三泰虎

从佛教经文到东印度公司再到如今,“达利特”已经走过了很长的路

From Buddhist texts to East India Company to now, ‘Dalit’ has come a long way

从经文到东印度公司再到如今,“达利特”已经走过了很长的路

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NEW DELHI: Like the much-discussed symbol of their martial triumph over caste Hindus — Bhima Koregaon — even the word ‘Dalit’ has a British link.

新德里:就像众人热议的印度人对种姓印度教徒的军事胜利的象征——比玛·科瑞冈一样,“达利特”这个词也与英国有关。

It was an army officer of the East India Company, J J Molesworth, who mentioned the word Dalit in a Marathi-English dictionary way back in 1831. It was also used by radical reformer Jyotiba Phule and recorded for contemporary use and for posterity by the British.

1831年,东印度公司的一名军官J J Molesworth在一本马拉地英语词典中提到了达利特这个词。它也被激进的改革家Jyotiba Phule使用,并被英国人记录下来供当代和后世使用。

JNU sociologist Vivek Kumar traced the roots of the word to further back in history. “Dalit is found in Buddhist text Culluvagga Vinaya Pittaka,” he said.

尼赫鲁大学的社会学家Vivek Kumar追溯了这个词的历史渊源。他说:“达利特这个词是在经文Culluvagga Vinaya Pittaka中发现的。”

To many Indians, the word Dalit is inextricably linked to Bahujan Sj Party. Its founder Kanshi Ram travelled the length and breadth of the country using the term to mobilise the caste base and to unify the community in its struggle for self-respect. Younger observers identify the word with the volatile debates of the 1990s, when BSP burst on to the national scene in a po itical assertion, accompanied by harsh attacks on Mahatma Gandhi and his coinage ‘Harijan’.

对许多印度人来说,达利特这个词与社会党有着千丝万缕的联系。社会党的创始人Kanshi Ram走遍了印度各地,用这个词来动员种姓群体,团结社会力量,争取自尊。年轻的观察人士将这个词与上世纪90年代激烈的辩论联系在一起。当时,社会党以一种主张突然出现在全国舞台上,同时对圣雄甘地及其造词“哈里发”(神的子民,也即贱民)进行了猛烈抨击。

What Kanshi Ram did was to pit ‘Dalit’ ag inst ‘Harijan’ and dub the latter as patronizing and humiliating. “If we are god’s children, are caste Hindus the children of the de l?” he, and his prege Mayawati would repeatedly ask. The message did the trick and Dalits rallied around the blue banner.

Kanshi Ram所做的就是让“达利特”对抗“哈里发”,并称后者是傲慢和羞辱的。“如果我们是神的子民,种姓印度教徒是魔鬼的孩子吗?”他和他的门徒马雅瓦蒂不断地问。消息奏效了,达利特聚集在蓝色横幅星期围。

To greying heads, though, this was familiar trope from earlier decades when Dalit Panthers first emerged. In 1972, Namdeo Dhasal and his colleagues formed the outfit and the Maharashtra-based group consecrated Dalit in the subaltern discourse.

不过,对于那些头发灰白的老人来说,这是几十年前达利特黑豹党首次出现时人们就熟悉的说辞。1972年,Namdeo Dhasal和他的同事们成立了总部位于马哈拉施特拉邦的这个组织。

However, Dalit Panthers and BSP borrowed from over 200 years of history during which the ‘untouchables’ moved from accepting discrimination as fate to fighting for equality. It started with a search for identity away from the one ordained by re gious tradition. The community was variously referred to as “asprashya” (untouchable), “antaj” (last born), “antwaseen” (residing last).

然而,达利特黑豹党和社会党借鉴了200多年的历史,在这段历史中,“贱民”从接受歧视变成了为平等而战。它开始于对脱离传统的身份的寻求。这个社区被称为“不可触碰的”(贱民),“antaj”(最后出生),“antwaseen”(最后居住)。

The 19th century revo tionary reformer Jyotiba Phule used “shudras and ati-shudras”, and “Dalit and pat-Dalit” to refer to backwards and ‘untouchables’.

19世纪的改革家Jyotiba Phule使用了“shudras and ati-shudras”和“Dalit and pat-Dalit”等字眼来指代“贱民”。

Like Phule, it again took a radical emancipator, B R Ambedkar, to put the word Dalit in currency. In 1935, Ambedkar used the term in a pamphlet to organise a congregation of ‘untouchables’. However, Ambedkar himself preferred to call his community “Depressed Classes” — that he used regularly during his lobbying with the English for the community.

