三泰虎

只要还存在贱民,印度就不可能成为超级大国

阿米尔·汗(Aamir Khan)印度宝莱坞著名演员。他最近在印度媒体讨论了印度社会存在的贱民现象,表示只要还存在贱民,印度就不可能成为超级大国。他提到了圣雄甘地为让印度贱民拥有平等权利而所做的努力,为什么圣雄甘地要对废除印度贱民身份或者消灭基于种姓的歧视赋予如此大的重要性呢?因为印度贱民明显与圣雄甘地的自由愿景不相容。此外,阿米尔还提到了手工厕所清洁工在印度的存在,这种不人道的做法令他感到惊愕。

原文标题:Can’t be a superpower as long as untouchability exists
原文链接:http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/article3616695.ece




只要还存在印度贱民,印度就不可能成为超级大国

In a number of ways, Gandhiji was different from other freedom fighters and leaders of the time. One difference was that he gave equal importance to one more fight along with the struggle for independence, and that is, the emancipation of those ostracised as “untouchables.” Gandhiji’s work against untouchability began in South Africa around five decades before our independence. After his return to India, an incident at his Kochrab Ashram near Ahmedabad shows us how much importance he gave to the concept of equality between castes. The year was 1915. Thakkar Bappa, a close associate of Gandhiji, sent a Dalit by the name of Dudha Bhai to live in the ashram. Everyone in the ashram, including Kasturba, was opposed to this, and this was specifically due to Dudha Bhai’s status, as deemed by the caste hierarchy. Gandhiji made it clear that Dudha Bhai would not leave the Ashram. Anyone who was not comfortable with this was free to leave. He was informed that no one would agree and that even the funding for the ashram might stop. Gandhiji was undeterred. He was ready to shift his ashram to the Dalit basti, he said, even if it meant that his ashram would have only two members, namely Dudha Bhai and himself. Finally everyone turned around, except Gandhiji’s sister Gokiben, who left Kochrab as a result of her brother’s firm stance, never to return.

在许多方面,圣雄甘地与当时其他自由斗士和领袖不一样。其中一个不同之处是他给另一场斗争赋予的重要性等同于独立斗争,即解放印度贱民。独立前50年左右,圣雄甘地解放贱民的斗争开始于南非。回到印度后,发生在阿默达巴德附近Kochrab静修院的一个事件向我们表明他对种姓平等的概念所赋予的重要性是多么大。1915年,圣雄甘地的亲密伙伴巴帕塔迦尔把一名叫Dudha Bhai的达利特送到静修院住。静修院里包括卡斯特芭在内的的每个人都表示反对(三泰虎注:圣雄甘地13岁时就娶10岁的卡斯特芭为妻)。特别是反对的原因在于Dudha Bhai在种姓制度下被认可的地位。圣雄甘地明确表示Dudha Bhai不会离开静修院。如果有谁对此感到不舒服,可以自行离开。他被告知没有人会同意,甚至他的静修院所接受的资金来源也可能被停止。圣雄甘地没有被吓住,他表示准备把自己的静修院转变成达利特人的贫民窟,即使此举意味着静修院只有两个成员,即Dudha Bhai和甘地本人,他也要这样做。最终,除了甘地的妹妹Gokiben因其兄长的坚定立场而离开Kochrab静修院并再也没回来之外,其余人都改变了意见。

Why did Gandhiji give so much importance to the removal of untouchability, or discrimination based on caste? Let’s reflect on that for a moment. I think it is because the freedom he was fighting for was not just political. He did not merely want a different set of people in the corridors of power. Freedom for him meant freedom for each and every citizen of India. A freedom that could only be born from genuine equality, and the protection of the dignity of every Indian. Untouchability was clearly incompatible with his vision of freedom.

Working together

Today, many of us have a vision of what our country should be, what it can be, what India’s rightful place in the world is. Many of us dream of India becoming a superpower. But can this ever happen in a country where society is so fractured; where walls divide us? Can we ever achieve our vision if we don’t believe in a shared social good? A common vision?

