空军作战时牺牲。

由英国、印度和非洲多国部队组成的第十四军扭转了亚洲局势,为盟军夺回了缅甸。20世纪40年代,30名印度人赢得了维多利亚十字勋章。

为了确保补给线的安全并支持盟军,许多人做出了贡献。

比如厨师、裁缝、机械师和洗衣工等非战斗人员,例如印度军队就有一名制鞋工人在位于今天厄立特里亚的卡伦战役中阵亡,他的坟墓至今仍留在那里。

9d9e0d8fgy1g5yysxalq3j20gq08s10y.jpg
 

As the historian Yasmin Khan has “Britain did not fight the Second World War, the British Empire did.”

正如历史学家Yasmin Khan所说,“英国并未参加第二次世界大战,参战的是大英帝国。”

 

Vishu Kapoor, studied at Department of Business Economics, University of Delhi

India was the only country which participated from both sides. Since India was a colony of British, they were sent to fight against Axis powers.

On the other hand Subhash Chandar Bose's army, Swaraj Hind Fauj was an ally to Japaneese(axis power). They fought against against British in areas of Indo-Burma border.

印度是唯一一个跟对战双方都交过手的国家。由于印度是英国的殖民地,他们曾与轴心国作战。

另一方面,苏哈什·钱德尔·博斯的军队,斯瓦拉杰·欣德·福吉是日本(轴心国)的盟友。他们在印缅边境地区也跟与英国人作战过。

 

William Moran

India was the source of some of the greatest soldiers to fight in WW2. They were recruited in the Raj to fight for the British Empire. All told they formed combat divisions numbering

1.2 airborne,

2.4 armored

3.20 Infantry (including the Chindits)

These units exposed the racist lies of the Nazis and Japanese who repeatedly showed amazement at the fighting prowess, heroism, steadiness and loyalty of these so-called ‘sub-humans’.

Indian units could accomplish missions other units could not, and did so time and again in North Africa, Burma, and Italy.

It is to the shame of Britain and those other powers ho fought alongside Indian troops, that they have never been properly recognized or thanked.  

印度是二战中一些最伟大士兵的来源地。他们被征召到拉杰为大英帝国而战。他们组成了作战部门:

1.2个空军师

2.4个装甲师

3.20个步兵师

这些部队揭露了纳粹和日本人的种族主义谎言,他们一再对这些所谓的“次等人”的战斗能力、英雄主义、坚定性和忠诚表示惊讶。

印度部队能够完成其他部队无法完成的任务,而且在北非、缅甸和意大利都一样表现优秀。

令英国和那些与印度军队并肩作战的其他国家蒙羞的是,他们从未得到应有的承认或感谢。

 

Jai Bhardwaj, 20 years of existence.

My answer will be from the point of view of military. As already answered by Harjeet Singh, India was a British colony and so the Indians who served during the WW2 (and WW1) didn't exactly volunteer like their western counterparts to join the armed forces but were rather forced to do so.

Nonetheless I will be dividing my answer into two parts, the first being the role of Indians (combatants and non-combatants) under the British India Army and the second being the role of Indians groups allied with the Axis powers.

我将从军事的角度来回答这个问题。正如Harjeet Singh已经回答过的,印度是英国的前殖民地,所以在二战(及一战)期间服役的印度人并不像他们的西方盟军那样属于自愿参军,而是被迫参军。

尽管如此,我的答案会一分为二,第一部分是英属印度军队里的印度人(战斗人员和非战斗人员)的角色,第二部分是与轴心国结盟的印度团体的角色。

  1. Indians serving under the British India Army

1)Around 2,500,000 Indian soldiers were sent by the British to fight in it’s ongoing wars, out of which about 87,000 of them laid down their lives.

2)They fought gallantly in the Middle East and African theater of the war leading successive campaigns against the Germans and Italians, being one of the instrumental causes for the weakening of the Axis forces.

3)Played a key role in the the South-east Asian theater, particularly in the Burma Campaign, which was done so as to counter the growing Japanese influence which had been stationed at Burma.

4)Took part in the Invasion of Italy along with the US and British forces in the Italian campaign to liberate Italy from the fascist forces.

