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印度和中国的教育体系有何不同

What is the difference between the education system of India and China?

印度和中国的教育体系有何不同?

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来源:三泰虎    http://www.santaihu.com/46048.html       译者:Joyceliu

外文链接:https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-the-education-system-of-India-and-China

Shubham Goel, studied at School / Facebook

Indian Education

Indian culture is ruled by three things : peace, love and religion. As a country, India has never invaded a foreign land for 5000 years. It is deeply part of Indian culture that you should mind the others, and never be aggressive. It is actually the first thing that shoked me when I arrived there, how peaceful it made me feel.

Education is the same, families are very close, and parents are being extremely tolerant with their kids. They will still give the guidelines to a good education, they know what is good and what is bad and they teach it to their kids, but I have always seen parents finally backing down to the will of their kids. If the kid wants a new toy, they’ll buy it ; if the kid does not want to finish it’s food, well, that’s ok. If he likes to do this, does not like to do this, his desires will always be fulfilled. In western culture, this would create bad kids and eventually criminals, but in an Indian society so deeply filled with love and family values, it just works fine.

印度的教育

印度文化由三样东西统治:和平、爱和宗教。作为一个国家,印度5000年来从未入侵过外国领土。你应该关爱别人,永远不要咄咄逼人,这是印度文化根深蒂固的一部分。当我到达印度的时候,这是第一件让我震惊的事情,让我感到非常平静。

教育也是一样的,家庭成员之间很亲密,父母对孩子非常宽容。他们知道什么是好的,什么是坏的,他们会把这些教给孩子,但我总是看到父母最终会对孩子的意愿让步。如果孩子想要一个新玩具,他们会买;如果孩子不想吃完食物,没关系。如果他喜欢这样做,不喜欢这样做,他的愿望总是会得到满足。在西方文化中,这可能会造就坏孩子,最终成为罪犯,但在一个充满爱和家庭价值观的印度社会中,这种做法很管用。

Chinese Education

The common point is that Chinese culture also has strong family values, the kids are under their parents rule pretty much from the time they were born to the moment their parent pass away. But the major difference is that Chinese parents are much more strict. Parents make the rules and kids obey. And it is the same in School, teachers have a much stronger authority that they would have in the West, it would be very unusual to contradict a teacher, and learning is mostly made out of repeating.

So what are the consequences, well, I think you saw it coming, Indians are more creative, and generally more open minded than Chinese. I have seen many lower / middle class Indian with amazing knowledge about my own country’s politics for example, whereas I have hardly ever seen that among Chinese. But Chinese are much more focused, they follow the rules, and I feel they have a stronger ability to focus on one particular task and master it perfectly.

中国的教育

相似之处在于,中国文化也有很强的家庭价值观,孩子从出生到父母去世几乎都是在父母的管制之下。但主要的区别是中国父母要严格得多。父母制定规则,孩子们遵守。在学校也是一样的,老师拥有比西方老师更强大的权威,反驳老师的行为是离经叛道的,而学习几乎就是不断的重复。

那么后果是什么呢,我想你已经预见到了,印度人比中国人更有创造力,更开明。例如,我见过许多印度中下阶层的人,他们对自己国家的政治有着惊人的了解,而我却很少在中国人当中看到这种情况。但中国人更专注,他们遵守规则,我觉得他们有更强的能力专注于一个特定的任务,并完美地掌握它。

 

Anshu, works at Studying

Chinese education system consists of six years of primary school, three of lower secondary and three of upper secondary. The state mandates every child to attend nine years of school - six years of primary and three of lower secondary. At age 15, they are "empowered" to choose their upper secondary program in either academic or vocational fields.Shanghai model adopts the mission of equipping children with the core skills of learning and curiosity and the ability to disseminate information.

In india there is lack in assessing existing data on learning outcomes.focused and step-by-step system of school education reform, it is indeed possible to aim at a bank of holistic schools in our indian cities. There is a lot need to get improved. Beggning from the syllabus & their area of interest.many students here are compelled to study the stream entirely opposite of their intrest.syllabus needs to be upgraded as indian syllabus is outdated one.

中国的教育体系包括6年的小学教育、3年的初中教育和3年的高中教育。中国规定每个孩子学满九年义务教育——小学6年,初中3年。在15岁的时候,他们可以选择继续升学高中深造或进入职业领域的高级中学课程。上海模式的使命是让孩子具备学习、好奇心和传播信息的能力。

在印度,对学习成果的现有数据缺乏评估。学校教育系统集中和逐步进行改革,确实有可能在我们的印度城市建立一些全面的学校。我们有很多地方需要改进。从教学大纲和他们感兴趣的领域出发。这里的许多学生被迫学习与他们兴趣完全相反的课程。教学大纲需要升级,因为印度的教学大纲已经过时了。

 

Vinayak Manoji, Civil Service Aspirant/GATE/IES friend, Motivator, IITDian,

At the time of independence in 1947 and liberation in 1949, India and China, respectively, faced the educational problem massive illiteracy. China and India are the two largest higher education systems in the world with a total enrollment of 2.91 crore and 2.67 crore students, respectively. In 1980, the economies of China and India were almost the same in terms of gross domestic product (GDP). India's GDP per capita was, in fact, slightly higher than that of its much larger eastern neighbour. Then, the Chinese economy grew at an average rate of 10 per cent between 1980 and 2010, leaving India far behind. In fact, Chinese manufacturing sector is presently eight times the size of India's. In 1982, the literacy rate in China was 64.4 per cent, compared to India's 37. The average years of schooling in China was far higher than that in India then. In every measure, China was far better than India.