为什么圣雄甘地要对废除印度贱民身份或者消灭基于种姓的歧视赋予如此大的重要性呢?让我们想一下吧。我认为原因出自于他所争取的自由不仅仅是政治层面上的,不只是想要换另一套领导班子。对于他来说,自由意味着每一个印度公民能享有自由,是那种生而平等的真正自由,是那种能够保护每个印度人尊严的自由。印度贱民明显与他的自由愿景不相容。

齐心协力

今天,我们中有许多人会想象我们国家应该是怎么样的,可以成为怎么样的国家,印度在世界上的应有地位等。许多人梦想印度成为一个超级大国。但是在一个社会被割裂的国家里,超级大国之梦能否实现呢?如果我们不相信共享的社会福利,那么我们的愿景是否能实现呢?共同的愿景?

What do I mean when I say shared social good?

Public property is a shared social good, a street or a road is a shared social good, our public health system is a shared social good. Unfortunately we are so fractured that we don’t see all this as ours. No wonder we throw garbage on our roads because we don’t really see the road as ours. We are not interested in our public health system because we don’t really see it as ours, which is why it is in a shambles. We can have a shared common goal, or a shared vision, only if we as a people are one.

Our forefathers who wrote the Constitution of our country, led ably by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, have clarified and laid down their vision for us — a vision of a country where all are equal. Where brotherhood and fraternity are pillars of our Constitution. Our leaders have shown us the way. They have laid down laws that tell us that discrimination based on caste and religion is illegal. Now, we have to find place in our hearts to follow them. We also have to find place in our hearts to accept that discrimination between people is against the very concept of humanity.

To be a cohesive team, and to have a common, shared vision, we have to start by first accepting that we have built up differences, walls, barriers. Then, we have to start working towards removing these differences. For example, there are umpteen housing societies all across the country which don’t sell houses to either Dalits or Muslims or Hindus or Christians or Sikhs, or to people from a different caste. This kind of petty thinking has to be done away with. And perhaps a great way to start making amends and moving in the right direction is to start with our children. Let us not sow the seeds of separation in our children. Let us not teach them the lessons of differences that we have been taught. And maybe if we stop practising these differences, in the innumerable ways that we do, then these divisions will not percolate to our children.

我所说的共同社会福利指的是什么?

公共财产是共同社会福利,一条街道或者公路是共同社会福利,我们的公共卫生体系是共同社会福利。不幸地是,我们处于如此割裂的社会里,以致于我们并不把这些当做我们的共同社会福利。难怪我们在公路上乱扔垃圾,因为我们并不真的把它看做是共同社会福利。我们对共同卫生体系不感兴趣,因为我们并不真的把其当做共同社会福利,所以它一片混乱。只要我们融合成一个民族,我们就可以有共同的目标或者共同的愿景。

我们的祖辈在安贝德卡博士的领导下撰写了宪法,为我们澄清和铺设了人人平等的愿景。兄弟情谊和友爱是宪法的支柱。我们的领导人给我们指明了道路,为我们奠定的法律表明基于种姓和宗教的歧视是非法的。如今,我们必须发自内心遵从这些法律,还必须真心接受这样的观念,即歧视别人是反人类的。

为了组建一个富有凝聚力的团队,为了拥有一个共同的愿景,我们必须首先承认我们建立了差异、禁闭和障碍。然后,我们必须开始消除这些差异。比如,全国有无数居住社团并不把房子卖给达利特、或者穆斯林、或者印度教徒、或者基督徒或者锡克教徒等来自不同种姓的人。此类小家子思维必须被废除。或许从我们的孩子教育开始是很好的修订方法和正确方向。让我们不要在孩子身上播下分离种子,让我们不要教孩子我们被教授的差异化。也许如果我们以无数种方式来阻止差异化对待,那么种姓分隔就不会渗透到我们的孩子中。

Manual scavenging

When I speak of a shared vision, of a shared common good, I am reminded of my own shortcomings in this regard. One of the most heartbreaking encounters for me was listening to Mr. Bezwada Wilson speak about manual scavenging. Words fail me. I am ashamed to admit that it was as late as last year, at the age of 46, that I came to recognise and actually see the existence of manual scavenging. At this late age, for the first time I felt the horror and inhumanity of it. How could I have for 46 years accepted, without batting an eyelid, the fact that some of our countrymen are made to clean the excreta of others with their hands as a means of survival? That they have no means of escape from it because of the caste that they are born into? Why didn’t I notice or react to this earlier? Not because it wasn’t happening around me. No. I did not notice it because I guess I had grown so used to seeing it around me right from my childhood that it didn’t seem unusual to me! And as I was not the victim, the horror and injustice of it probably did not occur to me. I am afraid I am guilty of this insensitivity. How can I even think of a shared common good as long as manual scavenging exists?

