从这里了解印度人对中国的看法

中国农业和印度农业如何天差地别

2012-06-20 23:06 65个评论 字号:

《印度时报》记者Subodh Varma在中国四川晃悠了一圈后写下了本文。这名印度记者比较了中国农业印度农业的几个方面。中国农民把稻草烧掉作为土地肥料,印度农民则把农业残留物用于喂养奶牛、混上牛粪当做燃料、用来盖屋顶等。印度奶牛头数是中国的三倍,但是印度奶牛产奶量比中国奶牛产奶量低很多。中国农村实行联产承包责任制,农民的积极性更高。印度一半的农村人口没有土地,他们在其他人的地里劳动。由于成本价格非常高,所以农民不会获得任何回报。此外,印度一半的耕种靠下雨。

原文标题:Organized agriculture: How China & India are a world apart
原文链接:http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/china/Organized-agriculture-How-China-India-are-a-world-apart/articleshow/13831340.cms

中国农业和印度农业如何天差地别:印度农业生产效率低下

印度农业生产效率低下

SHIFENG, SICHUAN: As dusk falls, the expressway from Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province, is smooth as butter, newly built after the 2008 earthquake. But soon after leaving the city, traffic is slowing down. Is it smoke or fog that is drifting in from the open fields on both sides? Or, is it smog, for this is a heavily industrialized region?

Hao Yuenan, a knowledgeable and charmingly nationalistic official of the provincial government, snatches the mike on the bus and reassures everybody that this is not industrial pollution.

“It is farmers burning the agricultural waste and residue in their fields,” he announces rather sheepishly.

“There is a law against it, but who is going to implement it! And, the farmers get important minerals for their fields from the ash,” he adds.

夜幕降临,四川省会成都在2008年地震后新建的高速公路像黄油一样平整。但是一旦离开这座城市,交通就缓慢下来了。是否是道路两边的田野飘过来的烟或者雾导致的?或者就是烟雾,这里可是高度工业化的地区?

知识渊博和魅力十足的省政府官员郝月楠(音译)把大巴上的话筒抢过去,安慰大家说这不是工业污染。

他相当不好意思的宣布:“这是农民在田里烧农业废弃物和残留物。法律是禁止的,但是谁会去执行!农民从这些灰烬中获得田里需要的重要矿物质。”

The rapeseed crop has been harvested, the tiny mustard-like seeds threshed out manually, ready for the oil mill. The dry seedless plants can be seen piled up all along the road in small fields. Some are already burning furiously, as families stand by poking at the embers.

The scene is almost India-like except that the kisan doesn’t burn agricultural residue in such quantities. Perhaps the stubble of cut off stems and leaf litter may be burnt. But piles of dry plants have multiple uses in the subsistence economy of Indian farmers – from feeding cattle to mixing with cowdung for fuel to roofing material.

But in China, things are different. One hardly sees cows or buffaloes in the fields or roadsides – their cattle population is less than one- third of India’s. China has 108 million heads of cattle compared to 322 million in India. In any case, cattle is fed on more nutritive fodder than dry stems and leaves.

油菜籽已经收获了。看似芥茉的油籽被人工打出来,准备送往榨油工厂。公路两边堆满了残留的干燥作物。从有些农户站在旁边拨动着灰烬看来,有些作物已经被疯狂烧掉了。

除了印度农民不会如此大规模烧掉残留作物外,这样的场景非常类似印度。也许碎秸和落叶在印度会被烧掉,但是成堆的干燥作物在印度农民赖以生存的经济中有多种用途,包括喂养奶牛、混上牛粪当做燃料、盖屋顶时当做材料等。

中国的情况则不同。人们很少在田里或者路边看到奶牛或者水牛。他们的牛的头数不足印度的三分之一。中国有1.08亿头牛,印度有3.22亿头。无论如何,牛吃的饲料比干茎和干叶更有营养。

With better fodder, and genetics, milk yields are vastly different in the two countries. Under village conditions, an Indian cow yields about 956 liters per year and a buffalo 1,300 liters. Chinese cows yields as much as 3,700 kgs per year. The Chinese farmer works under the “household responsibility system”. All land is owned by the state. At various administrative levels authority is given to the corresponding government body to supervise land use. So, the village council, led by the village Communist Party branch works out a system of allocating land plots to families. These plots become the responsibility of the allottees – they cultivate whatever they want and sell it wherever they can for whatever price they get.

