三泰虎

为什么中国的发展速度比印度快那么多

Why has China developed so much faster than India?

为什么中国的发展速度比印度快那么多?

u=2535870079,3976694071&fm=26&gp=0.jpg

以下是Quora读者的评论:

Irwin Dsouza, Owner (1986-present)

Since there has been a lot of “misinformation” about Chinese development -I am setting the record straight the way I see it as under:

鉴于我看到过很多关于中国发展的“不实言论”,我想在此澄清一下我的看法:

  1. China is producing for the world at a Loss : Does it make sense to produce & then sell at a loss-China produces & destroys it's environment for Apple, Walmart, Staples etc and the same products that China produces -is sold by large EU, American, Japanese, Indian firms who have the brand at huge profit -in fact all business folks who deal with China are “laughing all the way to the bank at such Chinese Stupidity”
  2. Then China invests it's Reserves into US TREASURY bonds which are paying below 1% -these treasury bonds are over 2 Trillion US dollars
  3. Then we have OBOR which is selling to Muslim countries & “totally broke 3rd world “ countries like Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Kazakhstan etc

1. 中国为全球消费者开足马力地生产,其实根本就是亏本生意:试想,以破坏自然环境的代价为苹果、沃尔玛、史泰博等公司生产商品,有意义吗?而销售商品的是欧洲、美国、日本、印度等拥有知名品牌的大型企业,他们通过销售获取了巨额利润——事实上,所有与中国打交道的商界人士都“嘲笑中国的愚蠢”。

2. 其次,中国将其外汇储备投资于美国国债,收益率还不到1%——这些国债的规模超过2万亿美元

3. 一带一路面向的是国家及缅甸、斯里兰卡、巴基斯坦、哈萨克斯坦等国

 

Pratyush Pandey, interested in political science

Because human beings in general are rational, and usually act in their self-interest.

In China, there’s a high degree of alignment between the individual’s self-interest and the collective good of the nation.

If you’re a mayor in a town, and you don’t meet your targets (growth, infrastructure, electricity etc), and simply pocket the funds for yourself, you’ll lose your job, and be lucky if that’s all that happens to you.

Now come to India.

What’s the first thing you see when any decision has to be taken? Vested interests.

Consider an issue like reducing the role of the state in business - privatizing state firms, updating regulatory laws, or increasing foreign competition.

因为人类一般都是理性的,通常都会为了自身利益而采取行动。

在中国,民众的个人利益和国家的集体利益高度一致。

如果你是某个城镇的市长,你没有达到你的工作考核目标(经济增长,基础设施,电力用量等),只是中饱私囊,那就会丢掉工作。

现在来看看印度吧:

当要做某个决定的时候,你注意到的第一件事是什么?既得利益者。

如果考虑弱化国家在经济活动中的作用——国有企业私有化,更新监管法律,或增加外国竞争。

First you’ll run into the employees unions - it’s in their interest that their jobs are protected, and a private employer won’t ever offer the same security as the state.

Next you’ll alienate the go nment departments that derive their power (and money) from the rigid laws that allow them to interfere in business. It’s in their interest these laws aren’t relaxed.

Then you’ll come across those firms who’ve gamed the current system to their advantage, and don’t want to see it change to a level playing field. It’s in their interest to retain status quo.

After this, you’ll have to resist furious lobbying by smaller players who feel threatened by competition from abroad. It’s in their interest to prevent competitors from encroaching on their turf.

Now imagine you’re among those political leaders trying to push these changes.

You have almost no support.

The consumers would benefit probably - but they aren’t a single cohesive lobby, and it’s not a major rallying point for them to unite. So if you were the one making these changes, you wouldn’t find any support, barring a few intellectuals whose voice anyways wouldn’t be heard, and who are too small to matter in the game of numbers that is de acy .

You’re alienating the business who probably donate for your campaigns, the bureaucrats you depend on to implement your schemes, the employees and small businesses who make up the bulk of your voters.

