外文标题：Why India trails China in economic growth
Modern India is, in many ways, a success. Its claim to be the world's largest democracy is not hollow. Its media is vibrant and free; Indians buy more newspapers every day than any other nation. Since independence in 1947, life expectancy at birth has more than doubled, to 66 years from 32, and per-capita income (adjusted for inflation) has grown fivefold. In recent decades, reforms pushed up the country's once sluggish growth rate to around 8 percent per year, before it fell back a couple of percentage points over the last two years. For years, India's economic growth rate ranked second among the world's large economies, after China, which it has consistently trailed by at least 1 percentage point.
The hope that India might overtake China one day in economic growth now seems a distant one. But that comparison is not what should worry Indians most. The far greater gap between India and China is in the provision of essential public services — a failing that depresses living standards and is a persistent drag on growth.
Inequality is high in both countries, but China has done far more than India to raise life expectancy, expand general education and secure health care for its people. India has elite schools of varying degrees of excellence for the privileged, but among all Indians 7 or older, nearly one in every five males and one in every three females are illiterate. And most schools are of low quality; less than half the children can divide 20 by 5, even after four years of schooling.
India may be the world's largest producer of generic medicine, but its healthcare system is an unregulated mess. The poor have to rely on low-quality — and sometimes exploitative — private medical care, because there isn't enough decent public care. While China devotes 2.7 percent of its gross domestic product to government spending on health care, India allots 1.2 percent.
India's underperformance can be traced to a failure to learn from the examples of so-called Asian economic development, in which rapid expansion of human capability is both a goal in itself and an integral element in achieving rapid growth. Japan pioneered that approach, starting after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, when it resolved to achieve a fully literate society within a few decades. As Kido Takayoshi, a leader of that reform, explained: "Our people are no different from the Americans or Europeans of today; it is all a matter of education or lack of education."Through investments in education and health care, Japan simultaneously enhanced living standards and labor productivity - the government collaborating with the market.
Despite the catastrophe of Japan's war years, the lessons of its development experience remained and were followed, in the postwar period, by South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and other economies in East Asia. China, which during the Mao era made advances in land reform and basic education and health care, embarked on market reforms in the early 1980s; its huge success changed the shape of the world economy. India has paid inadequate attention to these lessons.
Is there a conundrum here that democratic India has done worse than China in educating its citizens and improving their health? Perhaps, but the puzzle need not be a brainteaser. Democratic participation, free expression and rule of law are largely realities in India, and still largely aspirations in China. India has not had a famine since independence, while China had the largest famine in recorded history, from 1958 to 1961, when Mao's disastrous Great Leap Forward killed some 30 million people. Nevertheless, using democratic means to remedy endemic problems - chronic undernourishment, a disorganized medical system or dysfunctional school systems - demands sustained deliberation, political engagement, media coverage, popular pressure. In short, more democratic process, not less.
Jasvir Singh (San Francisco CA US)
Because corrupt and selfish blood running virtually in each Vein though China is no better in corruption index than India but selfish attitude of nation and corrupt politicians are major hurdles.
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ConversionIsCrime (New York)
This man is paid chinese stooge. During Indo-China war he sided with Chinese. PS: He also Hinu-Hating SCUM.
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Defeat devil Italian (Truth Prevails)
Nehru, Indira, Rajiv, Sonia, and Rahul Ghandhi dynastic incompetence is the reason for India lacking China.
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mohansingh chawla (leicester ,uk) replies to Defeat devil Italian
China does not have habbit of exporting illegal citizens to other countries. This is our special right given to indians by lord brahma
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Defeat devil Italian replies to mohansingh
Dead Wrong. There are China Towns in almost all major US metroes. In 90s, US customs and border patrol used to unearth containers full of Chinese folks. What did you mean by illegal citizens? Before Hong Kong was taken over back by Chinese, tens of thousands of Chinese used to enter Hong Kong illegally. In 17th and 18th centries, several thousands of Chinese entered Japan illegally.
Because we have most corrupt government in power.
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The monstrous dam China has built can be the cause of a major catastrophe in the event of a massive flash flood and can bring the death toll to nearly half a billion and damage to unimagined height. I had once expressed that apprehension in New York Times when the dam was operational.
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PunebetterthanMumbai (Mumbai) replies to Avtaran
what about the massive black out India experienced last year. If India's electric grid is so easy to collapse then Pak Army can attack out blind spot. We need a dam like this in India.
India is a typical democratic banana republic.
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Sathian Thazhathidath (dxb)
Only one reason it is the rule or miss rule of successive congress government.