Indian higher education system is highly concentrated at the undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree level. In fact, with 1.98 crore students, it is the largest system in the world in terms of undergraduate enrollment as compared to 1.27 crore in China and 1.04 crore in the U.S. As a proportion of the total student enrollment in higher education, India has nearly 75% of all its students pursuing a bachelor’s degree as compared to 43% for China and half for the U.S.

在1947年独立和1949年解放的时候,印度和中国都面临着教育问题,都有大量的文盲。中国和印度是世界上最大的两个高等教育体系,两国的在校生人数分别为2.91亿和2.67亿。1980年,中国和印度的经济在国内生产总值(GDP)方面几乎相同。事实上,印度的人均GDP略高于其大得多的东部邻国。当时,中国经济在1980年至2010年期间平均增长10%,远远落后于印度。事实上,中国制造业目前的规模是印度的8倍。1982年,中国的识字率为64.4%,而印度为37%。那时,中国的平均教育年限远高于印度。无论从哪个方面看,中国都远远好于印度。

印度的高等教育体系高度集中于本科(学士)学位。事实上,1980万的学生是世界上最大的本科生群体,相比之下中国只有1270万,美国仅有1040万。印度有将近75%的学生获得学士学位,中国有43%,美国有50%。

This concentration at the undergraduate level is quite unique to India not only due to three-year degree in Arts, Science and Commerce, which form more than 85% of all undergraduate enrollments. However, availability of too many bachelor’s degree holders for a smaller economy as compared to China or the U.S., has created a situation of credential inflation, which simply means, devaluation of a degree with time due to oversupply of graduates. This is evident from many unemployed and underemployed college graduates. It also reflects poor quality of education and skills imparted at many institutions. Despite smaller population and size of higher education system as compared to China, India has more than double the number of students at postgraduate level (27 lakhs vs. 12 lakhs).

At the vocational education level, India with young and ambitious population is missing the opportunity of engaging them as a part of the mainstream economic growth through manufacturing. This is where China leaped forward and engaged the masses through low-cost, volume-based manufacturing. However, China did not achieve this by chance; instead it expanded vocational education system to develop a skilled manpower base for manufacturing related activities. China enrolls nearly 96 Lakhs students in vocational education as compared to 40 Lakhs in India.

这种本科层次的集中在印度是非常独特的,不仅因为三年的艺术、科学和商业学位构成了85%以上的本科入学人数。然而,与中国或美国相比,印度经济规模较小,却有太多的学士学位持有者,造成了文凭通货膨胀的局面,简单地说,就是由于毕业生供过于求,学位随时间贬值。从许多失业和未充分就业的大学毕业生身上就可以明显看出这一点。它也反映了许多机构教育质量和传授的技能差。尽管与中国相比,印度高等教育系统的人口和规模更小,但印度的研究生人数是中国的两倍多(270万比120万)。

在职业教育层面,印度年轻且有抱负的人口正错失通过制造业让他们成为主流经济增长的一部分的机会。在这里,中国跃跃欲试,通过低成本、以产量为基础的制造业吸引了大众。然而,中国并不是偶然实现这一目标的;相反,它扩大了职业教育体系,为制造业相关活动建立了熟练的人力基础。中国有近960万名学生接受职业教育,而印度只有400万。

 

Abhishek Khanna, Architect

China raised the bar for entry to the teaching profession in the 1990s. All primary school teachers needed a diploma and all teachers in secondary schools had to be degree-holders with professional certification. China was the first forward-thinking district to mandate continuous professional training for its teachers. Every teacher is expected to complete 240 hours of professional development in five years.

上世纪90年代,中国提高了教师行业的准入门槛。所有小学教师都需要文凭,所有中学教师都必须持有专业证书。中国是第一个要求对教师进行持续专业培训的有远见的国家。每位教师都需在五年内完成240小时的专业培训。

As evidenced in China, through a well-thought out, focused and step-by-step system of school education reform, it is indeed possible to aim at a bank of holistic schools in our cities. But for that our schools and the systems which govern them may have to go through a crucible of experimentation and be brave about embracing innovation and partnership.

正如中国所证明的那样,通过深思熟虑的、集中的、按部就班的学校教育改革体系,确实有可能在我们的城市建立一批综合性学校。但要做到这一点,我们的学校和管理系统可能必须经历考验,勇敢地拥抱创新和伙伴关系。

 

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