A Chinese farmer’s family of four earned about 1,973 yuan (about Rs17,500) per month in 2010 according to the National Statistics Bureau of China. This is about one fourth of an urban resident’s average income. In a small hamlet of post-earthquake resettled farmers, Zhou Zheng Ying confirms that he earns about 2,000 yuan from growing corn, vegetables and some fruits.

牛吃的饲料更好,基因更好,所以两国的奶产量相差巨大。在农村环境下,每头印度奶牛每年产奶大约956公升,水牛是1300公升。中国的奶牛每年产奶多达3700公斤。中国实行家庭承包责任制。所有的土地归国家所有。各级政府被赋予相应的土地使用监管权。所以村支书领导下的村委员把土地分配给家庭。这些小块土地成为各家各户的义务——他们可以耕种任何作物,可以以能卖出的价格卖往任何地方。

根据中国国家统计局的数据,中国的四口农村家庭2010年平均每月赚大约1973元(大约17500卢比),大约相当于城市居民平均收入的四分之一。在一个震后重新定居的小村庄里,周正英(音译)确认每月从种植玉米、蔬菜和一些水果中赚取大约2000元。

Tang Hua, a live-wire young woman turns out to be the village Party secretary. She carries out a staccato exchange with Zhou after which his wife is summoned from the kitchen. She clarifies she too is earning, by working in a factory. So their income is about 4,000 yuan.

Sichuan is a relatively more developed province and this particular region is also industrialized. Hence incomes are higher, says Hao. In remote provinces like Gansu, monthly income of a four member rural household may be as low as 993 yuan or about Rs 8,600 per month.

The village council provides highyield seeds, arranges fertilizers and pesticides (although in Sichuan a lot of “pollution-free” produce is also grown). Water for irrigation is no problem in the region because of canals, says Tang. And thereby hangs an incredible tale. “All water in the region is coming from the Dujiangyan system,” says Hao proudly. Built in 256 BCE, this gravity flow system is still functional, holding and redirecting water from the Min River to over 5,300sqkm of cultivated land. Dujiangyan is a Unesco World Heritage site today.

As we continue towards Mianyang city, vineyards and tobacco fields can be seen stretching towards the horizon. Like every city in China, Shifang too has several other names -” Hometown of Chinese Cigar” is the obvious one because it is one of the largest cigar production centers in China. It is also called the “Land of Chinese Mineral Water” because Dujiangyan sends mountain water into taps. But residents prefer this most – “Pearl of Western Sichuan”.

唐华是一名精力充沛的年轻妇女,是该村的村支书。她和周断断续续的交流着。后来周的妻子被从厨房叫出来。周的妻子宣称自己也在一家工厂赚钱。所以他们的收入大约是4000元。

郝称,四川是一个相对发达的省份,也是工业化地区,因此收入会比较高。在甘肃等边缘省份,一个四口之家的农村家庭的月收入可能低至每月993元或者大约8600卢比。

村委会提供高产量的种子,安排化肥和农药(四川也种植许多“无害”作物)。唐称,该地区有运河,所以灌溉不是个问题。还因此流传着一个令人难以置信的故事。郝自豪的称该地区所有的水都来自公元前256年修建的都江堰工程。这个工程把水至上而下的引向5300多平方公里的耕地。都江堰如今是联合国世界遗产。

随着我们继续前往绵阳市,葡萄园和烟草田地一直延伸到地平线。就像中国的每个城市一样,什邡也有几个别名。最明显的是“中国雪茄之乡”,因为什邡是中国最大的雪茄生产中心。它还叫做“中国矿泉水之乡”,因为都江堰输送了大量的山泉水。不过居民最喜欢的美誉是“川西明珠”。

以下是印度网民的评论:

mrxexon (USA)
If there is anything in common between India and China, it’s that you have a billion people to feed every- single-day. It’s a good time to learn how to do this better by sharing techniques and wisdom. Two heads are better than one. x
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要说印度和中国之间有什么共同点,那么就是每天都要养十亿人。现在是分享技术和智慧,从而学习如何更好养活十亿人的好时机。集思广益嘛。

arda92 (Germany)
You see, when Indians are reporting about China, it is either negative and bad or very overdragged. Like somehing saying at the same time “I hate Obama” and “but he is great”. I am suprised because it is the same kind of view from the White people in the 19th century. When you ask most chinese about India, they just say they like your food and ancient culture. And that is it , nada, nothing more. I think it is sad because you can learn so much from each other. You are so close but also so far away. Now taking an example: India can learn how to improve its basic infrastructure where china can learn how to bring more equality in their system.
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你看看,每次印度人报道中国,不是负面的就是牵强的。就像有人说“我讨厌奥巴马”的同时又说“他是伟大的”。我感到吃惊,因为这样的观点与19世纪的白人所持的观点如出一辙。如果你问大多数中国人如何看印度,他们只会说喜欢你们的食物和古老文化。就那样,没有其他的了。我认为是遗憾的,因为你们可以彼此互相学习很多东西。你们挨得很近,但是也相隔遥远。现在举个例子:印度可以学习如何改进基础设施,中国则可以学习如何在体制中引入更多的平等。

