Who won the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971?




来源:三泰虎     http://www.santaihu.com/45934.html      译者:Joyceliu


Ratul Mahfuz, Freelancer and Creative Communication Consultant

If you say it “Indo - Pakistani War”, I must say Pakistan won the war; but India was not also been defeated.




Because at that time, Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan which was known as “East Pakistan”. In fact, the war was between the “East Pakistan “ and “West Pakistan”. East Pakistani people demanded their sovereignty and the West Pakistani rulers tried to oppress the movement by killing the East Pakistani people. India took the side of East Pakistani people for several political reasons and their own interests. Finally, East Pakistan own the war and an independent Bangladesh was born. So, if we we name it “Indo Pakistan war”, a part of Pakistan won the war, not India.


In fact, if you particularly mention the year “1971”, then the war was not between India and Pakistan. It was between the Eastern wing and the Western wing of Pakistan, which is widely known as the “Liberation War of Bangladesh”. In that liberation war, East Pakistan defeated West Pakistan and finally Bangladesh was born as an independent country.



Jacques Văn Khải, Fond of Foreign Affairs, relations buff

India did manage a victory by securing Bangladesh independence though



Shubham Jindal, I know about International Relations

India won the war as Bangladesh became independent but Pakistan continues to claim it won the war



Astha Kaushik, studied International Economics at University of London

India and Bangladesh. It was a decisive Indian victory.



Balakrishna Chadalawada

Pakistan surrendered Bangladesh with 90000 of it's soldiers. There was no contest at all.



Jack Pal, Global Affairs major, born and raised in South Asian family

The bangladeshis and India won



John Leone, former Retired at US Army Infantry (1983-1989)

Im assuming you are speaking of the Indo-Pakistani war, if so Indo won and Pakistani surrendered.



SP Shetty, History Lover

Definitely Bangladeshis won (with help from India), in fact they are economically stronger than Pakistan today.



Ravi Barnwal, Executive at HMSI (2015-present)

Given the outcome and costs incurred, Bangladesh.



Eli Rothleder

The Indians won. Pakistani forces in the east surrendered, liberating Bangladesh and making it an independent nation, and a ceasefire in the west with Pakistan itself



Abhijeet Ganguly

This picture is saying everything. AAK Niazi singing the instrument of surrender, one of the biggest military surrender.



Yes, you guessed it right. India won the war.



Usman Waqar, Volunteering

1971 was not an indo- pak war. It was war against Pakistan by Bengalis who were misguided by Indian and provoked them against Pakistan establishment . India trained muktibani the terrorist wing of bengalis which carries carried out huge massacre of innocent people and blamed Pakistan Army for . Which made bengalis more angry and intrun they fought against Pakistan. Hence Bangladesh was created . It was a loss to Pakistan, but not purely a win to India becz they didn't capture Bangladesh.



Nabeel Rehman, Resident Engineer

Well is it really that hard to know? Or are you asking to feel good about it?


Yes sure India won. They cut Pakistan in half, and they seem to b trying In Baluchistan too.


If that didn't make you feel better, recently Indian PM gifted a picture of Pakistan's surrender to the Bangladeshi PM.


Feeling good?



Talha Zafar, works at Noble Science College

16th December is the day of tragic memory when Pakistan was dismembered and a new state of Bangladesh was created in 1971 as part of Indian conspiracy which still continues against the integration of Pakistan.


India has a long-gone history of many centuries, based upon religious prejudice against the Muslims. In this respect, Indian intelligence agency, RAW which was founded in 1968, has assumed a significant status as invisible actor in formulation of India’s domestic, regional and global policies, particularly directed against Pakistan.


Hindus give credit to Indira Gandhi who in the late 1970s gave RAW a new role to suit her ‘Indira Doctrine’ specifically asking it to undertake covert operations in neighboring countries, especially Pakistan which comprises majority of Muslims. RAW was given a green signal to mobilize all its resources by exploiting political turmoil in East Pakistan in 1971 which this agency had created through its agents who provided Bengalis with arms and ammunition for conducting guerrilla acts against the Pakistani defense forces.


Regarding the separation of East Pakistan, Indian RAW had unleashed a well-organized plan of psychological warfare, creation of polarization among the armed forces, propaganda by false allegations against West Pakistan, creation of differences between the political parties and religious sects of East and West Pakistan, control of media, manipulating linguistic, political and economic disputes in order to malign the Bengalis against Islamabad.