1.在英属印度军队服役的印度人

1)英国派遣了大约250万印度士兵参战,其中大约8.7万人牺牲。

2)他们在中东和非洲战场英勇作战,领导了对德国和意大利的连续战役,是轴心国势力削弱的重要原因之一。

3)在东南亚战区发挥了关键作用,特别是在缅甸战役中,抗衡了日本在缅甸日益增长的影响力。

4)与美国、英国军队一起,参与了从法西斯势力手中解放意大利的战争。

  1. Indian groups allied with the Axis powers

1)Indische Legion or The Free India Legion was a military unit raised in Nazi Germany to serve as a liberation force for British ruled India. It was initiated by Subhas Chandra Bose as his efforts to win India’s Independence over the British by waging a war against them, it largely contained Indian volunteers who were Prisoners of War (POW).

2)Battaglione Azad Hindoustan or the free India Battalion was a military unit formed in fascist Italy and was led by Mohammad Iqbal Shedai, formed with majorly ex-prisoners-of-war from India.

3)Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army was declared to be the Army of Subhas Chandra Bose’s Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (the Provisional Government of Free India) under whose leadership, the INA drew ex-prisoners and thousands of Indian civilian volunteers from Malaysia and Burma. They fought along the Imperial Japanese Army in Burma, Imphal and Kohima.

  1. 印度集团与轴心国结盟

1)自由印度军团是一支在纳粹德国成长起来的军队,目的是为英国统治下的印度充当一支解放力量。它是由苏巴斯·钱德拉·博斯发起的,当时他试图通过对英国人发动战争来赢得印度的独立。

2)自由印度营是在法西斯意大利建立的军队,由穆罕默德·伊克巴尔·谢代领导,主要由来自印度的前战俘组成。

3)印度民族解放军被宣布为苏巴斯·钱德拉·博斯领导的Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind的军队,在他的领导下,印度民族解放军吸引了来自马来西亚和缅甸的前囚犯和数千名印度平民志愿者。他们与日本帝国军队在缅甸、英帕尔和科希马并肩作战。

 

Balaji Viswanathan

As a colony of Britain, India fought with the allies. India had 2.5 million men serving the all-volunteer army (claimed to be the largest such force in history). Indian army lost 36000 men in the war, 34K wounded and 67K caught as prisoners of war. Majority of Indian army's action was centered in the Asian theatre fighting Japan in South East Asia. Second biggest action was in north and east africa. 

However, India also had a rebel army (Indian national army) headed by the valorous freedom fighter - "Subash Chandra Bose" and this group sided the Axis to help India get out of British Empire. Indian populace was indifferent for most of the time, sometimes siding with the Axis and sometimes with the Allies. Most of Indian leaders spent time in the jail this period, cutting them off from the people.

作为英国的殖民地,印度与盟国作战。印度有250万人在志愿军服役(据称是历史上规模最大的志愿军)。印度军队在战争中牺牲了36000人,34000人受伤,67000人被俘。印度军队的大部分行动集中在东南亚与日本作战的亚洲战区。第二大行动发生在北非和东非。

然而,印度也有一支由勇敢的自由战士“苏巴什·钱德拉·博斯”领导的印度国民军,这个组织站在轴心国一边,帮助印度脱离大英帝国。大多数时候,印度民众都漠不关心,有时站在轴心国一边,有时又站在同盟国一边。

 

Rahul Pandey, works at Merchant Navy

World War 2 was not only war of nations but it was also war of dominance, war of ideologies, war of identities, war for humanity. As world is commemorating 72 years of end of the war it is high time to analyse Indian contribution in the war which can be highlighted under following heads.

# Ideological support – ideological contribution of leaders were a mixed bag of responses while Gandhi Ji was most critical of Fascist aggression, Nehru and Bose saw it as war for colonial dominance, leftist parties vacillated over its response but were in favor of Indian support to British due to involvement of Russia.

# Contribution of human Resources – millions Indian soldiers participated on the side of allies and thousands perished in the service, Thousands of Indian volunteers provided medical-aid to the wounded, lacs of civilians died in aerial bombarding.

# Contribution of material resources - Indian factories manufactured war material. Indian food was diverted for the soldiers fighting on side of Allies at the loss of hungry Indians, Indian territories was used as bases for Allies Armed forces even present IIT Kharagpur was base for American Air Force, undivided Indian subcontinent provided transit root for resource mobilization on two fronts between Germany and Japan.

Despite such huge contribution, India’s role in WW2 seems to be lost in the pages of history, while the major world powers take pride in highlighting their war contribution, India should not forget its heroes. While India is seeking a permanent seat in UNSC, It is even more important for India to highlight its contribution in WW 2 and post war peace efforts.

