2.The Decimal Sy em

2. 十进制系统

India gave the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by means of ten symbols – the decimal sy em. In this sy em, each symbol received a value of position as well as an absolute value.


3.Numeral Notations

3. 数字符号


Indians, as early as 500 BCE, had devised a sy em of different symbols for every number from one to nine. This notation sy em was adopted by the Arabs.

Centuries later, this notation sy em was adopted by the western world who called them the Arabic numerals as it reached them through the Arab traders.



4. Fibbonacci Numbers

4. 斐波纳契数


The Fibonacci numbers and their sequence first appear in Indian mathematics as mātrāmeru, mentioned by g in connection with the Sanskrit tradition of prosody. Later on, the methods for the formation of these numbers were given by mathematicians Virahanka, Gop and Hemacandra , much before the Italian mathematician Fibonacci introduced the fascinating sequence to Western European mathematics.


5. Binary Numbers

5. 二进制数


Binary numbers is the basic language in which computer programs are written. Binary basically refers to a set of two numbers, 1 and 0, the combinations of which are called bits and bytes. The binary number sy em was first described by the Vedic scholar g, in his book Chandahśāstra, which is the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody ( the study of poetic metres and verse).


6. Chakrav method of Algorithms

6. 查克拉瓦拉算法


The chakrav method is a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations, including the Pell’s equation. This method for obtaining integer solutions was developed by Brahmagupta, one of the well known mathematicians of the 7thcentury CE. Another mathematician, Jayadeva later generalized this method for a wider range of equations, which was further refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise.


7. Ruler Measurements

7. 测量尺


Excavations at Harappans sites have yielded rulers or linear measures made from ivory and shell. Marked out in minute subdivisions with zing accuracy, the calibrations correspond closely with the hasta increments of 1 3/8 inches, traditionally used in the ancient architecture of South India. Ancient bricks found at the excavation sites have dimensions that correspond to the units on these rulers.

在哈拉帕遗址的发掘工作中,人们发现了由象牙和贝壳制成的尺子或线形测量工具。精确到令人惊叹的细分刻度,刻度与南印度古代建筑中传统使用的哈斯特增量1 3/8英寸非常接近。挖掘现场发现的古砖的尺寸与这些尺子的单位相呼应。

8. A Theory of Atom

8. 原子理论


One of the notable scientists of the ancient India was Kanad who is said to have devised the atomic theory centuries before John Dalton was born. He speculated the estence of anu or a small indestructible particles, much like an atom. He also stated that anu can have two states — absolute rest and a state of motion. He further held that atoms of same substance combined with each other in a specific and synchronized manner to produce dvyanuka (diatomic molecules) and tryanuka (triatomic molecules).


9. Wootz Steel

9. 伍茨钢

A pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in India, Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands that was known in the ancient world by many different names such as Ukku, Hindwani and Seric Iron. This steel was used to make the famed Dscus swords of yore that could cleave a free-falling silk scarf or a block of wood with the same ease. Produced by the Tamils of the Chera Dynasty, the finest steel of the ancient world was made by heating black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible kept inside a charcoal furnace.

伍茨钢是在印度研制的一种具有开拓性意义的合金钢基体,它是一种坩埚钢,其特征是具有许多不同的条纹图案,在古代世界被称为Ukku、Hindwani和Seric Iron。这种钢被用来制造古代著名的大马士革宝剑,它可以轻松地劈开飘落的丝巾或木块。这种古时最好的钢是由切拉王朝的泰米尔人生产的,把黑色磁铁矿和碳放在木炭炉内的密封粘土坩埚中加热而制成。

10. Plastic Surgery

10. 整形手术

古印度 整形手术

Written by Sushruta in 6th Century BC, Sushruta Samhita is considered to be one of the most comprehensive textbooks on ancient surgery. The text mentions various illnesses, plants, preparations and cures along with complex techniques of plastic surgery. The Sushruta Samhita ’s most well-known contribution to plastic surgery is the reconstruction of the nose, known also as rhinoplasty.


11. Cataract Surgery

The first cataract surgery is said to have been performed by the ancient Indian physician Sushruta, way back in 6th century BCE. To remove the cataract from the eyes, he used a curved needle, Jabamukhi Ska, to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. The eye would then be bandaged for a few days till it healed completely. Sushruta’s surgical works were later translated to Arabic language and through the Arabs, his works were introduced to the West.

11. 白内障手术

第一例白内障手术据说是在公元前6世纪由古印度医生苏什鲁塔完成的。为了摘除眼睛上的白内障,他使用了一种弯曲的针,Jabamukhi Ska,来松开晶状体,将白内障推出视野。然后用绷带包扎几天,直到眼睛完全愈合。苏什鲁塔的手术记录后来被翻译成阿拉伯语,通过阿拉伯人流传到西方。

12. Ayurveda阿育吠陀

12. 阿育吠陀


Long before the birth of Hippocrates, Charaka authored a foundational text, Charakasamhita, on the ancient science of Ayurveda. Referred to as the Father of Indian Medicine, Charaka was was the first physician to present the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity in his book. Charaka’s ancient manual on preventive medicine remained a standard work on the subject for two millennia and was translated into many foreign languages, including Arabic and Latin.


13. Iron-Cased Rockets

13. 铁皮火箭


The first iron-cased rockets were developed in the 1780s by Tipu Sultan of Mysore who successfully used these rockets ag inst the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. He crafted long iron tubes, filled them with gunpowder and fastened them to bamboo poles to create the predecessor of the modern rocket. With a range of about 2 km, these rockets were the best in the world at that time and caused as much fear and confusion as dge. Due to them, the British suffered one of their worst ever defeats in India at the hands of Tipu.


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