Siloo Kapadia (Singapore) replies to arda92
Chinese have been busy learning from abroad since the early 1980s. What about India? Does the Indian want to learn? I think not! Indians are too xenophobic and too high-nosed to think they can learn from anyone else, much less a fellow Asian. We are too busy watching cricket, screwing ourselves, and pretending to be white. Oh yes, and comparing ourlseves favorably to Pakistan, a failed state if ever there was one. We SHOULD compare ourselves to China or Singapore or Malaysia or Thailand, but we won’t. In fact, we can’t. They are all generations ahead of us. Pity, we have so much potential, yet so much ca-ca to deal with.
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中国人自从1980年代早期以来一直忙于向国外学习。印度呢?印度人是否想学习?我认为不是!印度人太仇外了,太趾高气昂了,以致于不会想着向其他人学习,更不用说向亚洲人学习。我们太忙于观看板球比赛,扭曲了自己,假装是个白人。哦,是的,把自己和巴基斯坦这个失败国家比较。我们应该与中国、新加坡、马来西亚或者泰国比较,但是我们不这样做。事实上,我们无法比较。他们都领先我们几代了。可怜的是我们有那么大的潜力,却有那么多的…要处理。

原创翻译:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com

b.n.roy (nagpur) replies to Siloo Kapadia 15 days ago
Ms Siloo, the middle class Indians favourite hobby is to ape the Americans, their dream is either to go themselves, or send their children for further education to USA. I have been to some technical seminars abroad, everywhere the attending experts ask just one thing “Why does not India share or learn from the experiences of Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, China, etc instead of adopting western technologies”. The colonial mentality of the Indians is so deep rooted that we have taken it to heart that the white man is much-much superior to us. 800 years of slavery has completely warped our minds. Unfortunately Ms Kapadia the Singaporeans too are also suffering from the same mentality, they are proud of their British colonial days, and most of the names of streets are of English officials. Even today the Singapore Govt is very close to USA & UK. In this respect since China was never under any colonial power for a long period the spirit of nationalism is still there.
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Siloo女士,印度中产阶级喜欢模仿美国人。他们的梦想是去美国,或者送孩子去美国深造。我参加过一些国外的技术研讨会。每次,与会专家都问这样一个问题“为什么印度要采用西方技术,而不是向墨西哥、巴西、阿根廷、中国等国家学习”。印度人的殖民思维深入骨髓,以致于我们心里认为白人远远比我们优越。800年的奴役扭曲了我们的思维。不幸的是,新加坡人也有同样的思维。他们以英国殖民时代为荣,大部分街道的名字是英国官方用名。甚至在今天,新加坡政府与美国和英国的关系也很密切。从这个方面来看,中国由于没有长期受到任何殖民国家的奴役,所有民族精神仍然存在。

Siloo Kapadia replies to b.n.roy
Thank you for your comment. You are right but Singapore is slowly getting less gorawalla-minded as time goes on. I am here. I see it and feel it. Yes, the street names are left the same but now everyone in school (yes, including the non-Chinese) learns Mandarin. I hear more and more of how many want to study abroad but they all want to come back or go to China or Japan or elsewhere in Asia. VERY FEW want to immigrate to the West. This is totally different from the Indian mindset. I remember, we lived near Rutgers University in New Jersey. We met many young Indians and Chinese among others. Despite what the press says, most of the Chinese wanted to learn and go back to get rich and make China great. The first question the Indian students would ask, however, was “how do I get my greencard?” Very sad indeed.