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Sumit Agarwal (Gwalior)
The reason why India is trailing China is because of our Inertia & inability to forget the "Glorious" Past Democracy is bound to be a bit slower The people who say "ye galat ho raha hai" are the reason behind this statement
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LS2014- Indology Vs Genealogy (India)
Date analysis aside. Japanese learned good things from all over the world, but they dint change their culture & traditions, they changed their habits. Whereas Indians (specially a political group), since post independence has been giving blind efforts to westernize their land. Indians adopted western cultures, but dint change their habits. Indians have got to relearn lot many things from its ancient wisdom, than from China.
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Let's not forget that the Chinese love their people and country. Without that, you have nothing.
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Ray (chile) replies to sloth_therancid
where did you read that the chinese love their people , the people have been oppressed for over 100yrs
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sloth replies to Ray
Sorry, I should have made that clearer. I wasn't suggesting that their "government" loves them...........
The article omits to mention Infrastructure - Roads, Expressways, Railways, Electricity and water supplies. We are decades behind China.Our biggest asset is also our biggest liability - being a democracy which has been prostituted by politicians
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BLR Vasant (BLR City)
The simplest, one-sentence answer to WHY is: China is NOT ruled by rotten third rated, spine-less, vote-bank, caste-religion, and mochi/muzzy class appeasing parties that we have in plenty and counting! Jai Ho PLA!
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INDIA DOES NOT TRAIL CHINA. IT IS STUPID TO EVEN COMPARW THEM. THOSE WHO TRY TO DO THAT KNOW NOTHING ABOUT CHINA. IS IS LIKE A COMPARISON OF A MOUSE WITH AN ELEPHANT.
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China is ruled by technocrats such as engineers. India, on the other hand, is ruled by politicians. This is one reason why things in China are done with technocratic efficiency. India, on the other hand, is chaotic and unplanned.
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This guy should go for a long extended holiday in Antarctica. He is not relevant anymore and better for him to be in cold storage.
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PunebetterthanMumbai (Mumbai) replies to Gopan
i agree this guy is Indian and supports china. F him!
brahmavishnumahendra (Hastinapur) replies to Gopan
learn to accomodate critisism, you may not like it, does not mean, he is wrong. remeber he is nobel lauret in economics.
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bcz the country has been led by congress donkeys since 1947, till this monstrous party is kicked out india is going to leg behind countries like brazil, mexico,south africa and so on
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American desi (NYC)
For folks who have had a chance to travel to Mainland China especially Shanghai - don't feel bad if u don't come to NYC ever. There is no comparison. Shanghai is way cleaner, prettier and with modern transportation system. I am saying that only because NYC is falling way behind in upgrading infrastructure though I luv my city. For those who think India can overtake China in next 100 years, keep having the nightmares.
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Subash Kumar (Hyderabad) replies to American desi
Everyone is running from China to the West as they are starving, no one from Europe or Japan Or Korea going to China. Most Chinese coming to North America collect the garbage here or work in the oldest profession. Chinese often drown to make it to the West. They are so deperate.
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PunebetterthanMumbai (Mumbai) replies to Subash Kumar
Subash, ppl in China and India immigrate to the west because of better standard of living. However the emigration rate in China is lower than India.
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M (INDIA) replies to American desi
did you ventured beyond pudong?? I guess not. Get onto the city bus going thru the under belly of Shanghai some time and witness the truth! Also, did you had any chance of interacting with the workers in any of those fast-coming-up sky scrappers? I guess not.
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siva (out of India) replies to American desi
That is not at all true . India will overtake China as the worlds most populous country. It will also be the most corrupt country.The population will ensure that occurring.
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Manish Gupte PhD (Nashua, NH)
India has good domestic consumption. china relied heavily on exports and manipulated currency. So their economy is wound up. Boycott china! Swadeshi! That will create employment and wealth! Markets and democracy is the best way!
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sundon79 (MANSAROVAR, HIMALAYA)
NOT BECUASE OF US. IT IS BECUASE CHINESE ARE SMARTER AND BETTRE THAN US.
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Dr K (Canada) replies to sundon79
Wrong... its because Chinese are strictly told what to do and their politicians have a desire to improve the lot of their people. Indian politicians are corrupt and add to that regionalism... doesnt help. Sometimes I wonder how much time Indian ministers/MPs and govt. babus actually spend doing their work rather than fighting with each other.... very little to none I suppose. Chinese are not better at all as people, their governing system is efficient. That's all!
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You can replace India with any other country like Uganda, Rwanda or Bangladesh, it would be about the same analysis!
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