从这里了解印度人对中国的看法

印度媒体:印度能从令人吃惊的中国高铁中学到什么

2012-02-12 07:41 6个评论 字号:

中国高铁发展是最受外国网民瞩目的战略。继承英国遗产的印度铁路曾经领先中国,如今远远落后中国。在有关印度铁路和中国铁路的比较方面,印度Rediff网发表了一篇讲述中国高铁发展历程的文章,并高呼——印度能从令人吃惊的中国高铁中学到什么。

原文标题:What India can learn from China’s amazing railway system
原文链接:http://business.rediff.com/slide-show/2010/jun/21/slide-show-1-what-india-can-learn-from-chinese-railway.htm

印度网民看中国:印度能从令人吃惊的中国高铁中学到什么

中国CRH2动车组

In 1949, the Chinese Railway network added less than 22,000 km of poorly maintained, war-damaged lines. By 2008, its network touched 80,000 route km — 36 per cent double-tracked and 35 per cent electrified.

During 1950-1980, China added 107 railway lines, stretching over 30,000 km, and has plans to extend the network to 20,000 route km by 2020 — 50 per cent of it double-tracked and 60 per cent electrified.

With an audacious investment programme, Chinese Railway, like the country’s most dramatic burst of wealth creation, inspires awe as much as envy.

The Chinese railways trailed Indian Railways technologically until the 1980s. In fact, even in 1990, its 24,800-km core network with an annual density of 30 million gross tonnes or more had largely 50 kg/m and 43 kg/m rails; as many as 55 per cent of the wagons were with plain bearings.

Until 1980, steam locomotive continued to remain its mainstay, carrying 76 per cent of its traffic. Today, Indian Railway, lost in shibboleths of systematic self-destruction, lags way behind Chinese Railway, and has no tangible strategy for growth.

On the other hand, Chinese Railway, now the world’s second largest freight railway system and the largest passenger system, has by far the highest traffic density (passenger-km and tonne-km per km of line) — it is 10.5 times the world average. Its output per locomotive, per freight car, per passenger coach is among the highest.

1949年,中国的铁路网络不足2.2万公里,这些线路维修不善,受战争破坏。到2008年,中国铁路网达到8万公里线路——36%为双线铁路,35%为电气化线路。

在1950年到1980年期间,中国增加了107条铁路线,延伸超过3万公里,并且计划到2020年将网络延伸2万公里,其中50%双线,60%电气化。

中国铁路有大胆的投资计划,就像这个国家最具戏剧性的财富创造的喷发一样,激起了敬畏和羡慕。

直到1980年代,中国铁路在技术上落后印度铁路。事实上,甚至在1990年,中国24800公里核心网络的年货运密度是3000万吨以上,大部分为59kg/m和43kg/m的铁路。多达55%的火车的轴承是滑动轴承。

直到1980年,蒸汽机车仍然是主流,运输流量大约占76%。今天,印度铁路在系统性自我破坏中迷失,远远落后中国铁路,而且没有切实的发展战略。

另一方面,中国铁路如今是世界上第二大的货运系统和第一大的客运系统,拥有目前最高的运输密度——是世界平均水平的10.5倍。每机车、每货运车厢、每客运车厢的产出位列世界最高之列。

印度媒体:孟买的市郊列车

孟买的市郊列车

Chinese Railway’s priority development plans have centred on high technology and a judicious mix of traffic routes for passenger trains running at 200 kmph and freight trains at 120 kmph.

Travel time has been reduced by increasing service speeds and reducing train stops. Between 1997 and 2007, Chinese Railway carried out six stages of ‘speed raising’: maximum train speed that was generally around 80-100 kmph in 1991 has gradually been raised to 160-200 kmph on popular passenger corridors.

The first 300-kmph electric multiple unit (EMU) train set was inaugurated in August 2008 between Beijing and Tianjin. CR is currently constructing 350 kmph passenger dedicated lines (PDLs). The combined length of PDLs by 2020 will be 16,000 route km; another 35 mixed traffic lines will be equipped to operate at 200-350 kmph.