There is no doubt that one can note political, economic and social disparities almost in every Third World country. India, itself, contains these disparities on larger scale. In seven states of India, separatist movements are at work. But, New Delhi which has not recognized the existence of Pakistan since partition, left no stone unturned in planting and exploiting differences between the people of East and West Pakistan.


RAW has a long history of sinister activities in the East Pakistan, backing secular areas of Hindu minority who had played an important role in motivating Bengali Muslims against West Pakistan. RAW’s well-paid agents had activated themselves in East Pakistan in the 1960’s so as to dismember Pakistan. For this aim, it took the responsibility of funding Sheikh Mujibur Rahmans’ general elections in 1970 and the members of his party, Awami League. It colluded with the pro-Indian persons and had paid full attention in training and arming the Mukti Bahnis. RAW, playing with the bloodshed of Muslims, succeeded in initiating a civil war in East Pakistan. However, huge quantity of arms started entering East Pakistan along with the guideline of Indian army and RAW. Meanwhile, India welcomed the refugees from East Pakistan, providing them with every facility to provocate them against West Pakistan.

印度情报机构在东巴基斯坦有很长一段邪恶的活动历史,支持印度教 的世俗地区,这些人在煽动孟加拉反对西巴基斯坦方面发挥了重要作用。印度情报机构的高薪特工20世纪60年代在东巴基斯坦活跃,肢解巴基斯坦。为了实现这一目标,它承担了资助Sheikh Mujibur Rahmans 1970年普选和他的政党人民联盟成员的责任。它与亲印度的人勾结,在训练和武装穆克提·巴希尼方面给予充分注意。印度情报机构玩弄的流血冲突,成功地在东巴基斯坦发动了一场内战。然而,随着印度军队的指引,大量武器开始进入东巴基斯坦。与此同时,印度欢迎来自东巴基斯坦的难民,向他们提供一切设施,以煽动他们反对西巴基斯坦。

Majib was already in connivance with India for separation of East Pakistan. In this connection, Asoka Raina in his book, ‘Inside RAW: The Story of India’s Secret Service’, discloses, “Indian intelligence agencies were involved in erstwhile East Pakistan…its operatives were in touch with Sheikh Mujib as the possible ‘Father’ of a new nation-Bangladesh, who went to Agartala in 1965. The famous Agartala case was unearthed in 1967. In fact, the main purpose of raising RAW in 1968 was to organise covert operations in Bangladesh. Indian army officers and RAW officials used Bengali refugees to set up Mukti Bahini. Using this outfit as a cover, Indian military sneaked deep into East Pakistan…the story of Mukti Bahini and RAW’s role in its creation and training is now well-known.”

Majib已经与印度达成协议,将东巴基斯坦分离。在这方面,Asoka Raina在他的书《在印度情报机构的日子: 印度秘密活动的内幕》中披露,“印度情报机构插手了东巴基斯坦事务……它的特工与Sheikh Mujib有联系,他也许是新国家孟加拉国的“国父”,于1965年前往阿加塔拉。1967年爆发了著名的阿格塔拉案件。事实上,1968年印度情报机构的主要目的是在孟加拉国组织秘密行动。印度军官和原始官利用孟加拉难民建立了穆克提·巴希尼。印度军方利用这一组织作为掩护,潜入东巴基斯坦……穆克提·巴希尼和劳在创建和训练中所扮演的角色的故事现在已经广为人知。

It is mentionable that before the 1971 war, Mujibur Rahman, had announced a separate national flag for East Pakistan in his six points which also included that currency of East Pakistan should be different along with a separate military.


His six points created prejudice among Bengali people especially against West Pakistan. The famous slogan, during his addresses and rallies was, “Punjabi dogs go back.” It was due to Mujib’s instigation that besides Punjabis, Bengalis had also tortured and killed Biharis, Pashtoons and Balochis, while their women were raped.


In this respect, a well-known Bengali journalist Sarmila Bose authored a book, “Dead Reckoning: Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War” after thorough investigation. Her book was published in 2011. While countering exaggeration of the Indian and Bengali Journalists, Bose argues that the number of Bengalis killed in 1971 was not three million, but around 50,000, while Bengalis were equally involved in the bloodshed of non-Bengalis.

在这方面,一位著名的孟加拉记者Sarmila Bose在经过彻底调查后,写了一本书,名为《死亡清算:1971年孟加拉战争的回忆》。她的书于2011年出版。在反驳印度和孟加拉记者夸大其词的同时,Bose认为1971年杀害的孟加拉人不是300万,而是只有大约5万人,而孟加拉人同样参与了非孟加拉人的流血事件。

It is notable that East Pakistan tragedy was not a military defeat, as it was a political defeat, because politicians refused to accommodate each other in accordance with the election-results so as to obtain their political interests.