Well, having reacted to it now, I think it’s high time I do something about it. Because, I do believe that we should work towards a shared common good, a shared vision, a dream which can belong to all Indians.

手工厕所清洁工

提起共同愿景和共同福祉,我想起自己在这方面的缺点。其中一个最令我心碎的经历是倾听本瓦达·威尔逊先生有关人力清洁厕所的演讲。我无法用语言表达。我羞于承认自己46岁了才认识到和真正看到人力清洁厕所的存在。我年龄这么大了才首次感觉它的恐怖和不人道。46年了啊,我怎么现在才泰然自若接受这样的一个事实,即我们的一些国人为了生存而被迫用双手去清除别人的排泄物。他们没有逃避途径的原因是其天生的种姓吗?为什么我没有更早注意到这个事实?并不是我周围没有发生这样的事情。我猜自己之所以没有注意到,原因是自打童年时期我就司空见惯了,并不觉得有什么不寻常!由于我不是受害者,所以恐怖和不公平并没有发生在我身上。恐怕我对自己的感觉迟钝抱有罪恶感。只要手工清洁厕所还存在,我又怎么能考虑共同福祉呢?

既然我现在反应过来了,我想该就此做些事情了。我确实认为我们应该为了共同福祉、共同愿景、以及属于所有印度人的梦想而一起努力。

以下是印度网民的评论:



from: Raveendran Chinnasamy
Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 08:08 IST

We have to make the low caste people to educate. If they are educated then no one will feel that they are untouchable. The government should punish the people who makes the difference among the people.
Always we do tell like this only. But why can't we do something instead of depending on government or on the some other higher officials? Think once.

我们必须让低种姓人民接受教育。如果他们接受了教育,那么没人会认为他们是不可接触者。政府应该惩罚那些在人们中间制造差异的人。

我们一直都只是如此抱怨。与其依靠政府或者一些高级官员,为什么我们不为此做些事情呢?想一下吧。

Satyamev Jayate on Manual Scavenging:- Even though the government has
already declared Manual Scavenging illegal by passing the Act,
existence of such inhuman practice is still there in our society. The
Act or the Law is not the solution of this growing problem…
Government’s Law coupled with effective welfare schemes and commitment
to meet the deadlines will be the best ways to deal with the
situations. This societal problem should not be left with government
itself to handle, we the common citizens must come forward and work in
tandem, accepting the problems of our owns not of a particular caste or
community, lend our helping hands to stop the Manual Scavenging
practiced as a means of survival.
And also need to create an atmosphere for scavenging professionals to
lead normal human life. They must be taught either formally or
informally that carrying or gathering human excreta are inhuman and
even health hazards.
from: Rajeev Kumar

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 08:42 IST

即使政府已经通过手工清洁厕所是非法的法案,如此不人道做法仍然存在于我们社会。法案或者法律并非此类越来越突出问题的解决办法...政府的法律结合有效的福利机制和按期完成的承诺是处理此类情况的最佳方法。这个社会问题不应该留给政府来应对,我们普通公民必须站出来,大家一起戮力同心,承认我们的问题不属于特定种姓或者特定群体,伸出我们的援助之手,阻止人力清洁厕所成为一个生存之道。

此外,需要为专业厕所清洁工营造一种过正常人类生活的氛围。必须正式或者非正式地教他们,即用手收集人类排泄物是不人道的,甚至会危害健康。(文章来源:三泰虎)

Great work! Mr Amir. This is an eye-opener and something of which we all
are guilty of.
from: misha

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 08:46 IST

做得很棒!阿米尔先生。真是令人大开眼界,我们都应该为此感到内疚。

No doubt untouchability still exist in India Whether it is educationally developed state or backward state..Indian educational system has serious flaws in this regard..Reservation alone will not solve the purpose..a moral obligation of every human being is to respect the personality irrespective of their caste and creed..but People who belong to lower caste should also take the responsibility and should come forward and should not be under estimated...
from: PRATEEK GUPTA

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 09:06 IST

毫无疑问,不管是在教育发达的邦,还是教育落后的邦,印度仍然存在不可接触者。印度教育体制在这方面有严重缺陷。仅凭预留制并不能解决问题。每个人应尽的道德义务是尊敬来自任何种姓和人种的人。但是低种姓人也应该负起责任,应该站出来,不应该被忽视...

