三泰虎

回首1971年的印巴战争

1971 in retrospect

回首1971年

ONE key point in outgoing army chief Gen Qamar Bajwa’s farewell address at GHQ that has been lost amidst the intense developments of the past few days is the general’s comments on the East Pakistan debacle.

Gen Bajwa said that it was 34,000 soldiers — not 92,000 — who were fighting in the erstwhile eastern wing, while observing that “the fall of East Pakistan was not a military but a political failure”.

It is welcome that the general has clarified the record regarding the actual number of combat forces in the eastern wing. Without doubt, facing a numerically far larger adversary in the shape of combined Indian and Mukti Bahini forces, our troops were vastly outmanned and outgunned.

Yet Gen Bajwa’s laying the blame for the separation of East Pakistan at the door of political forces must be examined more closely, for while West Pakistan’s politicians certainly had a role to play, it was the military leadership at the time that was in control, and whose actions ultimately resulted in the break-up of united Pakistan.

即将离任的陆军参谋长卡马尔巴杰瓦将军在陆军总司令部发表了告别演讲,而人们在过去几天紧张的事态发展中忽略了其中一个关键点——这位将军对东巴基斯坦溃败的评论。

巴杰瓦表示,当初在东翼奋战的士兵仅有3.4万名,而非9.2万名。他还指出,“东巴基斯坦的陷落不是军事上的失败,而是政治上的失败”。

令人高兴的是,这位将军澄清了东翼作战部队的实际兵力。毫无疑问,在面对印度和穆克提·巴希尼联合部队这个兵力明显占优势的对手时,我们的部队在兵力和武器上都大为落后。

但巴杰瓦将军将东巴基斯坦分裂的责任归咎于政治力量的说法还有待商榷。尽管西巴基斯坦的政客们肯定负有责任,但当时掌握控制权的是军方领导层,是军方的行动最终导致了统一的巴基斯坦的分裂。

Indeed, the West Pakistani elite — politicians, bureaucracy, military — all played a role in aggravating the crisis. There can be little argument that parties of the western wing, particularly Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s PPP, were reluctant to hand over power to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s victorious Awami League after the 1970 general elections. And the postponement of the National Assembly session, under Gen Yahya’s watch, was a major catalyst for unrest in the eastern wing.

But arguably, the point of no return came when the military launched Operation Searchlight in March 1971. This move resulted in a political and constitutional crisis metastasising into a bloody civil war, with atrocities committed by both sides.

By December, India would enter the fray, leading up to Gen ‘Tiger’ Niazi signing the instrument of surrender, and resulting in the permanent rupture of innah’s Pakistan.

事实上,西巴基斯坦的精英——政治家、官僚机构、军方——都在危机升级中扮演了各自的角色。1970年大选后,西翼的政党尤其是佐勒菲卡尔·阿里·布托领导的巴基斯坦人民党,不愿将权力移交给谢赫·穆吉布·拉赫曼领导的胜出的人民联盟。在叶海亚将军的领导下,全国代表大会的延期催生了东部地区的动乱局面。

但我们可以说,1971年3月军方在发动探照灯行动之时就已经踏上了不归路。这一举动导致了政治和宪法危机,最后演变成血腥的内战,双方都难辞其咎。

12月印度加入了战局,导致“老虎”尼亚兹将军签署了投降书,导致真纳的巴基斯坦永久分裂。

So for the outgoing chief to say that the fall of Dhaka was a political failure is highly debatable. Unfortunately, we as a nation have yet to come to terms with the bitter truths of 1971. For there to be full closure, we need to make peace with the truth.

因此,即将离任的首领说达卡的沦陷是一次政治失败,这还有待商榷。但不幸的是,作为一个国家,我们还没有接受1971年的痛苦事实。为了彻底了结这件事,我们需要接受真相。

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以下是巴基斯坦黎明报读者评论:

Kris

There is an effort to rewrite history every day in Pakistan. Never seen it being done so blatantly.

在巴基斯坦,每天都有人试图改写历史。但从没见过这么明目张胆的。

 

 

kumar

The war was between two armies and not two political parties. How 93000 surrendered when only 34000 were fighting?

