三泰虎

为什么印度至今还存在种姓制度

Abhijit Mukherjee, works at Department of Electrical Engineering, Jadavpur University

This is only my personal impression I cannot cm it to be above doubt or flaws. There are a number of reasons :

1) Certain castes are marked as 'scheduled castes' and 'other backward castes' and people identified as belonging to those castes get considerable favor through elaborate quotas in college admission, lucrative public sector jobs and hence they have no material reason to demand abo ition of the caste sy em.

2) The po iticians have arranged their pieces on the basis of the caste divides and their entire rule book of how to exploit people's sentiments are conceived with the caste considerations at the very foundation.

这只是我的个人感想,我不能说它没有问题或没有瑕疵。原因有很多:

1)某些种姓被标记为“预留种姓”和“其他落后种姓”,这些种姓的人通过大学入学、收入丰厚的政府工作的配额获得了相当大的助益,因此他们没有切实理由要求废除种姓制度。

2)政客们是根据种姓来安排自己的党羽,他们利用公众情感的规则都是基于种姓的考虑而制定的。

3) There are illiterate, semi-literate and highly literate people who have traditionally learnt to judge people by their respective caste affiliations. Their language, anecdes, vast range of prejudices are all so closely entangled with caste identities of people that culturally it is difficult to extricate them from this putative classification of human beings.

4) Since the caste sy em divides the nation vertically and effectively weakens the social fabric, international power corners have a stake in the continuation of India's caste sy em. Thus academic forums, centers, disciplines have been established with close international links, that evaluate every event in terms of caste related consequences and create considerable inter caste strife in the name of awareness campaigns. Till now this creed, in the garb of liberal intellectuals, have considerably succeeded in weakening the national spirit.

3)社会上有文盲、半文盲和高识字率的人,他们一代一代地学会根据自己的种姓关系来判断别人。他们的语言、轶事、各种偏见都与人们的种姓身份密切相关,以至于很难在文化上把他们从这种对人的分类中解脱出来。

4)由于种姓制度将国家垂直地分割开来,有效地削弱了社会结构,印度种姓制度的延续与国际势力利害攸关。因此,我们建立了具有密切国际联系的学术论坛、中心和学科,根据与种姓有关的影响来评估每一项活动,并以提高觉醒运动的名义造成了相当大的种姓间冲突。到目前为止,这一信条,披着自由知识分子的外衣,已经相当成功地削弱了我们的民族精神。

All these and perhaps a few more factors have kept this scourge alive and are corroding the nation's strength.

所有这些,也许还有更多的因素会让这一人祸继续存在,并继续腐蚀印度的力量。

 

Aniket Kadam, We the people!

I won't go in details about the caste sy em or its benefits or it's drawbacks. But, I would like to estimate why this sy em est.

We, Humans, are probably the most dominating creatures who have left their impressions on earth. We use tools to overpower our fellow beings.

We are naturally overpowering creatures.  

我不会详述种姓制度的好处或缺点。但是,我想谈谈这个系统存在的原因。

我们人类,可能是在地球上最具统治力的生物。我们用工具控制我们的同胞。

我们天生就是强大的生物。

Human beings are born to dominate or our greed has made us to dominate over others. CASTE SYSTEM was an outcome of this domination. People used it to their own benefits. And it will continue to est as Humans love to dominate.

Whereas in INDIA, we have a Re gion Mosaic and we have ingrained caste sy em deep into our blood. It will be visible in one form or other, sadly.

Our Constitution has d down principles to bring class, community and regional equality. Diversity is our strength. We are growing at rapid rate both in educational and in economic way.

人类生来就是要支配别人的,抑或是我们的贪婪让我们支配别人。种姓制度是这种统治的结果。人们用它来造福自己。它将继续存在,因为人类喜欢支配。

而在印度,我们有马赛克式的宗教,我们把种姓制度深深根植于我们的血液中。可悲的是,它会以这样或那样的形式出现。

我们的宪法规定了阶级、社区和地区平等的原则。多样性是我们的优势。我们在教育和经济两方面都迅速增长。

Education and community maturity is essential for carving out this unnecessary stigma of caste. It will take more years to remove this sy em. And po itical indulgence is as threatening for this sy em.

教育和社区的成熟对于消除这种不必要的种姓歧视至关重要。要废除这个系统需要更长的时间。政治上的纵容对这个制度来说同样是种威胁。

The caste sy em est because it is a double edged sword. Po itical masters used it for Ves and for crawling up the economic ladder. Now both the lower caste's use this for bargaining power at times and the upper caste's use it for their own domination.

