三泰虎

印度地理的诅咒:脆弱的鸡脖子

如果你有一直在追踪我们外交家杂志的脉象(Pulse)版面,你可能会注意到近期印度东北邦的几篇相关文章。在讨 论印度东北的管理问题或边界议题方面,地理上的"隔离"是一个常常提及的词汇。东北邦在政治和地理上都距离新德里很遥远,而且该区域的某些部份与缅甸具有 更多的文化共同点,比普遮普邦甚或西孟加拉邦还要来的多。南亚政治地理学的一个怪现象,西里古里走廊,使得新德里在整合东北各邦相当有挑战性。

译者:不知悔過的劍
来源:三泰虎论坛 http://bbs.santaihu.com
外文:http://thediplomat.com/2013/11/geographys-curse-indias-vulnerable-chickens-neck/


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The Siliguri Corridor is a terrifyingly vulnerable artery in India’s geography.

引言:西里古里走廊是印度地理上一条易被割裂的大动脉。

If you’ve been following The Pulse here at The Diplomat recently, you may have noted a few recent pieces (including one by yours truly) on India’s North-Eastern states. In any discussion of the governance problems or border issues in India’s North-East, a commonly mentioned word is “isolation.” The North-Eastern states are politically and geographically distant from New Delhi, and certain parts of the region share more in common culturally with Burma than they do with Punjab, or even West Bengal. A quirk of South Asian political geography has made it quite challenging for New Delhi to effectively integrate the North-Eastern states: the Siliguri Corridor.

如果你有一直在追踪我们外交家杂志的脉象(Pulse)版面,你可能会注意到近期印度东北邦的几篇相关文章。在讨 论印度东北的管理问题或边界议题方面,地理上的"隔离"是一个常常提及的词汇。东北邦在政治和地理上都距离新德里很遥远,而且该区域的某些部份与缅甸具有更多的文化共同点,比普遮普邦甚或西孟加拉邦还要来的多。南亚政治地理学的一个怪现象,西里古里走廊,使得新德里在整合东北各邦相当有挑战性。

Like most of the borders in South Asia, the Siliguri Corridor – known also as the “Chicken’s Neck”– is a cartographic relic of the British decolonization process. As the British Empire withdrew and partitioned British India along religious lines to create the modern states of India and Pakistan (which was then divided into East and West Pakistan), it drew the lines that lead to the Siliguri in an attempt to maintain contiguity between Bengal and Assam. The creation of East Pakistan (which became Bangladesh in 1971) along religious lines necessitated the awkward choke point in India’s contemporary geography. The Siliguri, at its slimmest point, puts less than a marathon’s distance between the Bangladeshi and Nepalese borders (14 miles).

跟南亚大多数国家的边界类似,西里古里走廊 – 也被称为鸡脖子 – 是英国在非殖民化进程中留下的遗物。英帝国撤退後根据宗教界线分割了英属印度,建立了印度和巴基斯坦 (後者分为东巴基斯坦和西巴基斯坦),为了保持孟加拉邦和阿萨姆邦的接触,划界时留下了西里古里。沿着宗教界线建立的东巴基斯坦 (在1971年变成孟加拉国)成为印度当代地理学的重重阻碍。西里古里,如同它最薄弱的要害,挤在孟加拉国和尼泊尔的边界之间 (14英里),宽度不足马拉松路线的长度。

All land trade between North-East India’s 40 million denizens and the rest of the country traverses the Siliguri owing to the lack of a free-trade agreement between India and Bangladesh. In 2002, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh joined India in discussing a proposal to create a free-trade agreement that would have facilitated the movement of goods across the Siliguri corridor, but no such agreement has been established. Further reinforcing the strategic precariousness of the region is the fact that a single-line railway is all that carries rail-based freight across the Siliguri. The harsh topography of the region makes the railway and roads subject to damage from frequent landslides and natural disaster; India’s North-East is known for its record-breaking levels of rainfall.