首先你会遇到工会——他们的工作岗位受到保护,这符合他们的利益,而私人雇主绝不会提供与国有企业相同的保障。

接下来,政府部门也不会搭理你,死板僵化的法律给了他们的权力(和金钱)来干预经济。维护这些法律条文不放松,才符合他们的利益的。

然后你还会遇到一些公司,他们利用现有的系统为自己谋利,必然不希望看到竞争环境变公平。维持现状符合他们的利益。

在这之后,你还要扛住那些担心国外竞争威胁的小公司的激烈游说。挡住竞争对手,不让对手侵占自己的地盘,符合他们的利益。

现在来想象一下,你若是试图推动这些变革的政治领导人中的一员会如何。

你几乎得不到任何支持。

消费者也许会从中受益——但他们并非具有极强凝聚力的游说团体,也不是一个让他们团结起来的关键点。所以,如果你是希望做出改变的人,除了少数知识分子,你得不到任何支持,但知识分子的声音是没人能听到的,他们在数字游戏中太过弱势,这就是印度皿煮。

而在这个期间,你正慢慢疏远那些可能为你的竞选献金的企业,疏远那些你所依赖的执行治理规划的官僚,疏远投票给你的主力选民中的雇员和小企业主。

Do you think you’ll get re-elected?

To make it worse, all your opponents will organize massive rallies, opposing you and obstructing your work. They’ll promise to undo all your changes to win over these groups, the same people who probably brought you to power.

You have no interest to do any of this.

You have no interest to undertake any action that promises long term benefits. Why? Because you can only think in terms of 5 year cycles. If the results show up after that, whoever is in power will simply claim them as their achievements. They won’t help you get re-elected.

Why undertake slow, complex, boring reforms that your voters won’t comprehend and will only resent? You have no interest to drastically alter the status quo., either or you’ll face a massive backlash. Much better to offer flashy schemes and doles, promising instant gratification. Because that’s how you’ll stay in power, and staying in power is probably in your interest if you’re in politics.

你认为你能再次顺利当选吗?

更为糟糕的是,你的对手们会组织大规模的集会来声讨你,妨碍你的工作。他们会承诺废除你所有的改变,以此赢得这些团体的支持,而这些人可能就是当初把你推上权力宝座的同一批人。

你没有兴趣这么做。

你没有兴趣采取任何能带来长期利益的行动。原因何在?因为你只能考虑眼前的5年。如果你力导的改变在5年后才初见成效,无论5年后谁当权,都会攫取这个胜利果实。不会帮你赢得连任的。

所以为什么要推行选民无法理解、只可能抗议的进展缓慢、程序复杂而又乏味的改革呢?你没有兴趣彻底改变现状,否则你将面临巨大的反弹。提出华而不实的改革计划和救济金,作出可以即刻得到满足的承诺,则要划算得多。因为这是你掌控权 力的方式,如果你从政的话,掌控权 力才是正道。

 

Anonymous

Talent appreciation and leverage of talent to increase productivity of a nation.

China excels in these parameters. Chinese are smart workers. They understand the trick of trade faster. Their go nment has built the infrastructure necessary for nurturing the talent and providing faster approval for start-ups. Entrepreneurs are encouraged to put their creative ideas to practice. Faster go nmental approval. Workers also understand their obligations and duties in addition to rights. They don’t get into mindless industrial strikes at the drop of a hat. Every project in China has a start date and an end date in letter and spirit. They really care about project completion and start delivering. Quality of their products and services is good, too.

Their education system appreciates and nurtures talent. They don’t compromise on quality of education.

赏识人才,充分利用人才,提高国家生产力。

中国在这些方面都表现得十分出色。中国人是聪明的劳动者。他们能更快地悟出商业活动的诀窍。他们的政府已经建立了培养人才所需的机制,并为初创企业提供更快的审批程序。鼓励企业家将自己的创造性想法付诸实践。除了权利,工人们也明白自己的义务和责任。他们不会动不动就无理地高呼罢工。在中国,每一个项目都有明确的起止时间。他们真正关心的是项目的完成和交付情况。他们的产品和服务质量也很出色。

他们的教育体系能欣赏和培养人才,不会在教育质量上轻易妥协。

For India, it is a long, long … way to catch up with China. Let people stop teasing Chinese as if we had produced top class products that sell worldwide. We haven’t produced yet like China. We may excel in services but not in production. The whole world is looking at how we are going to produce Apple products to the specifications set by the company. This is a litmus test for India. We may succeed or fail at the first instance. Failing is not a problem. China also faced failures in 1980s. But they came out successfully. The point here is that India would wake up to the challenges in producing goods to the standards set by MNCs, let alone competing with China or Taiwan or South Korea. Talented guys go to countries that welcome talent, get fancy jobs or promote start-ups, and deliver exceptionally well - far better than what they would deliver if they continued to be in India. Once they go out of their country, most wouldn’t want to return. I shudder to think what Sundar Pichai would have ended up if he chose to remain in India.

Long story short, India has to radically change its policies in creating talent, appreciating talent and making use of talent to full potential. Fix accountability for not delivering things like go nment approval, funding approval and so on.