和Phule一样,达利特这个词也被激进的解放者B R Ambedkar所用。1935年,Ambedkar在一本小册子中使用了这个词来组织一个“贱民”集会。然而,Ambedkar自己更愿意称他的社区为“最下层人民”——他在与英国人为社区游说时经常使用这个称呼。

The 1920s reflected a stress on indigenous roots — ati-Hindu, ati-Dravida, ati-Andhra, ati-Karnataka. A rebellious Manguram Walia in Punjab called the untouchables ‘ad-dharma’. There was also an adi-Hindu movement in Uttar Pradesh.

20世纪20年代反映了对本土根源的强调——印度教、德拉维达、阿提安德拉、阿提卡纳塔克邦。旁遮普邦一名反叛的曼古拉姆·瓦利亚(Manguram Walia)称“贱民”是“达尔玛”(ad-dharma)。北方邦还发生了一场印度教联盟运动。

The drtic emergence of two national platforms — Mahatma Gandhi and Congress — ensured the Dalit movement changed course. After Gandhi brought out ‘Harijan’ newspaper, Congress became the vehicle to spread the term. At the same time, the 1935 India Act clubbed ‘untouchables’ under a Schedule — and thus was born the label, “Scheduled Castes”.

圣雄甘地和国大党这两大全国性运动平台的戏剧性出现,确保了达利特运动改弦更张。在甘地出版《神的子民》之后,国大党成为传播这个词的工具。与此同时,1935年的《印度法》在一个目录下增加了“贱民”——因此诞生了“表列种姓”的标签。

The term SCs stuck, and spread. But it was offi alese, impersonal, bereft of the punch a subaltern identity seeks. But it proved a long wait as Congress went about co-opting Dalit platforms and blunting the radical edge of the movement. Till the militant-intellectual Dalit Panthers movement arrived in 1970.

表列种姓这个术语自此存在并传播开来。但这是公文用语,一点人情味都没有。但事实证明,这是一场漫长的等待,因为国大党开始选择达利特的政纲,并削弱该运动的激进边缘势力。直到军事知识分子达利特黑豹运动在1970年出现。

As the Panthers splintered, Dalit movements disappeared. But the irreversible activism in the community sustained the word itself. And then came the BSP and its militant tone.

随着黑豹党,达利特运动消失了。但社区内不可逆转的激进主义让这个词本身维持了热度。接下来社会党及其好战的语气。

印度时报读者评论:

来源:三泰虎     http://www.santaihu.com/45990.html      译者:Joyceliu

外文链接:https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/from-buddhist-texts-to-east-india-company-to-now-dalit-has-come-a-long-way/articleshow/65678182.cms

BM

"Congress went about co-opting Dalit platforms", instead of killing off caste sy em, Congress divided Hindus in 5000 castes, sub-castes etc, today, Mus ms are the majority community in India.

“国大党为了达利特平台而努力”,而不是消种姓制,国大党把印度教徒分成了5000个种姓,现在,是印度的主要群体。

 

S C Visveshwar Bji

Dalits are misused by alien re gions, Dr. Ambedkar showed the way out and got converted into Desi re gion, but alien re gion use Ambedkar photos and word Dalit to attract and converting. And this alien re gions are fuelling hatreism in upper castes ag inst Dalits ( reason is showing jobs And promotions in go nment jobs to Dalits) .

达利特被外来利用,安贝德卡博士指明了出路并皈依了德西教,但外来使用安贝德卡的照片和达利特这个词来吸引信徒皈依。这种外来的正在助长上层种姓对达利人的仇恨主义(原因是向达利人展示政府工作岗位和晋升机会)。

 

Jay

Hinduism is a concept cult of brahmins . The dalits and tribals were nature worship or animist by re gion before brahmins came and forcefully converted them to Hinduism using them as a sl ve for several decades. And I am one of that victim. I am not even joking!

印度教是对婆罗门的一种概念崇拜。在婆罗门出现,强迫他们皈依印度教并将他们作为使用了几十年之前,达利特和部落因而崇拜大自然或万物有灵论者。我也是受害者之一。我不是在开玩笑!

 

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