Yes, you are right. Indians are totally brainwashed. I am a Parsee and we Parsees are the BIGGEST GORAWALLA-BUTT KISSERS IN THE WORLD. I can only feel ashamed. India took us in, and we only think of ourselves as “Westerners” or “Anglo Saxons” or even “Persians,” I apologize on behalf of the Parsee community to my fellow India for this type of horrible behavior. I only hope that Indians can develop a closeness for their fellow Asians and not miss out in this, the greatest transfer of wealth and power in the history of the earth, from West back to East.
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谢谢你的评论。你说得对。不过随着时间的流逝,新加坡人慢慢变得不那么具有殖民思维。我在这里有看到,也有感觉到。是的,街道名字都是遗留下来的,但是学校的每个人(包括非华人)都学习普通话。我听到越来越多人想要出国留学,但是他们想去的是中国、日本或者亚洲的其他地方。极少人想要移民西方。这与印度人的思维是完全不同。记得居住在新泽西州罗格斯大学附近的时候,我们碰到许多年轻的印度人、中国人和其他国家的人。大多数中国人学成后想回国致富和让中国变得强大。然而印度学生首先会提的问题是“如何获得绿卡”。确实非常悲哀。

你说得对,印度人完全被洗脑。我是一名印度拜火教徒。我们拜火教徒是世界上最大的拍白人马屁的马屁精。我能感受到的只有耻辱。我们只认为自己是“西方人”、“盎格鲁撒克逊人”,或者甚至认为自己是“波斯人”。我代表印度拜火教徒社区为此类可怕行为道歉。我只希望印度人能培养对亚洲人的亲近感,不要在财富和权利从西方转向东方的历史最大转移中失去机会。

Badabing (USA) replies to Siloo Kapadia
Siloo, I’ll say it again, it’s USA’s loss not having you here. Hopefully this shift of wealth that’s already in progress unfolds peacefully.
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Siloo,我要再说一次。没有让你留在这里是美国的损失。希望这个已经进行的财富转移能够和平展开。

Siloo Kapadia replies to Badabing
Thank you Badabing. But leaving USA and moving back to Asia was the BEST THING THAT WE HAVE EVER DONE. Deekra, if you can get out too, get out. Things there are only going to get worse. And YES, the shift is well under way. You will feel it the moment you set foot on this continent.
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谢谢你,Badabing。但是离开美国回到亚洲是我们做出的最好选择。如果你也能出来就出来吧。那里的情况只会变得更糟糕。东西方转移已经在进行。你踏上这个大洲的那一刻就会感觉到。

FACTS (Mumbai) 15 days ago
Sichuan is one of the poorest provinces in China, ranked 24th out of 29 provinces in China in terms of per capita GDP.
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四川是中国最穷的省份之一。在人均GDP方面,四川排中国29个省的第24名。

Toga (Gandustan) replies to FACTS
the sad thing is that it’s still way above the indian level.
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令人悲伤的是四川仍然远远高于印度水平。

Indian (India) 15 days ago
How about comparing apples to apples??? “Indian cow yields about 956 liters per year and a buffalo 1,300 liters. Chinese cows yields as much as 3,700 kgs per year.” What’s the use of comparing litres to Kgs? Or does the TOI reporter believe that BOTH are the same???
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为什么不同类比较?“印度奶牛的奶产量大约是每年956公升,水牛是1300公升。中国奶牛的奶产量多达每年3700公斤”。公升和公斤比较有什么用?或者《印度时报》的记者认为两个都一样?

WRITER
I am so sorry. That is a mistake – it should be 3700 liters.

(本文作者):我很抱歉。那是个错误。应该是3700公升。

FACTS (Mumbai) replies to Indian 15 days ago
One KG of milk is about 2 liters (assume milk has the same density as water), so 3700KG == 7400 liters. In other words, Chinese cow produces 8 times the milk as Indian cows.
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1公斤奶大约是2公升(假设牛奶与水密度相同)。所以3700公斤等于7400公升。换句话说,中国奶牛的奶产量是印度奶牛的8倍。

WRITER
Subodh Varma (delhi) replies to FACTS
Actually 1 liter of milk is about 1.032 kilograms, at 4 degrees Celsius. Or conversely, 1 kg milk is about 0.969 liters. So Chinese cow’s average yield is 3 to 4 times not 8 times.
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(本文作者):实际上在4摄氏度下,1公升牛奶大约是1.032公斤。或者反回来,1公斤奶大约是0.969公升。所以中国奶牛的平均产量是3到4倍,不是8倍。

truthteller (USA) 15 days ago
Chinese farmers do not pay any tax for their agricultural incomes, which make them work very hard to produce. The more you produce, and you keep all.
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中国农民不需要为农耕收入支付任何税收,这让他们非常努力耕种。你生产得再多,都归你自己所有。