由於印度和孟加拉未签署自由贸易协定,印度东北部4000万居民和其他地区之间的贸易全部走古里西里走廊。2002年,尼泊尔、不丹、孟加拉与印度一道讨论一份关於建立自由贸易协定的提议,该协定将有利於往返西里古里走廊的货物流通,但是此类协定并未达成。进一步加剧该地区战略不稳定性的是,一条穿越古里西里的单线铁路支撑了以铁路为基础运输的全部。该地区的恶劣地形使铁路和公路受到频繁的滑坡和自然灾害影响;印度东北部又以其破纪录的降雨量闻名。

India’s fortunes in the Siliguri were slightly ameliorated when the tiny monarchy of Sikkim – situated just north of the Siliguri, between Nepal, China, and Bhutan – merged with India in 1975 to become its second-smallest state. Sikkim had long been a subject of controversy between India and China. In the early 2000s, China refused to acknowledge Sikkim as part of India, maintaining that it was an independent state. The decision to do so was sparked by a controversy around the 17th Karmapa of the Black Hat branch of Tibetan Buddhism. Nevertheless, in 2003, China granted de facto recognition of Sikkim as a part of India by ceasing to list it as a separate state on its official documents and maps.

君主制国家锡金 – 位于西里古里北部,介于尼泊尔、中国和不丹之间 – 在1975年时被并入印度,成为印度第二小的邦后,印度在古里西里的命运稍有改善。锡金一直以来是中印之间长期的争议焦点。21世纪初,中国拒绝承认锡金是印度的一部分,坚持认为它是一个独立国家。然而在2003年,中国停止在官方文件和地图将其列为一个独立国家,给予锡金是印度一部分的事实承认。

In acknowledgement of its importance to India’s national security, the state maintains a heavy patrol presence in the Siliguri region. The Indian Army, the Assam Rifles, the Border Security Force, and the West Bengal Police all patrol the region. India’s Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) is known to closely observe Nepalese, Bhutanese, and Bangladeshi activity in the region as well. Among other issues, the Siliguri has been vulnerable to illegal Bangladeshi immigration into India. Certain analysts have also speculated that Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) has attempted to exploit the Siliguri via Nepal-based insurgents.

为了确认其在印度国家安全的重要性,该国在西里古里地区保持了大量的巡逻存在。印度陆军、阿萨姆步枪队、边境安全部队、以及西孟加拉邦警方都在该地区巡逻。众所周知,印度调查分析局(RAW)也在密切观察尼泊尔、不丹、孟加拉在该地区的活动。此外,西里古里一直容易受到孟加拉非法移民的潜入。某些分析人士还推测,巴基斯坦三军情报局(ISI)试图通过利用尼泊尔的叛乱分子来在古里西里做文章。

The Siliguri Corridor is a terrifyingly vulnerable artery in India’s geography. For Indians in the North-East, every look at a map is a sobering reminder of just how fragile their physical and economic tether to the rest of the country remains. Unlike so many of the problems India faces, the Siliguri Corridor’s vulnerability is a cruel endowment of political geography and essentially one it is stuck with. On the bright side, the current level of strategic vulnerability is far lower than it was in the past and can be further moderated with the establishment of a free-trade agreement between the states bordering the Siliguri.

西里古里走廊是印度地理上一条易被割裂的大动脉。对於在印度东北的印度人来说,每看一次地图就会清醒地认识到,他们与国内其他地区的物理和经济联系是多么脆弱。不同於印度面临的众多问题,西里古里走廊的脆弱是政治地理学的残酷禀赋中。从好的一面来看,目前的战略脆弱性远远比过去来的低,随着与古里吉里接壤的国家签署自由贸易协定,这种脆弱性可以得到进一步减轻。

以下是《外交家杂志》的评论:


译者:不知悔過的劍
来源:三泰虎论坛 http://bbs.santaihu.com/thread-8042-1-1.html



BP
Sikkim merged with India? Invaded and annexed by India is more like it.

锡金并入印度?更像是被印度侵略和吞并。

Keys
As a country that prides itself on being the largest democracy on earth, and as a country that is still struggling to meet the basic needs of its senselessly expanding population, India should seriously consider letting go of the restless states east of the "chicken neck".

Just let the region go its own way and become independent.

The Indian government really needs to learn something that the average adult is expected to learn by age 30: don't take on tasks you can't handle.

