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向中国学习,改造印度铁路

印度人眼中的中国铁路。三泰虎4月14日译文,印度rediff网文章《向中国学习,改造印度铁路》。文章称,从90年代中期以来,环游印度的体验发生了巨大改变。一个又一个咯吱作响的老旧机场被铮亮的现代化基础设施取代。旅客有大量提供全方位服务的廉价航空公司供选择。主要公路也有大幅改善,有些路段堪称国际品质。汽车的质量,酒店的水平也慢慢升级。然而,有一个领域几乎未发生任何变化,那就是铁路。

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com
外文标题:Learn from China, transform the Indian Railways
外文地址:http://www.rediff.com/money/slide-show/slide-show-1-column-learn-from-china-transform-the-indian-railways/20140408.htm


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Since the mid-nineties, the experience of travelling around India has changed dramatically.

One by one, the old, creaky, paan spit-smeared airports have been replaced by gleaming modern infrastructure.

Travellers can now choose from among a number of full-service airlines and budget carriers.

The major highways, too, have become much better - and there are some segments that can now be considered to be of international quality. The quality of cars, buses and hotels has also slowly upgraded itself.

One may still complain that highway expansion has not kept up with the expansion of traffic or that the creation of the infrastructure involved corrupt practices, but one cannot deny the change.

There is one area, however, in which there has been almost no change - the Railways.

自从90年代中期以来,环游印度的体验发生了巨大改变。

一个又一个咯吱作响的老旧机场被铮亮的现代化基础设施取代。

旅客有大量提供全方位服务的廉价航空公司供选择。

主要公路也有大幅改善,有些路段堪称国际品质。汽车的质量,酒店的水平也慢慢升级。

有人也许仍会抱怨公路扩张未能赶上交通规模的扩大,或者抱怨基础设施建设涉及腐败行为。但无人能够否认改变。

然而,有一个领域几乎未发生任何变化,那就是铁路。

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Travelling in today's trains reminds me of my childhood in the early eighties.

The same chaotic stations, the same bogies leisurely clattering along, the same blue rexine bunks in air-conditioned two-tier, and the same coolies in red shirts carrying luggage on top of their heads. Indeed, in many cases, the infrastructure was built in the 19th century.

Indian Railways may be great for nostalgia, but it is failing as the country's infrastructure backbone.

今天,在火车上旅行让我想起了80年代早期的童年生活。

同样混乱无序的车站、同样空调双层蓝色卧铺车、同样穿着红色T恤衫头顶行李的苦力。确实,铁路基础设施大多是19世纪兴建的。

印度铁路也许是解怀旧之情的不错选择,但在充当国家基础设施支柱方面是失败的。

Passengers travel in an overcrowded train in Patna

Before Independence in 1947, undivided British India had a railway network of around 69,000 kilometres, of which 55,000 km was inherited by India.

Today the network stands at around 65,000 km - an expansion of a mere 18.5 per cent over 66 years!

在1947年独立以前,未分裂的英属印度有大约长达6.9万公里的铁路网,其中55000公里被印度继承了下来。

今天,这一铁路的规模大约是6.5万公里,66年里仅扩大18.5%!

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Contrast this with China, which had a network of just 27,000 km in 1949 (half of it in Manchuria) but now has 110,000 km - a tenth of which is capable of supporting high-speed trains running at 250 km an hour, and some segments up to 350 km an hour.

Forget 21st-century China, India's post-Independence performance is poor compared to what Victorian engineers were capable of 150 years ago. In the 1870s, they added an average of 749 km of lines per year, with 1,440 km being added in a single year, 1878.

相较之下,中国1949年的铁路网络仅长2.7万公里,如今的规模是11万公里,其中十分之一能够跑时速250公里的高速火车,有些路段甚至能跑高达350公里的时速。

别提21世纪的中国了,就是与150年前维多利亚时代工程师的能力比起来,印度独立后的表现也是难堪的。1870年代,他们平均每年增加749公里铁路,单单1878年就增建了1440公里。

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And they were not just adding tracks; they also built Victoria Terminus in Bombay (completed in 1887) and Howrah station in Calcutta (completed in 1905) - both extraordinary pieces of architecture.

It must be accepted that we have added nothing comparable and, with a few exceptions, continue to use the same crumbling stations that the British left us three generations ago.

他们不仅铺设铁轨,而且修建了孟买维多利亚火车站(1887年完工)和加尔各答豪拉火车站(1905年完工),两个都是非凡建筑。

必须承认的是,除了少数例外,我们拿不出可与之相提并论的东西,继续使用着英国留给我们的正摇摇欲坠的火车站。

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Not surprisingly, people are avoiding travelling by Indian Railways wherever other alternatives are available - passenger bookings, excluding the suburban sector, declined by four per cent during April-December 2014.

This is quite shocking for a country in which demand for all other infrastructure grows naturally from population and purchasing power growth.

不令人奇怪的是,只要有其他可供替代的选择,人们就会尽量避免乘坐火车出行。2014年4月-12月,郊区线路不算的话,乘客订票下降了4%。

对于一个随着人口的增长和购买力的提高,人们对其他基础设施的需求随之加大的国家来说,这是相当令人震惊的。

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