三泰虎

中国工资水平比印度高出许多,为什么中国制造的商品却比印度制造便宜

Rupesh Agarwal, I am a lot of things but an Engineer. That's just to afford being everythng else

How do we estimate the cost of a product? Salary of employees is a big part of it. But, there are other factors as well. And, it is a myth that Salary in India is lower than in China. Salary in China could be way lower in many many spaces, esp. Manufacturing.

Cost of a product depends upon the cost of raw materials, employee cost, infrastructure cost, transportation and hence energy cost, cost and ease of starting a business to name a few major factors.

我们如何估算产品的成本?员工的工资是很大一部分。但是,还有其他因素。而且,印度的工资比中国低只是假象。在中国的许多行业,尤其是制造业,工资可能会低得多。

产品的成本取决于原材料成本、员工成本、基础设施成本、运输成本,因此还有能源成本、成本以及创业的难易程度。

Even if we assume that employee cost incl. salary in India is cheaper than in China (which is not), the other costs in India are so high that it becomes totally uneconomical to compete with Made in China products in terms of quality and cost.

Raw Materials

Most of the raw materials for products that are cheaper when made in China, are readily available in China at a very good price quality index.

即使我们假设印度的员工成本包括工资在内,比中国更低(其实并没有),但印度的其他成本太高,在质量和成本上与中国制造的产品竞争是完全不经济的。

原材料

大多数在中国生产的产品的原材料都很便宜,价格质量指数很合适。

Transportation and Public Infrastructure

Public infrastructure in China is just super. Goods can be transported efficiently, on-time and across country at a much lower cost than in India. Indian manufacturers cannot rely on public infrastructure for reliable transportation. Most of these manufacturers have then to go to Private logistics providers or have some supply chain of their own. Imagine the cost of that?

交通及公共基建

中国的公共基础设施非常好。与印度相比,货物运输效率高,准时,成本低得多。印度制造商不能依靠公共基础设施来获得可靠的运输。这些制造商中的大多数不得不求助于私人物流供应商或拥有自己的供应链。想象一下这样做的代价是什么?

Miscellaneous Business Cost (Starting and Running)

Cost and ease of starting a business. It is not easy in China either, but relatively easier and cost efficient. Bribery in China is too low, punishment when caught being too harsh. Bribery alone leads to a lot of un-accounted cost, ranging from customs to IT to Local police to licensing authority to getting a VAT number issued. Try starting a business and you will know what I mean. It is super crazy.

So, you can make your judgement.

其他业务成本(启动和运行)

创业的成本和容易程度。这在中国也不容易,但相对来说还是更容易一些,成本更低。在中国,贿赂太少,被抓时惩罚太严厉。光是贿赂就会导致许多未计入成本的成本,从海关到IT、从地方警察到许可证颁发机构,再到增值税的发放,不一而足。尝试创业,你就会明白我的意思。这太疯狂了。

所以,你可以做出自己的判断。

 

Gaurav Singh, Sr Consultant CRM Practice at UST Global (2016-present)

There are many reason Chinese products are cheaper than Indian products like cheap labor, low tax levied on manufacturing industry, more efficient labor force but the most important reason then managed to sell products in India at the fraction of the cost because of dumping. Let me elaborate further on Dumping,

Dumping inimical method to sell your products in other geography with the intention of immiserate local industry, trenched them and mow down them for the benefit of your own industry. It other wards selling your products less then the cost of production, in loss to kill local industry.

中国产品比印度产品便宜的原因有很多,比如廉价的劳动力、对制造业征收的低税、更高效的劳动力,但最重要的原因是中国产品为了在印度倾销,售价只有成本的一小部分。让我进一步阐述倾销,

倾销是用有敌意的手段在其他地区销售你的产品,旨在打击当地的工业,为自己的行业的利益削弱对手。换而言之,用低于成本的价格销售产品,杀敌一千,自损八百,扼杀当地产业。

China is notorious offender of dumping, this ensnare they have been using for many many years and Indian industry has no strategy to thwart the attack instigated by China. We also unabashed by all this and quotidian make purchase of Chinese products.

Recently Govt of India has imposed anti dumping duties on some Chinese products which make china miffed and thorny.

中国的倾销行为是臭名昭著的,他们多年来一直在利用这个陷阱,而印度工业没有任何应对之策来阻止中国挑起的攻击。我们购买中国产品也毫不手软。

最近,印度政府对一些中国产品征收反倾销税,这让中国感到恼火和棘手。

 

Goran Mekota, lived in India

Is there some data regarding statistical efficiency per a single worker? Even if he is payed 2x more but does 4x more work (because of better infrastructure, technology, organisation, work ethics or whatever) it is still cheaper.