Chinese Railway is busy developing its capacity and quality for freight and passenger traffic in line with the economy’s astounding growth.

It already operates 2,700 m long, 20,000-tonne heavy- haul coal trains. Its containerised freight is forecast to reach 400 million tonnes by 2020 compared with just 64.5 million tonnes in 2006.

中国铁路的优先发展计划集中在高技术,以及时速200公里的客运线路和时速120公里的货运线路的正确组合。

旅行时间通过提高既有线速度和减少火车停站数来减少。在1997年到2007年期间,中国铁路实行了6次“提速”:在受欢迎的客运通道上,火车的最大时速在1990年一般为80公里到100公里,现在逐渐提高到时速160公里到200公里。

首列300公里时速的动车组(EMU)2008年8月在北京和天津之间首发。中国铁路(CR)目前在建设350公里时速的客运专线。到2020年,客运专线的总长度将达到1.6万公里;另外35条混跑线路的的运营速度为200公里到350公里。

为了跟上令人吃惊的经济发展,中国铁路正在忙于发展货运和客运能力。

中国已经运营了2.7公里长、2万吨载重的煤运火车。它的集装箱货运预计2020年达到4亿吨,相比之下,2006年只有6450万吨。

印度人看中国高铁:一列从隧道疾驰出来的CRH2动车组

一列CRH2动车组奔跑在武广高铁上

As Chinese Railway is poised to have the largest high-speed rail network worldwide, it will have a similar seminal infrastructure for heavy-haul freight transportation.

The principles underpinning the Mid-to-Long Range Railway Network Plan (MLRNP), 2003, approved for CR by the State Council, include: Coordination of rail development with that of other transport modes; separation of passenger and freight transport on constrained busy trunk lines to increase capacity and improve service; development of inter-city fast passenger networks; expansion of the rail network to support and encourage sustainable economic development, regional development and national defence; raising the local content of railway equipment and promotion of local railway manufacturing.

In 1991, the Chinese government enacted a Railway Law, which gave the ministry of railways overall control of policy, technical standards, planning, investment and finance, leaving just the day-to-day management and delivery of rail transport services and infrastructure to the regional railway administrations (RRAs).

For raising capital for new constructions, a surcharge was applied to all freight traffic in 1990. A second surcharge was introduced in 1993 for freight moving on electrified lines and was used for extending electrification over the network.

In 2005, China opted for public-private partnerships for new constructions, including the PDLs. Local railways in China came into being in 1960 essentially as feeder lines financed by respective local governments. Joint venture railways, established first in the 1990s, account for more than 50 per cent of the new constructions.

因为中国铁路即将拥有世界范围内的最大高铁网络,中国将有一个类似的开创性的重载货运运输基础设施。

支持国务院2003年批准的中长期铁路网规划(MLRNP)的原则包括:铁路建设和其他交通方式发展的合作;现有受限制繁忙干线的客货运分离,以提高运输能力和速度;城际快速客运网的建设;铁路网的扩大以支持和鼓励可持续的经济发展、地区发展和国防;提高铁路设备的本地化和促进本地铁路生产。

1991年,中国颁布了铁路法,授权铁道部全面控制政策、技术标准、规划、投资和财政,只把日常管理、铁路运输服务和基础设施留给地方铁路局。

为了给新建工程筹集资金,1990年货运附加费实施。第二次附加费于1993年在电气化线路上的货运引入,并被用于扩大网络中的电气化。

2005年,中国在新建(铁路)工程中采取公私合作,包括客专线路。中国的地方铁路在1960年形成,主要是因为支线是由相应的地方政府融资的。合资铁路在1990年代首次成立,在新建工程中占了超过50%。

印度人看中国:中国CRH2动车组

中国CRH2动车组

Chinese Railway’s track structure is being constantly upgraded: PDLs will all have ballastless track and the heavy-haul high-density Daqin line, originally laid with jointed 60 kg/m rail in 25m lengths on the east-bound loaded track, is being replaced by continuously welded 75 kg/m rail on 2,600-2,700 mm long sleepers laid at 1,840 per km.