Despite this, Indian preplanned plot and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman negative role cannot be ignored. It could be judged from the fact that when East Pakistan was occupied by Indian Army in 1971, Majib stated with pleasure that his 24 years old dream of an independent Bangladesh had been fulfilled.


Undoubtedly, India had played a key role in the fall of Dhaka, which culminated in dismemberment of Pakistan. Even at present, Indian RAW has been implementing Indian hidden agenda by supporting separatism in Balochistan, and insurgency in various regions in order to further weaken or disintegrate the federation of Pakistan



Harihara Sudhan, Junior Student, Computer Science

India won.


India entered the war due to the preemptive air strikes. Saudi Arabia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Indonesia tried to assist Pakistan. But the Pakistani forces were no match to the Indian counterparts.


India lost a naval aircraft, suffered damage in the western airfields, lost 45 IAF aircrafts and around 4,000 casualties were reported. In the Pakistani side, 9,000 solider lost their lives, more than 20,000 wounded and around 100,000 were captured. It lost 2 destroyers, 75 PAF aircrafts and even a submarine. Pakistani airfields and Karachi port were damaged.

印度损失了一架海军飞机,飞机在西部机场受损,印度空军损失了45架飞机,大约有4000人伤亡。在巴基斯坦方面,9 000名士兵丧生,2万多人受伤,约10万人被俘。它损失了2艘驱逐舰,75架巴基斯坦空军飞机,甚至一艘潜艇。巴基斯坦机场和卡拉奇港口遭到破坏。

It led to the formation of Bangladesh after Pakistan surrendered.



Hadeed Ajmal Khan Swati

India won but it gained no benefit from this war.


After Independence from the British, Pakistan came out as a state divided by geography. Now a thing about East Pakistan is that it was less developed compared to West Pakistan. The developed portion of Bengal was hindu majority (West Bengal) and it became a part of India. East Pakistan needed serious investment and development.


In simple words, since India was now out of the game, West Pakistan now had the responsibility to develop East Pakistan using its own money and resources. Bangladesh was a burden for Pakistan. It was underdeveloped with a huge population. So in such a situation, It was a blessing in disguise for Pakistan when India chose to enter the civil war and remove the tumor that was known as East Pakistan.


Without India’s interference Pakistan would have to spent billions of dollars on developing Bangladesh and to contain the separatist insurgency which would have gotten worse with time. Bangladesh would have bankrupted Pakistan in the long-run and the entire country would explode but then again, India leadership at that time was much more interested in spiting Pakistan than to care about its long-term interests and benefits.


And Bangladesh wasn’t quite thankful for the help it got from India. After independence, Bangladesh inherited the border disputes that Pakistan had with India and these disputes or on the table up to this day. Many separatist insurgencies in India’s Eastern states were harbored and supported by Bangladesh. Bangladesh only behaved well when Awami League was in power.


So dear India, I am very thankful towards you for saving my country from economic collapse and bankruptcy and making our problems your own by “liberating” Bangladesh.



Sumon Salahuddin, CEO, Styletex Asia

First of All, the 1971 War of Independence was not merely an Indo-Pak war. You have to go back a few more decades to get the real history unveiled. Despite the fact that Hindus and Muslims had long been living in the Indian subcontinent for centuries, The British India had been separated into two states based on religion.


Bangladesh (used to be East Bengal before 1947) became east Pakistan although it did not share any boundary with the West Pakistan (1200 miles away), neither did its people share the same culture and Language.


In 1948, the Father of the Nation of Pakistan, Mr Zinnah, during his first visit to Dhaka after it became east pakistan’s capital, declared, “Urdu and only Urdu will be the state Language of Pakistan”. On that very day, Bangladeshi people knew Pakistan was not meant for them. In 1952 on the 21st of February, students in Dhaka took to the streets demanding Bengali to be declared as the state Language of Pakistan besides Urdu.


They spared their blood to establish the right of their Language. (21st February is now observed by the UN all over the world as the International Mother Language Day).


That was the first victory, In 1966, during the Ayub Khan’s military re gie, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib, on behalf of the people of the east placed 6 points demand that contained provincial autonomy among other fundamental rightS of the people. He had been sent to jail and demands were ignored by the Junta.