The point is well made but what is the solution? Legal remedies have mostly failed to eliminate these evil practices. Maybe a special incentive in jobs, education for inter-caste marriages can be given but seems largely unworkable in a conservative society like ours. Similarly mixed-housing, if provided a legal cover, may help building a more cohesive and inclusive society. But ultimately its the attitudinal change which has to happen, and it can't be forced. In long-term, universalisation of education, skill-development for gainful employment and mobility due to economic growth is the best bet.
from: sanjay singh

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 09:06 IST

观点很明确,但是解决办法是什么?法律救济在消灭这些邪恶做法方面大体上是失败了。也许可以给以工作上的特殊激励和实行跨种姓婚姻,但在我们如此保守的社会里似乎不大有效。类似地,混合居住可能帮助打造一个更加有凝聚力和包容性的社会。但最终还是需要人们态度上的改变,这可是强迫不来的。从长期来看,普世化教育、技能就业和随着经济发展而来的人口流动等是最好的办法。

Given that manual scavenging is outrageous should we not stop it RIGHT NOW !!!

Why are we still writing and discussing - do we need a committee to discuss on this.

Pathetic - Amir people like you who have the influence must see to it that state govts do the needful - please don't stop at writing, which in itself is no doubt a great service.

Thank you
from: Sankar

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 09:47 IST

鉴于手工清洁厕所是骇人的,难道我们不应该立即停止这样的行为吗!

为什么我们仍然在讨论,我们需要一个委员会来讨论这个事情吗。

可悲——诸如阿米尔等有影响力的人务必让政府急其所需。请别老是在这里大书特书,其本身肯定不会带来很大的效果。

though I appreciate the main topic of this article, what I fail to
understand is a couple of things

a. what makes a country super-power? what do people really mean when
they say a country as a super-power?
b. and why is each and everything tied up to being a super-power.

just being cynical, didn't USA become a super power with
untouchability having been practiced for decades.

please lets not mix each and every social indicator with a super-
power. Every one have their own definition of being super-power. For
one I don't believe India can never be a "economic" super-power.
from: arun mony

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 09:58 IST

虽然我欣赏本文的主旨,但是我无法理解几个问题:

1、是什么让一个国家成为超级大国?当人们说一个国家是超级大国时,这些人所指的真正意思是什么?

2、为什么超级大国要牵扯进每一件事情。

讽刺地是,贱民(黑奴)在美国存在了数十年,美国不也成为了超级大国吗!

请不要把每一个社会指标混入超级大国的定义。每个人对超级大国都有其自身定义。对于我来说,我不相信印度永远不会成为一个“经济”超级大国。

"Love Marriage" is a solvent which can dilute the two unacceptable
practices in our society namely dowry and caste system.
from: Mano

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 11:05 IST

“爱情婚姻”是可以淡化我们社会里嫁妆和种姓制度这两种不可接受行为的解决办法。

@Sanjay Singh - Solution is within us. If every person changes himself/herself and try to change their own family then change will be visible.
from: Maulik Chandya

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 11:35 IST

解决办法在于我们内部。如果每个人都改变自己看法,并努力改变家人的看法,那么变化会是显而易见的。

Dear Mr. Khan, On the broader topic of the episode - casteism, I feel
that the team should have covered the views of the economically poor
upper caste people too. The story covers only poor dalits and not the
rich lower caste people who continue to exploit the system by getting
seats for their sons/daughters who might not even qualify otherwise.

Lower caste people atleast have a ladder called "Reservation" that
they can use to uplift themselves. The upper caste people dont even
have that - the same argument holds true for the upper caste too -
"Why should we suffer now".