第二次世界大战不仅是国家间的战争,也是统治的战争,意识形态的战争,身份的战争,人类的战争。现在世界各国都在纪念战争结束72年,现在是分析印度在战争中所作贡献的时候了,这些贡献可以在以下几项标题下加以强调。

#意识形态的支持——领导人的意识形态反应好坏参半,甘地霁对法西斯侵略最为不满,尼赫鲁和Bose将其视为殖民统治的战争,左翼政党犹豫不决,但由于俄罗斯的参与而支持英国。

#人力的贡献——数以百万计的印度士兵站在盟军一边,成千上万的印度士兵在战斗中牺牲,成千上万的印度志愿者为伤员提供医疗援助,平民百姓在空袭中丧生。

#物资的贡献——印度工厂生产战争物资。印度民众忍饥挨饿,将食物供应给盟军的士兵,印度的领土被用作盟军的基地,甚至现在IIT Kharagpur都曾是美国空军基地,不可分割的印度次大陆在对战德国和日本的两条战线上提供了物资中转支持。

尽管做出了如此巨大的贡献,但印度在二战中的角色似乎已经在历史的长河中淹没了,当世界大国为自己在战争中的贡献而自豪时,印度不应该忘记自己的英雄。在印度谋求联合国安理会常任理事国席位的同时,更要突出印度在二战和战后和平努力中的贡献。

 

Baba Vickram Aditya Bedi, Business Adviser, Writer (2017-present)

India’s role in World War II is largely uncredited for. The British on their own did not have a chance to win against the Germans. India also had it’s economic contribution negated by England as India was never paid back for this. In fact India contributed more in terms of resources than England and all the other colonies in terms of human life and productivity.

In what was a perfect storm, the contribution of India was swept under the rug so to speak.

印度在第二次世界大战中的作用在很大程度上没有得到认可。英国人自己没有机会战胜德国人。印度的经济贡献也被英国否定了,印度从来没有得到过回报。事实上,印度在资源方面的贡献比英国和所有其他殖民地的贡献都要大。

In recent times, a book called “Churchill’s Secret War”, by Mukerjee explores the level of the negation of India and Indian contributions to the war effort. The book was largely discouraged by many. However the book was published and has shed incredible light on World War II in India. In 1942 the Province of Bengal which the British had first connived away in 1757 from Indian rule, had a bountiful harvest. But, large scale grain export was extracted to under guise of the war effort. However this was hardly the case. It was a deliberate effort by Churchill to cause mass starvation in India Bengal and India at large, “It was not just a tactic forced out of Britain’s war needs,” says British author and academician James Woudhuysen. During this famine more than 6 million Indians died of starvation. And England deliberately made sure than no food entered India. The mayor of Calcutta sent the following cable during the crisis, “Acute distress prevails in the city of Calcutta and the province of Bengal due to shortage of foodstuffs. Entire population is being devitalised and hundreds dying of starvation. Appeal to you and Mr Churchill in the name of starving humanity to arrange immediate shipment of food grains from America, Australia and other countries.” But no food came, actually food continued to leave India. along with Indian steel and cotton. After all in Churchill’s words, “I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion'." When the question of grain being sent to the victims of the Bengal famine came up once more, "flourish on Indians breeding like rabbits.” Of course nothing could have been further from the truth. Churchill had no issue of taking money out of a starving India, as that year one of the “Contributions”, India was forced to make was 24 Million to the Relief & Rehabilitation Administration. In 1943 an Aircraft carrier cost 5–6 Million to make.

最近,穆克吉出版了一本名为《丘吉尔的秘密战争》的书,探讨了印度对战争的否定程度以及印度对战争的贡献。这本书在很大程度上受到许多人的阻挠。然而,这本书最终还是出版了,不可思议地向世人揭示了印度在第二次世界大战的情况。1942年,孟加拉省获得了大丰收。但是,大规模的粮食出口却打着战争的幌子。然而,事实并非如此。丘吉尔蓄意在印度孟加拉和整个印度造成大规模饥荒,“这不仅仅是出于英国的战争需要而被迫采取的策略,”英国作家兼学者詹姆斯·伍德怀森说。在这次饥荒中,有600多万印度人死于饥饿。英国故意不让食物进入印度。加尔各答市长在危机期间发出以下电报:“由于食品短缺,加尔各答市和孟加拉省处于紧急危难中。所有民众正失去活力,数百人死于饥饿。呼吁您和邱吉尔先生出于人道,立即安排从美国、澳大利亚和其他国家运送粮食。”但是粮食没有运进来,反而继续流出印度。印度的钢铁和棉花也是如此。毕竟,用丘吉尔的话来说,“我讨厌印度人。他们是畜生,信仰畜生的宗教。”当向孟加拉饥荒灾民运送粮食的问题再次出现时,“印度人像兔子一样繁衍生息”。丘吉尔毫不犹豫地向饥饿的印度压榨钱财,那一年,印度被迫向救济和重建管理局捐款2400万美元。1943年,一艘航空母舰的造价为500万至600万美元。