Just making guesses here, but the impressions is that China is better organised for mass production and has a better trained work force. I seems to me that India has competitive higher education but lacks quality and reach in the basic one, which in turn makes it more competitive in highly skilled jobs (medicine, IT etc) than in mass-production that employs less educated workforce.

(besides the bureaucracy, transportation etc that are already mentioned in other answers and I'm unable to compare)

是否有关于每个工人效率的统计数据?即使他多拿了两倍的薪水,但多做了四倍的工作(因为基础设施、技术、组织、职业道德等方面的改善),他的成本还是比较低。

这只是猜测,但给人的印象是,中国在大规模生产方面组织得更好,拥有训练有素的劳动力。在我看来,印度的高等教育很有竞争力,但基础教育缺乏质量和覆盖范围,这反过来又使印度在高技能工作(医药等)方面的竞争力超过了大量生产、雇佣受教育程度较低的劳动力的竞争力。

(另外其他答案中提到的官僚作风、交通等,我没有能力作比较)

 

Sourav Datta, trying to look at the "Bigger Picture"

Its just a simple concept of Economics called Economies of Scale.

Once you have the infrastructure ready for mass production, the quantities produced is not proportional to cost anymore. The cost increases very less per additional quantity. Hence the cheaper price in China.

这只是一个简单的经济学概念,叫做规模经济。

一旦你有了大规模生产的基础设施,生产的数量不再与成本成正比。每增加一笔数量,费用增加得就少得多。因此中国的价格更便宜。

 

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Aditya Pareek, former Software Engineer at Capgemini India (2012-2015)

In first 30 years of independence India and China had a similar growth pattern. Both India and China have put in place industrial policy in 1980s and 1990s, but in China Deng Xiaoping declared that it did not matter whether cat was black or white so long it caught mice. India had many more demands of industrial cat not just the simple business of catching mice. It should preferably a go nment owned, located in industrially backward area, be small scale in its operation and use indigenous mice catching technology as well as capital equipment. Inevitably, India hobbled in manufacturing sector while China becomes the worlds factory.

在独立后的前30年,印度和中国的增长模式相似。印度和中国都在上世纪80年代和90年代实施了产业政策,但在中国,邓宣布,不管黑猫白猫,只要能抓老鼠,就是好猫。印度需要更多的工业猫,不仅仅是能够抓老鼠。最好是在工业落后地区由政府拥有、小规模经营和使用本国老鼠捕捉技术以及资本设备的国有企业。不可避免的是,印度在制造业上步履蹒跚,而中国已经成为世界工厂。

 

Shuo Yang, Coding peasant and civil economist

because India's infrastructure is very terrible and India is not business-friendly, which makes manufacturing expensive.

因为印度的基础设施非常糟糕,而且印度对商业不友好,这使得制造业成本很高。

 

Vdhay Kumar N, B.E Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Bangalore University (2001)

For costing of any product includes design, raw materials, production cost, labour cost, transportation charges finally taxes at various stages.

In countries like india we tax raw materials double/ triple/ quadraple times plus service charges. with transportation the raw materials cost triples again service tax. Best example is oil and gas which doesn't cost beyond 1 Rupee is exaggerated to 72 rupees per liter. The number of hands we change that many times we pay service tax at 18% rate.

Man power is cheap in india as well as china and that is not a big concern as we get more automised rely on workers for quality reduces and rejections also reduce.

任何产品的成本包括设计成本、原材料成本、生产成本、人工成本、运输费用以及各个阶段的税金。

在印度这样的国家,我们对原材料征收双倍/三倍/四倍的税,外加服务费。加上运输成本,原材料成本上升了三倍,还有服务税。最好的例子是成本不到1卢比的石油和天然气,每升价格被夸大到72卢比。我们重复缴纳了多次18%的服务税。

人力资源在印度和中国都很便宜,这并不是一个大问题,因为我们越来越依赖于自动化,这保证了质量,不良率也下降了。

China is a co unist country which can impose its will to do on its people and discipline them with law. The mass production system they follow is reducing their cost. Since most companies are go nment owned even though they don't tax they get hugh profit to refund the go nment.

chinese go nment made many trade pacts with different countried to sell their products at lowest prices. And this the main reason for economic slowdown.

Slowing down the productivity will increase the cost of product so they dump every where around the world again and again.

中国是一个国家,可以把自己的意志强加给人民,用法律来约束他们。他们采用的大规模生产系统降低了成本。由于大多数公司都是政府所有的,即使他们不征税,他们也能得到丰厚的利润来偿还政府。

中国制定了许多不同国家的贸易协定,试图以最低的价格出售他们的产品。这是经济放缓的主要原因。

降低生产率会增加产品成本,因此他们会一次又一次地向世界各地倾销产品。

 

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