对印度来说,要追赶中国还有很漫长的路要走。别再取笑中国人了,我们自己也没有生产出行销全球的一流品质的产品呢。

我们还没有中国那样的生产能力。我们也许在服务行业占据优势,但在生产上还是技不如人的。

整个世界都在关注我们要如何按照苹果公司制定的规格生产苹果的产品。这是对印度的试金石。

我们也许即刻就会成功,也可能即刻就会失败。

失败倒不是问题。上世纪80年代,中国也曾屡遭失败,但是最终他们还是成功了。

问题的关键在于,印度能够意识到生产符合跨国公司标准的产品所面临的挑战,更不用说开展与中国大陆、台*地区地区或韩国的竞争了。

印度有才华的人流向了那些欢迎人才的国家,要么找到了好工作,要么创立了初创企业,做得有声有色——远比他们留在印度的前景要好得多。

一旦他们离开印度,绝大多数人都不想回国。我甚至不敢想象桑达尔·皮查伊当初要是选择留在印度会有怎样的成就。

长话短说,印度必须从根本上改变其在培养人才、赏识人才和充分利用人才潜力方面的政策。修正未能提供政府批准、资金批准等事项的问责制。

 译文来源:三泰虎   http://www.santaihu.com/p/51625.html 译者:Joyceliu

 

Anonymous

Consider the following reasons:

可以从以下几点理由入手分析:

  1. India inherited a Westminister de ratic system from their former British colonizers and this system was and is totally alien to India’s various cultures and traditions. Instead of promoting honest and experienced individuals, this system has enabled corporate lackeys, corrupt businessmen and bigoted caste leaders to rule India and plunder it to their hearts content. In the 2019 Indian General Elections, 43% of the elected MPs had a criminal record. On the other hand, most of China’s leaders are cadres and workers of the Communist party. From a very young age these men and women are taught how to run a country at various schools that are handled by the Communist Party. Whenever a disaster or a pandemic occurs, CCP cadres are at the forefront of the relief operations.
  2. In India corporations have a free hand and they can do whatever the hell they want as the “de ratic” Indian go nments have removed most of the regulations that were suppose to keep the corporations in check. Poor Indians, and especially the farmers and Adivasis have suffered a lot because of this. On the other hand, All the corporations in China (Both foreign and local) have a committee of Communist party members who make sure that these corporations aren’t trying to cross the line that was set by the go nment.
  3. China made a huge effort to learn from all the corporations that arrived in China after 1978. As a result of this, China is now develo its own products ranging from cell phones to Merchant Ships. It is behind the west in a few areas like Semiconductors and Civil Aviation but that gap would also close in the next 10 to 20 years. India made no such effort.
  4. China made an effort to reduce its growing population by introducing the one child policy in order to conserve its resources. India gave up on population control after the Privatization of the early 90s. This made sure that there would always be too many mouths to feed and not enough resources to feed them especially in this age of climate change and resource depletion. India is 1/3 the size of China but its population is almost equal to that of China.

1. 印度从早先的英国殖民者那里传承来了皿煮制度,这种制度过去曾经,现在依然,跟印度的各种文化和传统并不相融。这种制度没有培养出诚信老练的个人,反而让企业走狗、附败的商人和偏执的种姓领袖得以统治并尽情掠夺印度。在2019年印度大选中,43%的当选议员都被查出犯罪记录。但在中国,大多数领导人都是从很小的时候起,就在公立学校里学习如何管理国家了。每当发生灾害或疫情时,他们总是站在抢险救灾的第一线。

2. 在印度,企业可以做任何他们想做的事情,因为“皿煮”印度政府已经取消了大多数本应约束企业的法律规定。贫穷的印度人,尤其是农民和原住民,因此遭受了很大的损失。而中国的公司(包括外国公司和本土公司)都有党组织,确保这些公司不会试图越过设定的界限。

3. 中国做出了巨大的努力,向1978年以后进入中国的所有企业学习取经。因此,中国现在已开始研发自己的产品,从手机到商船,都是如此。在半导体和民用航空等一些领域,中国虽仍落后于西方,但在未来10到20年内,这一差距也将逐步缩小。印度并没有做出这样的努力。

4. 为了节约资源,中国实行了独生子女政策,努力降低人口增长速度。印度在90年代早期私有化后放弃了对人口进行控制。这就导致了需要养活的人口太多,但资源又太少。印度的面积仅为中国的三分之一,但人口却已几乎与中国相等。

三泰虎原创译文,禁止转载!:首页 > 印度看中国 » 为什么中国的发展速度比印度快那么多

()
分享到: