外文标题：How India is learning from China
When it came to national security issues, China never hesitated to take a quick decision regardless of the material costs. Nor were the superiority in military strength of the adversary a consideration, Srikanth Kondapalli points out.
After dilly-dallying on the composition, budgetary allocations, role and missions of the service arms and bureaucratic wrangling between the defence and foreign/security establishments, the idea of the Strike Corps — the fourth such force, but the latest dedicated to mountain warfare — took concrete shape with the nod from the Cabinet Committee on Security.
Expected to cost nearly Rs 89,000 crore in the 12th Five Year Plan and composed of three-division strength, the proposed Corps is expected to take war into Tibet and enhance the costs if the other side ventures into India.
Although doubts were expressed on the need for such a Strike Corps, the contextual reasons strengthened this idea. Firstly, the then Army Chief General Deepak Kapoor stated in late 2009 that the armed forces are gearing up for a two-theatre front under nuclear conditions — one addressing the Pakistan scenario and the other China — in addition to considering the nuclear factor of Pakistan and China.
In the light of the continuing Chinese assistance to Pakistan in the nuclear and ballistic missile capabilities, such an assessment is hardly out of place. His successor General V K Singh re-iterated this position. However, the above military objectives and intentions were not matched with force levels on ground — with turf wars coming to the fore between different services and ministries.
Secondly, the mounting asymmetry in military strength between China and India as a result of China’s rise is clearly visible in the Indian fears from the northern neighbour which had raised several irredentist claims recently.
This growing asymmetry is reflected in budgetary allocations as well as actual military strength. Thus China spends (officially estimated at $120 billion) more than three times the Indian defence budget.
In the next two decades China is expected to surpass the United States defence spending to over $1 trillion, while Beijing already surpassed every other country in Asia.
Of these figures, it is estimated that China spends nearly one-fourth of such allocations in the borders with India and is reflected in over 30 military exercises conducted in and around Tibet in the last two years, military deployment including recently of J-10 and Su-27 long-range multi-role fighter aircraft and deliberate nuclear deterrence signals by the official press that China’s missiles are now land/rail mobile.
Asymmetry in military strength is also reflected in troops’s strength — although both are now gearing for hi-tech local or limited wars in which infantry strength plays marginal role. While India has four Corps — the 14th, 3rd, 4th and 33rd Corps including 10 Mountain Infantry Divisions of a total strength of nearly 220,000 — China has four Group Armies in 13th, 14th, 21st, 47th with a total strength of about 400,000 troops in the Chengdu and Lanzhou military regions with operational jurisdiction bordering India.
The Sichuan-based 149th Airborne Division is seen frequently deployed in Tibet for rapid troops transport, augmented also by the rail and road networks in the region. These resulted in the Indian armed forces raising threat levels vis-a-vis China from ‘low’ to ‘medium’ levels in the last decade.
With the additional 50,000 troops as a part of the Strike Corps formation, India could partly mitigate this asymmetry in strength. More significantly it provides for a psychological boost to the Indian armed forces.
Thirdly, since the Indian nuclear tests in 1998, there has been a visible increase in the transgressions of the Line of Actual Control by the border patrols. Thus on an average there is an estimated three-digit figure of such transgressions in the eastern and western sectors of the border.
While both sides certified that there existed ‘peace and tranquility’ on the border areas, the situation on the ground indicated to intense jockeying for space.
Transgressions like the April 15 to May 5 Depsung Plains and recently at Chumar punctured this position. An exasperated Prime Minister Manmohan Singh stated in his press briefing, during Premier Li Keqiang’s visit to Delhi in May, that since 1988 the basic understanding between the two countries is to maintain peace and tranquility so that they could explore relations in the diplomatic and economic spheres.
The Depsung Plains incident sealed the mouths of the naysayers for the Strike Corps.
The decision to go ahead with the Strike Corps indicates that India is learning from China. When it came to national security issues, China never hesitated to take a quick decision — regardless of the material costs. Nor were the superiority in military strength of the adversary a consideration.
China going full hog in the Korean War — which resulted in over a million casualties — explains such an unambiguous position, even though it was pitched against the most advanced forces of the day — that of the United States. The then premier Zhou Enlai famously said about the umbilical relationship between the Korean Peninsula and northeast China as ‘lips and teeth’ and that China would defend at whatever cost its perceived national interests and counter threats.
India needs to take a cue from this.
Srikanth Kondapalli is Professor in Chinese Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University.
by arungopal agarwal
How an indiscipline country can be compared with discipline.
China is mighty, can produce almost all their requirements in arms whereas we have to depend on foreign countries for every thing..even for finalizing the latest type of fighter a/craft we takes decades..we still fly mig-21, flying coffins..so no match
Re: Re: China
by Samir Padhi
Who said we can’t produce our own military stuff?But it’ll be against those officials and politicians who recieve large commissions from foreign firms for arms deals.So they’ll never allow it to happen.That’s the whole story.Have you ever heard a politician in India has been given death penalty for corruption, unlike in China?
China & India
by Suresh Babu
A mechanical engineer from Gujarat went china for employment during 2000 and after 10 years of his service, he started his own business in china. Now that indian engineer is an industrialist in china. If he was in india he will be a worker in any third grade industries in Gujarat. This means china is giving more salary/wages to their employees and this is evident from shopping malls coming in china.
Yeah,many Indians married Chinese girls and settled down here forever.There is huge scope for growth here.
Re: Re: China & India
by s swetha s
Id you marry Chinese , you don’t get their citizen ship. That is not growth. There is no way Indian women can adjust in China. Thats why they marry them.