作为自诩是世界上最大的民主国家,而且作为一个还在努力满足不断增长人口的基本生活需求的国家,印度应该认真考虑放弃"鸡脖子"东面不安定的邦。

只是让该区域走自己的路,并且独立。

Derek
Artificially created countries are the worst of the lot. Look at the middle-east, Africa, and India. Merging and artificially splitting ethnic groups based on some imaginary line. Even worse so when you add religion into the mix. Greater Bengal should of been a seperate state, along with the North-East, split by the will of the populace. The many wars between Pakistan and India are the legacy of British folly in the Indian subcontinent.

人为制造的国家是最糟糕的。看看中东、非洲、印度,基於一些假想线来人为地分割民族,更糟的是当宗教的因素混在里面。大孟加拉应该是一个独立的国家,沿着东北部按照民众的意愿分割。巴基斯坦和印度之间发生的许多战争都是英国人在印度次大陆留下的遗产。

Johnny
You are an outsider and you'll never understand the intricacies of what being Indian is. We don't belong to one religion, one race or one ethnic group. We are very diverse and yet we are one. North east India, West Bengal and Kashmir and all other problematic areas are vital to the idea of India. We wouldn't be the same without these regions.

(注:印度人跑来网站留言?)
你是局外人,你永远不会明白印度人的错综复杂。我们不属於同一个宗教,一个种族或一个族群。我们非常多样话,但我们是一体的。印度东北、西孟加拉、克什米尔以及所有其他存在麻烦的地区对印度都是至关重要的。缺少了这些地区,印度将不再是印度。

BP
Just because you are repeating a lie zillion times doesn't make it true. This China invaded Tibet thing is a narrative first invented by the British, and later on picked up by the US for geopolitical reasons and India benefits from it and exploits it for its own political goals. Only pseudo historians will regurgitate this nosense for its target audience consumption. India duplicities in this Tibet thing will eventually backfire on India and may even cause the breakup of India. History works in a mysterious way and I can think of at least several scenarios that this can happen.

事情不会因为你重复无数次的谎言就成真。关於中国入侵西藏的事最早是英国人发明的叙述,後来因为地缘政治的原因就被美国拿来用,然後印度从中获益,并用来达到自己的政治目的。只有伪历史学家会照搬,对自己的目标受众胡说八道。印度在西藏问题欺诈最终对印度将适得其反,甚至可能导致印度的解体。

BP
No matter how elaborate you try to explain away why Sikkim is part of India now. The truth is that India invaded and annexed Sikkim in 1975, the cuminations of many years of work from RAW.

不管你多么试着费劲解释为何锡金成为印度的一部分。真相就是印度在1975年入侵并兼并了锡金,就是印度调查分析局进行多年的嘴炮工作。

回复
Anjaan
@ BP,


India would break up only if the people of India want to break it …… external forces can never break India …..


只有印度人民想要分开时印度才会分裂......外部力量永远不能分裂印度...



Tsewang Ridongji
What a lot of nonsense! The "annexation of Sikkim" is no different from Iraq's invasion and conquest of of Kuwait. India has no excuse, legal standing nor legitimate right to SIkkim. Did it's people agree to integration with India? Did the King agree to it willingly? By right, the UN should send an armed force to evict India from Sikkim. And perhaps the whole of its North Eastern states!

胡说!"吞并锡金"和伊拉克侵略并征服科威特并无不同。印度既没有理由,也没有合法权利吞并锡金。锡金人民同意跟印度合并了吗?锡金国王欣然同意了吗?联合国应该派遣武装部队到锡金赶走印度。可能也要赶走整个东北地区的印度人!

Kanes
Agree. India should give it up or waste resources on this needless frontier which is more burdensome than helpful. With US troops leaving Afghanistan next year, India's western front will hot up. Resources will be scarce between these fronts and eventually India will have to give it up.

A devastating war with China in these impoverished eastern states will also force India to withdraw.

同意。印度应该放弃这块地,否则就是浪费资源。随着美军明年离开阿富汗,印度的西线将更紧张。资源的缺少最终会使印度放弃。

Kanes
China should never have allowed it. People in Tibet are more prosperous than in South Tibet.

中国永远也不应该允许(注:指印度并入锡金)。西藏人民过得比藏南人民更加滋润。

BP
This is exactly what I mean. India will break apart by itself due to the internal forces.

这正是我要说的。印度将会因自身的内部武装而分裂。

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