The problem starts with the Government - all the Government form asks
for "Caste". If the Government is hell bent upon removing casteism,
they should first stand corrected. They should also work towards
creating a reservation system that will take into account only the
economic (and NOT caste) status of a person. Till the time vote bank
politics exist, caste based reservation will continue to exist.
from: JR

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 11:40 IST

亲爱的阿米尔先生,就本节的更广泛主题——种姓制度,我认为团队也应该顾及高种姓中的穷人。本篇只涉及贫穷的达利特,没有涉及富有的低种姓人。这些富有的低种姓人继续利用预留制为其没有资格的儿女获得职位。

低种姓人至少有一个叫做“预留制”的梯子让其往上爬。高种姓人甚至没有。同样的论点对于高种姓人来说也是正确的——“为什么我们现在受苦”。

问题开始于政府。所有的政府都会问及“种姓”。如果政府决心消灭种姓制度,那么他们应该首先摆正立场。他们应该建立一个基于经济状况的预留制。只要票仓政治仍然存在,基于种姓的预留制就会继续存在下去。

Caste and untouchability are one thing, and practices like manual scavenging are another. The latter can be eliminated if the government acts tough and wields the stick mercilessly. But as it was found in Vidarbha (article in The Hindu), even people who had no financial compulsion were voluntarily continuing on the job! Strange. On the other hand, caste will go away only with education of the mind. Because, here both the oppressor and victim are responsible. While the oppressor feels superior for no reason, the victim adapts double standards. A well-to-do "backward" citizen (be in BC, SC, ST, anyone) should stop enjoying reservations. Else, they are perpetuating the very system they blame.
from: Ramana Murthy

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 11:48 IST

种姓和贱民是一回事,诸如人力清洁厕所等行为是另外一回事。如果政府雷厉风行,那么后者就会消失。但正如在维达尔巴所发现的那样,连没有经济压力的人都自愿继续从事这样的工作!真是奇怪。另一方面,只有思想教育才能让种姓消失。压迫者和受害者都负有责任。压迫者认为其天生就是优越的,受害者则采取双重标准。富裕的“落后”公民不应该享受预留制。否则,他们就是在维系他们所指责的制度。

The Indian sub-continent is not a land where rich and poor reside. This
is a country of touchables and untouchables, high-castes and low-
castes, pure Brahmins and impure Chandalas. The poor can hope to shed
his poverty tomorrow, but how can an Untouchable ever become a Brahmin.
So, the whole societal structure needs to be done away with; if we ever
wish to be one, the notions of high and low via the mere accident of
birth should not remain. And the only and the greatest impediment to
that is religion - the fetter that enslaves us.
from: Vicky Chandra Ranjan

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 12:04 IST

印度次大陆不是富人和穷人居住的地方,而是可接触者和不可接触者、高种姓和低种姓、婆罗门和贱民所居住的国家。穷人可以期待明天能够脱贫,但是一个不可接触者如何能成为婆罗门。所以,需要废除整个社会结构。如果我们真的想这样做,那么仅凭出生来确定的高种姓和低种姓观念不应该继续存在。唯一和最大的阻碍是束缚和奴役我们的宗教。

My experience after visiting USA,Canada and living in Africa long time,NRI working in different countries are not at all particular about casteism especially unaccountability is not heard of.Even in social gathering friends from different countries mix up as Asians (Desi)without indulging in dirty political talks.The day we land up in India every problem starts.If I allow my cook to sit with me at dining table as we do abroad,my Indian friends will prefer to leave without having meals.Although, we are following WEST but to the full like equal treatment for all citizens.
from: Ravindra Raizada

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 12:21 IST

就我参观美国和非洲以及在非洲的长期生活经历来看,工作在各国的海外印度人并不特别留意种姓制度,特别是没听说过什么不负责任的事情。即使在社交聚会上,来自各国的朋友混在一起,都是亚洲人,不会去讨论脏脏的政治。我们降落印度的那一天,一切问题都开始浮起来了。如果我如同在国外一样允许厨师在餐桌上共同进餐,那么我的印度朋友会选择拒绝进餐并离开。(文章来源:三泰虎)

Amir Khan is used as pawn to publicize the show
and thereby to hide the real heros of India's true history. In this
episode of untouchability cleverly hidden the greatest pioneer
of Indias freedom struggle as well as the equality and upliftment of
India as whole i.e. Dr Ambedkar. This has clearly proved that this
show is created by vested interests.
from: Dr Param Anand

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 12:22 IST

阿米尔汗只是被当做宣传的棋子而已,为的是掩盖印度历史的真正英雄。在本章有关不可接触者的文章中,明显掩盖了印度自由斗争以及权力平等和生活改善的伟大先驱,也就是安贝德卡博士。这表明本文是既得利益者所撰写的。

This column on untouchability is a clear example of failure of caste
based Reservations in our country.Reservations based on castes should be
ruled out because we can see rich and poor in every caste.Reservations
should be based on Economical backgrounds and government should fastrack
the awareness programmes.I can say government itself is indirectly
encouraging castes,untouchability etc to get benefited from vote bank
politics.
from: Santosh Kuamr Kanala

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 12:34 IST

本专栏讲的是不可接触者,明显是基于种姓的保留制的失败例子。每个种姓都有富人和穷人,所以预留制不应该基于种姓,应该根据经济状况,政府应该快速跟踪这个认知计划。我可以说是政府在间接鼓励种姓制度和贱民,以便从票仓政治中获利。

Untouchability exists everywhere, even if it is United States :-)... but what is making the difference over there... its law. Law should be efficient enough to give the verdict in time and it should be amended to suit the modern society. Even now the penalty for a homicide is 5 lakh rupees. What can one do with that? Another factor is in efficient judiciary system. It is not helping the common people. Whether it is meagre or major verdict should come within stipulated time period. If this is not happening, then the number of courts should be increased. I will not blame any one or dependent on police or securities if I have a proper law coverage. Most of the caste system and all other criminal activities are mainly on the budding environment of lawlessness. Law should come foolproof, only then we can strive here, and make our country a super power. All other factors will vanish if we have a very good and efficient law delivery mechanism.
from: Renjith

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 12:58 IST

到处都有贱民,连美国也有 :-)... 是什么造就了这些区别之处...是法律。法律应该足够及时和有效的给出判决,应该修正以适应现代社会。杀一个人的罚款是50万卢比。这些钱能拿来干什么?另一因素是有效的司法体制。现行司法体制并没有帮助老百姓,不管是或大或小的判决,应该在规定时间里完成。如果办不到,那么应该增加法庭的数量。如果有合理的法律保护,那么我不会责怪任何人,或者不会依赖警察。种姓制度和其他犯罪活动主要是无法无天的环境下滋生的。法律应该是令人安全的。只有那时,我们才能努力让国家成为超级大国。如果我们有非常有效的法律实施机制,那么所有其他障碍会消失。

my heart aches. Its a shame it happens in our country sometimes right in front of us.. i am so shameful that i cant help them. I am so spineless..
from: sampathkumar

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 13:07 IST

我的心好痛。真可惜,它有时候就发生在我们面前。我太羞耻了,无法帮助他们。我太懦弱了...

stop going to toilet in the trains.
how do we "ordinary" citizens feel about stoping this ? we want somebody who has power to stop this. what else is the solution ? do our part. for a train travelor, the first sentence mentioned is the solution.
The same theory applies even to waste disposal. no proper system to do this. either solid or liquid waste.
we have "sub chalega" attitude.
The changes will eventually come. it is a matter of time..
Satyameva jayathe... but it never says how much time it takes for the truth to win..
from: Joseph

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 14:46 IST

别在火车上如厕。

我们普通公民对此怎么看呢?我们需要有权利的人来阻止这样的事情。还有什么解决办法吗?就我们而言,作为火车旅客,我的第一句话就是解决办法。

同样的道理适用于排泄物处理,没有合适的系统来处理固体排泄物或者液体排泄物。

改变终究会到来的,只是时间问题而已...

Excellent, Wonderful. But I don't agree with Aamir Khan's statement or thinking that untouchability is the main factor for not becoming a super power. The main factor should also include RESERVATION. India MUST abolish this reservation immediately. It should provide financial support to all backward or weaker socities but not in the form of RESERVATION.
from: Balu S

Posted on: Jul 9, 2012 at 15:48 IST

很好,很棒。但我不同意阿米尔汗所认为的印度贱民是印度不能成为超级大国的主要因素。主要因素应该还包括预留制。印度必须立即废除预留制,为所有落后或者弱势群体提供财政支持。

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