Re: China & India
by vikas bishnoi
yes china is providing all best of support to trade and biz .they knew only trade and biz is the key for which can make country strong and life .not like India you well said example of Gujarati engineer if he is in india may be seating in front of any Govt office for numbers of licences approval etc and end up his dream with doing with any third grad job .Tax , loan cost and non-cooperative policy is the main big rock .which hold back industryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy/
Strength should be 90,00,000 personnel so that we can match the threat of both China and minion Pakistan simultaneously.India should have 800,000 personnel in Tibet border compared to China’s 400,000.It understands only strength and not peace bull…t!!We have to put max of our resources into defense!!We don’t need repeat of Muslim and British rule again and national military pride should be the first priority!!!
by bhuwan varma
india,always lack strong leadership from time of death of Mrs indira gandhi,
need strong pm
by SAI RAM
need strong pm
The Chinese militia has been the aware of the world. India learnt from that country, way back in 1962, on defence preparedness, for which our country had to pay a heavy price, in terms of men and the country’s boarder.
The raising of Mountain Division is surely a quick and timely response by our government to cope and tackle with ever growing threat from China militarily.
Too little, too late.
by s d
India does too little too late.
The reason is Nehru Dynasty.
Nehru blindly believed the Chinese, and cried foul when China attacked in 1962.
Indira Gandhi kept the military strength on last priority.
Though as an exception, Rajeev Gandhi did his best at Sumdorang Chu incident, it was an isolated case and hee too kept the military at the minimum level.
Sonia does not care about what happens to India and is more concerned about herself, her family and her outside connections And so her stalwarts like A. K. Antony slept all throughout. They all mislead Indians and kept true position on the Chinese incursions hidden. And now when Chinese forces are nearly matching those of USA, here is a gimmick of increasing the number by just two division strength !! This is all ridiculous and angering !!!!
NEver too late
by AUGUSTINE DIAS
I hope we are not too late & I also hope that we will achieve it in the targeted next 6years, I woner what happens after the 2014 elections ?????
What India should not learn from China
by Suman Gadhok
China portrays itself as a strong & united nation.However,its citizens are totally curbed, They are denied right to property,freedom of speech,internet and right to vote the government of their choice,
Not a single neighbor of China trusts her be they be Japan,South Korea,Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Phillipines or Singapore.
China supports dangerous nations like North Korea & Pakistan.
On International forums they blatantly work against India.
As a nation China is a cookie ready to crumble.
Its hard working people deserve a better government.
Re: What India should not learn from China
by NAGRAJ KV
Well writen!!Agree on most points.. but why do people need so much freedom and rights? They will misuse it..will sell their votes.. results in appeasement politics.. instead we need honest and effective governance
China has a total of 18 so-called group armies
(actually combined corps) divided between 7 Military Districts: Beijing、Nanjing、Jinan、Shenyang、Guangzhou、Chengdu and Lanzhou, with the last 3 each having 2 GAs under command and the rest each having 3 GAs。China has 850000 army personnels per the latest Defence White Paper。Now even if both Chengdu and Lanzhou MDs，as the article falsely claim，are operationally placed against India，the number 400,000 is ridiculously high。50,000，consisting of 2 armoured brigades，a couple of artillery regiments and a number of frontiers regiments，are more realistic。A study of map of China should tell you the Lanzhou MD has NOTHING to do with India. Indians are thus misinformed, misled and lied to by their media.
Re: China has a total of 18 so-called group armies
by Shashank Parab
Man, Be aware .. Chinese can frame you for leaking information here.
I would not say they have deployed you to spread rumors, as this is very small forum.
Re: China has a total of 18 so-called group armies
by Mahendra Singh
“False claim” is what goes with China. If you are a common citizen of china, then I suspect if even you know the real truth. Unfortunately Indian army and its plans are too transparent to the point that it is almost useless, what is the winning strategy if the opponent knows you too well. Hope Indian army and policy makers will get this lesson from China.
meanwhile getting back to topic, Indians know too well of how China claims as being innocent up untill showing the real ugly face, example? 1962 war with China, that happened immediately before china was singing peace to fool Indian. Now they are doing the same by building dams across Brmhaputra river despite giving assurances of otherwise. China is know for deception and not integrity world over.
So Mr. Xian, whom are you trying to fool here?
Learn from China?
by Samir Padhi
I wonder if our politicians have paralysis of analysis.Or else why don’t they take prompt measures to upgrade the Armed forces. It’s not the numbers, but the quality of army which decides the fate of the war. We should rather learnfrom Israel rather, how to defend themselves.Most important, they ought to have some self-respet and self belief.
Why we want to learn on military expenditure?
China didnt start with investing in military expenditure during their growth phase .They are now in a different phase than us .
Why dont we first learn to build infrastructure like they build and move all factories production etc etc to India .India has lot of skilled people and also willing to work hard , if the government can get factories to india .
But instead we spend money on buying expensive arms so much that we are no 1 arms buyer in the world .
and is this for nations growth ? it is for some people to earn loads of commissions and keep the nation with no infrastructure and make people suffer .
US and others are buying our people to write and create and environment which makes people believe arms purchase is really necessary .
these writers and many other media just write what they get paid for
someone pays they write
Re: Why learn only about military expenditure
Can we please write an article on how China built its infrastructure and brand new cities like shenzhen where almost no one lived before and transformed it into an economic powerhouse
I think our people need food , better roads , good job , good quality of life than seeing arms display
Re: Why learn only about military expenditure
by vishal raizada
If you do not have your boundaries safe and next day if china sits in Delhi, then what would be the use of building factories or other infrastructures, it is not an arms buying race more over a race to secure our boundaries and nation, once this part secured we can look fwd for development, otherwise max of our forces will be deployed and definitely defense expenditures will increase and we will not be able to move towards development and success.