 

Charan Puneet Singh, an Indian

1.I am going to answer in a summary. You can read more on wikipedia for details:

As a supplier of raw materials - India suffered its worst famine during this time as the British diverted a major chunk of local produce for the War effort. Some 5 million died in Bengal during this time

2.As a supplier of troops: Indian Army troops fought commendably in North Africa, Italy, China, Guam and Burma  

3.As a Logistics Base: USAF used Indian Air force bases in Orissa and Bengal to fly missions in China and Japan. Indian Navy was used for Naval blockade of major routes in Indian Ocean.

4.As a political distraction to the British: The efforts by Subhash Chandra Bose, the Azad Hind Fauj and the mutineer troops had a huge effect on the thinking of British and their confidence on being able to rule India over the long term. Gandhi and Nehru were "the good boys",supporting the allied War effort.

5.As an after-market for the British WW2 Junk: Hindujas made their fortune by buying substandard British WW2 equipment marked as junk and selling it to India, yes through "Chacha" Nehru!

This is all i can think of right now, will add more later!

1.作为原材料供应国,印度在当时遭受了最严重的饥荒,因为英国为战争转移了大量的当地农产品。在此期间,孟加拉大约有500万人死亡。

2.作为军队兵力的供应者:印度军队在北非、意大利、中国、关岛和缅甸进行了值得称道的英勇战斗。

3.作为后勤基地:美国空军利用印度在奥里萨邦和孟加拉的空军基地,在中国和日本执行了飞行任务。印度海军被用来封锁印度洋上的主要航线。

4.对英国的政治干扰:苏哈什·钱德拉·博斯、阿扎德·欣德·福吉和反叛者部队的努力,对英国人的思维和长期统治印度的信心产生了巨大影响。甘地和尼赫鲁是“好孩子”,支持盟军的战争努力。

5.作为英国二战垃圾的次级市场:Hindujas购买垃圾等级的不合格的英国二战设备并转售到印度,大发横财,是的,就是通过“查查”尼赫鲁!

这就是我现在所能想到的,以后再来补充!

 

Wade Willson, a hobby that became a profession

India did do a lot of good in the war, and their infantry was one of the best trained. However, upwards of 5,000 troops broke from the British Army to join the German Army (before Pearl Harbor). The leader was Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose drew up plans for a German invasion of India, which he hoped would lead to the independence of that country. Bose met with Hitler, but became disgusted with Germany after their invasion of Russia (Bose was a socialist).

Then, another 45,000 (a whopping 64% of the Indian troops in South East Asia) troops broke out of the British Army after Pearl Harbor. Bose also took one submarine from Germany and one submarine from Japan. With this manpower, he declared a country called “Azad Hind.”

Meanwhile, the troops in Germany of the Free India Legion became part of the Waffen-SS, which is weird because they were not “Aryans,” and they survived until May 1945.

The 45,000 met in Malaya, and then marched with the Japanese Army. The war went on without a significant contribution from Bose.

印度在战争中做了很多好事,他们的步兵是训练最为有素的。然而,超过5000名士兵脱离英国军队加入了德国军队(珍珠港事件之前)。领头的是苏巴斯·钱德拉·博斯。博斯起草了德国入侵印度的计划,他希望这能给印度带来独立。博斯与希特勒见过面,但在德国入侵俄罗斯后,他对德国感到厌恶(博斯是一名社会主义者)。

然后,在珍珠港事件后,又有4.5万名士兵(占驻扎在东南亚的印度军队的64%)从英国军队中逃了出来。博斯还从德国和日本各带走了一艘潜艇。有了这些资源,他宣布建立一个叫做“自由印度临时政府”的国家。

与此同时,自由印度军团在德国的部队成为了武装党卫队的一部分,这很奇怪,因为他们不是“雅利安人”,而且他们一直存在到了1945年5月。

这4万5千人在马来亚相遇,然后和日本军队一起行军。战争继续进行,但博斯没有作出重大贡献。

三泰虎原创译文,禁止转载!:首页 > 印度 » 印度在二战中扮演了什么角色

()
分享到: