In practice, how does India's caste system work in the 21st century?
Mayur Dattatray Sherkhane, I've witnessed caste discrimination
I would like to share One story I witnessed in 2009,
I attended counselling round during B Tech admission at one of the most prestigious colleges in Maharashtra (COEP)
3 seats were left, which belonged to ST (Scheduled Caste) quota, college couldn't find ST students till end and hence those seats converted into Open Category. Most of the ST students leave the education at primary level. Few complete high school, and very few attend graduation schools.
In IITs, most prestigious technical colleges in India have deficiency of faculties. Nearly 740 faculties are required to serve the educational system. Among these 740 seats, more than 70% seats belong to Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). It's really difficult to find highly educated and proficient staff for teaching especially from backward castes.
If this quota is removed then I don't think most of the ST students will even be able reach under graduate level.
One more story…
5 years back, I visited a small village named Chilawadi, Osmanabad district (Maharashtra).
I was with my family and one family friend who was local from the same village. We were visiting the village and loitering here and there. After some time, we came across the Vitthal temple and I Suddenly asked my local friend to show us the temple. He said, just go ahead. I removed my footwears and started walking in. But I noticed that, my friend was stopped just at the stairs. I waved my hand and asked to come in. His reply was heart breaking.
He replied, “ WE ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE TEMPLE.”
Whatever the community he was belonged, that community was not allowed to enter in the temple. Surely he was from backward caste.
译文来源：三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46346.html 译者：Joyceliu
Yuganshu Sharma, works at BSES
It varies with the location and economic status of the parties involved.
In the economically elite classes, it is almost unheard/unseen of.
In the middle class setting, it's covert and shows up during matchmaking specifically.
In the poor class, caste along with region serves as identity and it doesn't get dissociated.
Here, economic condition is superficial. Caste takes paramountcy in all social relations and events.
Elite castes, they make sure they adhere to stringest possible following of the caste rules in dealing with shudras and untouchables.
Kshatriya and Vaishyas, they make sure that the poor don't get access to same resources(wells), schools or at the same rate of interest(in case of debt).
Shudras and Untouchables don't really have much choice.
The abolition of untouchability has had a major effect but it's yet to cure India of it's malaise.
These newspaper photos are of November,2015 (Indian Express).