It's a see-saw of uncertainty. We can expect it to see this sy em for the next century. As long as our breed ests, our natural tendency to dominate over others will est then also. Caste sy em will stay. Either in it's core form or diluted. Sadly

种姓制度之所以存在,是因为它是一把双刃剑。政治领袖们用它来投票,在经济阶梯上攀爬。现在,低种姓的人有时会用它来谈判,而高种姓的人则用它来统治自己。

这是一种不可靠的跷跷板。我们估计在下个世纪还是能看到这个制度。只要我们印度人还存在,我们支配他人的天然欲望也会随之存在。种姓制度将继续存在。或多或少罢了。

 

Anurag Kumar, My caste is Indian.

There are many reasons.

  1. Our po iticians are kee it alive to secure a 'dalit ve bank'.
  2. Reservation sy em is hel in it, as you have to get a caste certificate for getting reservation, which means that you have to know your caste. It also means that others will know your caste, when you take admission in a college or get a job using it.
  3. See the matrimonials section of any newspaper. You can see the headings easily like Brahmin, Kayastha etc. People don't want to marry outside their castes.
  4. Stereotypes- some people have a stereotype for a particular caste. For example, some people have a stereotype that Rajputs are hot headed. Hence people try to know someone's caste to have an idea about his nature.
  5. You can see people bragging about their castes. Some brahmins keep on flaunting about their castes.
  6. Some people actually do the work assigned to them by the Varna sy em. For example, most of the sweepers are 'valmikis' .
  7. People use certain surnames which give an idea about their castes. For example, Chaubey surname is generally used by Brahmins.

The list is not an exhaustive one.

原因有很多。

1。我们的政客们为了确保“达利特票仓”的存在而维系这个制度。

2。预留制在这方面起了作用,因为你必须有种姓证书才能获得预留席位,这意味着你必须知道你的种姓。这也意味着,当你通过种姓考上大学或找到工作时,别人会知道你的种姓。

3。请翻阅所有报纸的征婚专栏。你可以很容易地看到像婆罗门,刹帝利之类的标题。

4。固有印象——有些人对特定的种姓有刻板印象。例如,有些人有一种成见,认为拉其普特人性子急躁。因此,人们试图了解某人的种姓以了解他的本性。

5。你可以看到有些人会吹嘘他们的种姓。一些婆罗门总是不停地炫耀他们的种姓。

6。有些人实际上从事的是Varna体系指派给他们的工作。例如,大多数清洁工都是“valmikis”。

7。人们用某些姓氏来彰显他们的种姓。例如,Chaubey这个姓氏就通常被婆罗门使用。

这个列表是列不完的。

 

Bodi Sanz, Traveler. Writer. Self improvement junkie

Well if everyone were the same caste, how would we know who to exclude?

People like to segregate. A friend once told me about this experiment- a group of children were given T-shirts in two colors. Some kids got a red t-shirt, and some kids got blue. No further instruction. Almost automatically, the kids with the blue t-shirt flocked to one side , and the kids with the red t-shirt flocked to the other.

如果每个人都是同一种姓,我们怎么知道该排斥谁呢?

人们喜欢搞小集体。一个朋友曾经跟我说过一个实验——给一群孩子两种颜色的T恤。一些孩子得到了红T恤,一些孩子得到了蓝T恤。并未给孩子们进一步的指令。但几乎是自发地,穿着蓝色T恤的孩子们涌向一边,穿着红色t恤的孩子们涌向另一边。

So deeply is identification with a group ingrained. People like to belong to something. It helps make sense of the world, especially in a wildly heterogenous society like India. They also like to feel superior to others. Be of the “in” crowd.So- if you have people of different colors, that's where you segregate. If everyone is the same color, then it's re gion. If it's the same re gion, then it's caste. If everyone was the same caste, people will most probably find something else. As long as our evo tionary physiology remains the same, we will continue to have social inequity.

对一个群体的认同是如此根深蒂固。人们喜欢归属感。这有助于理解世界,特别是在像印度这样的异质社会中。他们也喜欢自己比别人优越的感觉。成为人群中的一员。如果你发现谁跟你肤色不同,你就将他区隔开来。如果每个人都是同一种肤色,那么就看宗教。如果宗教也相同,那就看看种姓。如果每个人都是相同的种姓,人们很可能还会找别的东西来划分人群。只要我们的进化生理学保持不变,我们社会的不平等就会继续存在。

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