这场战争发生在两支军队之间,而非两个政党之间。如果真的只有34000人参战,为什么会有93000人投降呢?

 

 

Mansur Ul Haque

Don't expect him to say it was military defeat. Yahyah Khan was army dr.

别指望这个人会说这是军事上的失败。叶海亚汗可是军方独 裁者。

 

 

Justice

I fail to understand why Bajwa made such statements after 50 years. There is no point in Pakistan licking past wounds.

我不明白为什么50年后巴杰瓦要发表这样的声明。巴基斯坦这样抱着历史的伤口不放,并没有意义。

 

 

M. Emad

'1971 in retrospect' : 93,000 -vs- 34,000

回首1971:93000 还是 34000

 

 

Jigen.m19

It’s was 100% the military’s doing. You can read many books about it and Tiger Niazis book Betrayal of East Pakistan as well. Yahya Khan was a depraved man with an elated ego and he and his military compatriots are responsible.

这都拜军方所赐。你可以多读一些相关书籍,Tiger Niazis也有一本书叫《东巴基斯坦的背叛》。叶海亚·汗是一个自大堕落之人,他和军方应该对此负责。

 

 

Syed Ahmed

A much needed rebuttal of the outgoing COAS' farewell speech. Thanks Dawn.

这是对即将离任的陆军参谋长告别演讲的反驳,太应景太及时了。谢谢黎明报。

 

 

John the Baptist

"Gen Bajwa said that it was 34,000 soldiers — not 92,000" Actually it wasn't 34,000 and it wasn't 92,000 either. It was 93,000 soldiers who surrendered in the largest post-WW2 surrender.

巴杰瓦将军说当时只有34000名士兵,而非92000名。但实际上当时参战的人数既不是34000,也不是92000。在二战后规模最大的一次投降中,共计有9.3万名士兵投降。

 

 

Farhan

A good general never accepts a battle which he can't win. Why did they try to bring the situation to a level where 34 thousand troops had to defend the whole East Pakistan? It was certainly a complete military failure in the end

一个好将军决不能接受他的败仗。他们为什么要把局势升级,让34000名士兵不得不冒着生命危险保卫整个东巴基斯坦?这绝对是彻头彻尾的军事失败。

 

 

Kris

Thanks for not blaming India at least once

终于没有怪罪到印度头上了,感谢感谢。

 

 

Shaan

The 71 debacle was a direct result of inequality and mistreatment of citizens. Same will happen to Pakistan if we are not careful!

1971年的溃败是不平等的直接结果。如果我们不吸取教训,巴基斯坦也会发生同样的事情!

 

 

Zeeshan

if We as a Nation fails to understand the root cause of "Fall of Dhaka", there will more "FALLS" on the way. It is written on the wall.

如果我们作为一个国家,不能理解“达卡沦陷”的根本原因,那么未来还会发生更多的“沦陷”。这是箴言。

 

 

Ankita

@Azhar Jamil, Yes, how conveniently we forget the massive human rights violations especially against women and children and nobody brought to account for them. And as history would have it, the Indian army ended up protecting the surrendered Pakistani soldiers from the Mukti Bahini and ordinary Bangladeshis.

@Azhar Jamil,是的,我们这么轻易就忘记了大规模侵犯人 权行为,尤其是针对妇女和儿童的侵犯人 权行为,没有人对此负责。历史证明,最后印度军队护住了投降的巴基斯坦士兵免受穆克提·巴希尼和普通孟加拉国人的伤害。

 

 

Riazullah Baig

After Yahya Khan Bajwa has become the most controversial army chief. Pak army didn't face so much criticism even after the fall of East Pakistan but after Bajwa doctrine's failure it is facing the extreme wrath of the people.

在那之后叶海亚·汗·巴杰瓦成为最具争议的陆军参谋长。即使东巴基斯坦沦陷,巴基斯坦军队也没有受到太多批评,但巴杰瓦主义失败后,军方面临着人民的极端愤怒。

 

 

Pak Patriot

It is the mentality and false superiority complex of W Pak's pseudo elite, which pushed them away forever.

这是巴基斯坦伪精英的心态和莫名的优越感,让他们越行越远。

 

 

Khaled

Very true, it is difficult to digest the bitter truth. High time the commission report on the debacle be made public and responsibility fixed.