Four large equipment maintenance bases are due to be completed by 2013, one each at Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan and Guangzhou. These will be aided by 35 modern satellite depots across the network. Concomitantly, several state-of-the-art signalling and communication systems have been planned.

China has emerged as a strong manufacturer of railway equipment as much as a burgeoning market for it. By 2020, China will potentially be the global leader in rail technology.

Technology transfer from Japanese and European companies has enabled China’s railway supply industry to acquire the knowhow to build rolling stock ranging from 350 kmph EMUs to heavy-haul locomotives. Matching advancements have been made in track and signalling technologies.

On dedicated heavy haul corridors, such as Daqin line, wagons of aluminium or stainless steel body with 25 tonne axle load, fitted with rotary couplers, and for up to 120 kmph operation, are being introduced progressively.

中国铁路的轨道结构一直在升级:客专线路都将是无砟轨道,重载高密度大秦线的向东方向的重载轨道,起初铺设的是25米长的60kg/m的铁轨,正在被无缝焊接的75kg/m铁轨取代,枕木长2600毫米到2700毫米,每公里铺设1840个。

4个大型设备维护基地预定将在2013年前完工,北京、上海、武汉和广州各一个。这些将会受到全网络35个现代卫星站的帮助。伴随而来的几个最先进的信号和通信系统也被规划。

中国已经成为铁路设备的强大制造商,也同样是急速发展的市场。到2020年,中国有可能在铁路技术上成为世界领导者。

来自日本和欧洲国家的技术转移,使中国铁路供应产业取得了生产从350公里/小时的动车组到重载机车的技术。轨道和信号技术也取得了相应的进步。

在重载货运走廊中,比如大秦线,25吨轴重的铝制或者不锈钢车身,配有旋转耦合器,并且运营速度达到120公里/小时的货车正被积极引入。

印度铁路部长玛玛塔·班纳吉(Mamata Banerjee)

印度铁路部长玛玛塔·班纳吉(Mamata Banerjee)

The whole approach has been pragmatic coupled with bold initiatives, clarity, and continuity. Major rationalisation measures initiated by Chinese Railway have entailed massive investments as well as drastic disinvestments.

Many railway stations with low volume of freight have been closed; short distance passenger traffic has been actively discouraged to release capacity for longer distance rail travel.

Following a ‘productivity layout adjustment’, locomotive depots, passenger car depots, vehicle depots and passenger transportation sections and train crew districts were all reduced.

In an important reform in 2005, a whole tier in the Chinese Railway management structure, the sub-administration level of regional administration (akin to divisions on IR) was abolished, leaving RRAs with a direct line of management to depots, stations and yards.

By 2005, Chinese Railway transferred some 900 schools and colleges and 400 hospitals to local governments. Surplus staff not directly involved in railway operations were put on the RRA rolls in what are called diversified economy companies set up in 1985.

整个处理方式是实用的,并结合大胆举措、清晰度和连续性。中国铁道部发起的主要合理措施需要大规模投资,以及(其他方面)投资的急剧减少。

许多低容量的货运火车站被关闭;短途客运被积极限制,从而为长途铁路运输释放能力。

在“生产力布局调整”后,机车仓库、客运车辆补给站、车厂、客运段和乘务员都被减少。

在2005年的一项重要改革中,中国铁路管理结构的一个级别——地方铁路局的下属子局(相当于印度铁路的分部)被废除,地方铁路局从而直接管理仓库、车站和堆场。

2005年前,中国铁路将900所学校、学院,以及400家医院转移给了地方政府。没有直接参与铁路运作的过剩人员被安置在1985年成立的多元化经营公司——地方铁路局。

 

以下是印度网民评论:

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  1. 口口声声的民主的结果就是大家公平的站在这样的破列车上,就是上世纪70年代,我们的铁老大也不会让乘客这样外挂.挤死挤活都是在车厢里啊!

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