WRITER
Subodh Varma (delhi) replies to truthteller
There is no tax in India too. And Indian farmers too work very hard. The difference is that they are owners of what they produce, and they get better prices in the market. In India half the rural population is landless working on other people’s land. And farmers are not getting any return because input prices are very high. Also, half the cultivation is dependent on rain. These are some problems that we have to resolve in India
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(本文作者)在印度也不用交税,印度农民也很勤劳。不同之处是他们的耕种收入归自己,能够在市场上卖个好价格。印度一半的农村人口没有土地,他们在其他人的地里劳动。由于成本价格非常高,所以农民不会获得任何回报。此外,一半的耕种靠下雨。这些是我们必须在印度解决的一些问题。

原创翻译:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com

Dharmendra Gupta (Mumbai)
You know the punishment for corruption in China? If the amount is more than 10000 yuan, the convict is shot dead. A repeat offender (caught 3rd time) is shot dead. Cases reach judgement within 15 days. Imagine such a thing happening in India where even the fodder is eaten up by corrupt politicians who have no fear of justice.
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你们知道腐败在中国受到的惩罚吗?如果金额超过1万元,罪犯就会被枪毙。重犯者(第三次被抓)会被枪毙。案子从立案到判决15天内搞定。想象一下吧,要是这样的事情发生在印度会怎么样。甚至这里的”饲料“都被不惧法律的腐败政客吞吃了。

jeffirish63 (US) replies to Dharmendra Gupta
Not true. If the corruption is over 10,000 yuan, then that government officer will be sent to prison for several years.

不是真的,要是腐败金额超过1万元,那么这名政府官员会被送去坐牢几年。

pasupati iyer (hyderabad)
Is there a lesson to be learnt from China? If there is, as I see it, it is that we should totally abandon ”Gandhian” ideas on agriculture, economics, governance, industry, health, … and make ourselves follow SCIENTIFIC methods.
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中国是否有东西值得我们学习?要是有,在我看来,就是我们应该在农业、经济、管理、工业、保健中完全放弃”甘地主义“思想…让我们自己遵从科学方法。

jeffirish63 (US) replies to pasupati iyer
No need to learn from other counries. Just like many countries learned “democracy” from USA, but eventually these countries become disordered. Every country has their own features and problems. They need to buy a clothes that suits her own size.
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没必要向其他国家学习。就像许多国家学习美国的“民主”却最终变得混乱一样,每个国家都有自己的特色和问题,需要的是寻找适合自己的道路。

China is future (India) 14 days ago
Dear Indians, China is future of the world and future belongs to China. We are only wasting our time by believing those reports which compare India with CHina and tell us that we are at par with our northern giant. In everything China leads India. China’s poorest provinces are better than our richest. Their worst cities are better than our best. Their worst raliways are better than our best. I mean China has quality of everything. We Indian at the moment can laugh that how these Chinese produce low quality goods but don’t get fooled by such reports because these things are very minor issues and in due course of time they will correct it as well.

They might have less developed engineering and technology than USA but even US agress that eventually China will surpass them in technology and science as well. And don’t get fooled because China is also focussing on improving its engineering, scientific, and technological disciplines. They don’t need lecturing from USA about how to run their country nor they need certificates. So ultimately Chinese will have the last laugh and till then Indians can laugh at cheap Chinese products which are also produced for Indian markets. They have corrected the major issues first and they are on fire. It has become impossible to think of something and China is not in top 3 or 5 or at least top 10.
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亲爱的印度人,中国是世界的未来,未来属于中国。我们笃信那些将印度和中国相提并论的报告,告诉自己我们与北方巨人旗鼓相当。中国一切都领先印度。中国最穷的省都比我们最富的邦更富。他们最差的城市都比我们最好的城市更好。他们最差的铁路都比我们最好的铁路更好。我的意思是中国一切东西都不乏优质的。我们印度人此刻可以嘲笑中国人生产的低质产品,但是不要被这样的报告愚弄,因为这些是微小问题,他们在适当时候也会纠正的。

他们可能没有美国那么发达的工程和技术水平,但是连美国都承认中国最终将在科技领域超过他们。不要被愚弄了,中国也在集中提高工程、科学和技术学科。他们不需要美国教他们如何管理国家,也不需要美国的认可。所以中国人会笑到最后。印度人到时只能嘲笑为印度市场准备的便宜中国货。他们已经首先纠正了主要问题,正在兴头上呢。现在要是说中国不在前三名、前五名、或者至少说前10名,已经变得无可想象了。

Toga (Gandustan) replies to China is future
the future will be a multi-polar world.

未来是个多极世界。



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