说得很对,人们都很难接受痛苦的真相。是时候公开委员会关于这次溃败的调查报告并追求责任了。

 

 

AzaadZAK

Why did the army not fight till the bitter end? Clearly that did not believe that their case was just. Or was it cowardice?

为什么军队没有战斗到最后?显然他们不相信他们是正义的一方。还是说他们太怯懦了?

 

 

Shaun

No use complaining after 50 years. Whatever happened was good. Cannot even compare the progress between Pakistan and Bangladesh. One is begging while the other is progressing.

50年过去了,现在再抱怨也没用。一切都是最好的安排。我们甚至无法比较巴基斯坦和孟加拉国之间的发展。一个在乞讨,另一个在进步。

 

 

Jack, Black

One part of pre-1971 Pakistan has taken the right decisions to uplift its citizens out of the morass of poverty and ignorance while the remaining part continues to gather momentum on its path to self-destruction.

1971年前巴基斯坦的部分地区作出了正确的决定,让公民摆脱了贫穷和无知的泥沼,而剩下的那部分则继续在自我毁灭的道路上狂奔。

 

 

Malik

High debatable? He is completely wrong!!!

争议很大吗?他是错得离谱了!!

 

 

Sane Mind1st

This was the main point, to rake up Bangladesh's issue to fudge the issue of money made by him and his family. And if the war was lost, as he himself admitted, the medals on him are for what? For each crore made? Pathetic attempt to hide the truth.

这才是他的意图,把孟加拉国的问题搅得沸沸扬扬,掩盖他和他的家族的非法财富问题。如果战争失败了,就像他自己承认的那样,那他凭什么能披挂身上的勋章?难道是为了他赚的每一笔千万财富?他这是在可笑地掩盖真相。

 

 

S

He is just saying what is written in the books of 1971. Blame those original writers who fudged numbers and events to save their own face

他说的都是书上写的。那些捏造数字和历史事实来保全自己面子的原创作者都该死。

 

 

Mark

Ayub Khan era to fall of Dhaka is not political, it is military role specific.

达卡的陷落不是政治造成的,就是军事行动。

 

 

Daisy Boy

Unfortunately, Pakistani army has not won a single war. Its only the nuclear bomb that is assuring the security of the country, not its army.

不幸的是,巴基斯坦军队没打赢过一场战争。只有核弹才能保证这个国家的安全,军队靠不住。

 

 

Kris

Now we know, why DAWN is respected so much!

现在我们知道了,黎明报为什么这么受推崇了!

 

 

Simon

Why is he so rich? Public servants or defense personnel aren't supposed to be.

他为什么这么有钱?公务员和国防人员不可能这么有钱啊。

 

 

aq

Finally DAWN gathered enough strength to put out an editorial like this.

终于,《黎明报》攒足了劲儿,发表了这样一篇社论。

 

 

RHS

Pakistanis, unfortunately only see 1971 through the lens of surrender. There is absolutely no way that even 93000 troops could have won this war let alone 34000. Just be glad that the surrender came quickly or else another 100,000 people would have died.

很遗憾巴基斯坦人只能从战败者的角度来看待1971年的历史。就算是93000人的军队也绝对打不赢这场战争,更不用说区区34000人了。你们应该庆幸的是当初投降得比较及时,否则还会有10万人送命。

 

 

Khan-USA

Pakistan would have never seen the shameful evening when Niazi was signing the surrender agreement. In crises those dictates who has gun in their hand and you had the gun.

巴基斯坦永远不想看到尼亚兹签署投降协议的那个可耻之夜。有枪的人有权发号施令,而你手中就有枪。

 

 

FIDA SAYANI

We have been dishonest with innah's Pakistan from the day one. We destroyed the innah's vision of Pakistan with one stroke and continues with lies about the creator and his creation. Today we are paying a heavy price and the country is on the verge of destruction.

我们从一开始就对真纳的巴基斯坦不忠不贞。我们一手摧毁了真纳对巴基斯坦的美好愿景,延续了造物主的谎言。今天的我们正在付出沉重的代价,国家已处于毁灭的边缘。

 

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