In 1969, the Junta faced a mass upsurge in Dhaka in favoring of Democracy. The military administration, mainly composed of people from the West Pakistan, was forced to hold election in November 1970 which elected Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib as the majority leader of the people of whole of Pakistan by a huge margin.


The Military rulers were reluctant to hand over the power to the people’s leader resulting in non stop peaceful protests across the country followed by rallies in Dhaka on the 7th March 1971 which was attended by millions of people where Sheikh Mujib unofficially declared Independence of the country had the military not accept people’s mandate.


To suppress the people’s demand, the Junta conducted the Operation Search Light on 25th March 1971 and killed thousands of people in Dhaka prompting the official declaration of Independence of Bangladesh in the following hours.


From 26th March till 16th of December 1971, a nine month long bloody war was fight between the then mighty Pak army and the world’s bravest fre m fighters of Bangladesh.


Bangladesh is the direct result of the blood bath of those millions of fre m fighters and civilians who were brutally killed by the Pak Army. The Bangladesh liberation force was comprised of not only trained guerilas it also the peasants, the farmers, students , women.


The then mightly Pak army was being badly defeated in every single districts. Many of the districts were starting to become free during late November.


India came forward and helped the people of Bangladesh in their fight for fre m by not only allowing and feeding more than 10 million helpless refugees but also by providing training and ammunition to the Freedom Fighters of Bangladesh during the 9-month long guerrilla war.


It was only on the 6th of December (if i am not mistaken) that Indian Army formally joined the Freedom Fighters to help them achieve their obvious victory after 9 month long resistance. It is a matter of fact that with India’s support, Bangladesh achieved fre m faster (16th December), but it is similarly true that Bangladeshi Freedom Fighters would have achieved their fre m one way or the other, no matter how long it would take.


While we appreciate and are grateful for the rule of India, its people and the great leadership of Indira Gandhi during that period, it is no way acceptable to us when some Indian try to portray this victory as their own against the Pakistani Soldiers.

尽管我们对印度的统治、印度人民以及英迪拉·甘地(Indira Gandhi)在那段时期的伟大领导表示赞赏和感激,但当一些印度人试图将这场胜利描述为他们自己对巴基斯坦士兵的胜利时,我们绝不能接受。

When we see our biggest pride, the 1971 War of Liberation being branded as an Indo Pak war, our heart bleeds.


Its the fre m fighters and the people of Bangladesh who liberated themselves, its not that India liberated the people of Bangladesh. Off course, India helped as great friends do, and we will always remember and appreciate that, but it is not acceptable to see our achievement being undermined.



Devan Nayar, former Administrative

Pakistan won the war. It became a compact, lean and mean country. India may have technically won the war, but it was Pyrrhic victory in which we lost men and materials heavily and got nothing in return, except for another potential enemy to our East and unending stream of migrants many of whom are potential terrorists and criminals. Had Pakistan kept East Pakistan, it would have gone bankrupt in trying to maintain East Pakistan by force. Pakistan would have no money, time or inclination to meddle in Kashmir or be a nuclear power. India actually performed a healing surgery on Pakistan, making it healthier, stronger and richer !!



Ahmed Hussain

Pakistani answer (no jokes/exaggerations/hate/sarcasm)


Short answer: India and Bangladesh


Long answer: India and Bangladesh collaborated and destroyed Pakistan severely, Pakistan lost 148,000 square kilometers of land (Bangladesh.)


Surprisingly, Pakistanis withstood severe pressure from India and Bangladesh. But, not for long of course, Pakistan did the worst and faced severe consequences.




Pakistan: About 9000 killed, 34,000 surrendered, 75 jets destroyed, Karachi beach damaged. 6 ships and 7 gunboats destroyed, PNS Ghazi/Submarine destroyed in a terrible accident. Airfields destroyed

巴基斯坦:大约9000人死亡,34000人投降,75架飞机被毁,卡拉奇海滩被毁。6艘船和7艘炮艇被毁,PNS Ghazi/潜水艇在一次可怕的事故中被毁。机场被摧毁了。

India: About 2000-4000 killed, 45 jets destroyed. Damage to air bases due to Pakistani Sabres bombing them out. 1 Naval aircraft destroyed.


Bangladesh: About 30,000 killed.


300,000 - 3,000,000 civillians killed. That range is huge. So we don’t know the true genocide number.

30万- 300万平民被杀。这个估算范围太大。所以我们不知道真正的种族灭绝的数字。

Highest casualties of all the Indo-Pak wars, just ahead of 1947 (about 7000 killed in 1947)


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