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巴基斯坦论坛快报:中国在非洲影响力日益加大

2012-09-12 15:17 22个评论 字号:

巴基斯坦论坛快报发表了一篇题为《中国在非洲日益加大的影响力》的评论文章,文章称,全球老牌和新兴大国在非洲争夺影响力。新一轮“瓜分非洲”很大程度上是为了获得日益稀缺的自然资源,比如石油和天然气。相比华盛顿共识,中国和非洲国家达成的“北京共识”被非洲看做是吸引力大得多的经济发展模式。有网民指出,中国投资之所以受到非洲统治精英的青睐,原因是中国投资者的不干涉政策。非洲领导人很容易被中国人慷慨赠送的礼物收买,比如苏丹和赤道几内亚修建的新宫殿被送给了他们的总统。

原创翻译:http://www.santaihu.com
原文标题:China’s growing influence in Africa
原文链接:http://tribune.com.pk/story/428026/chinas-growing-influence-in-africa/

中国总理凭吊我援坦专家公墓

2006年6月23日,正在坦桑尼亚访问的中国国务院总理在坦桑尼亚总理洛瓦萨陪同下,专程前往位于首都达累斯萨拉姆市郊的中国援坦专家公墓凭吊。这是温家宝总理向烈士墓献花

Global powers, both new and old, are jostling for influence in Africa. This renewed ‘scramble for Africa’, to borrow a term from history, is largely to gain access to increasingly scarce natural resources such as oil and natural gas. Global giants such as British Petroleum, Tullow Oil, Chevron, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) to name a few are investing huge amounts of money in the continent in the quest to ensure energy security and satiate the ever-increasing global demand for these products. In countries across the continent such as Ghana, Angola, Uganda and Mozambique, investment in the oil and gas sector is seen by governments and policymakers as one of the most important drivers of growth and development. According to estimates of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the scale of investment in the continent’s oil and gas supply infrastructure over the period of 2010-2035 will be around $2.1 trillion. The resource affords a chance for sub-Saharan Africa to recover from years of economic misery brought in part by tough conditionalities as part of the IMF-led and World Bank-supported Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP). For a continent that has often been seen as a global backwater there are major potential benefits and pitfalls.

In order to take advantage of these resources, both established and emerging powers such as the US, China, Brazil and India as well as former colonial powers like the UK and France continue vying for influence in the continent. China has taken the lead in fostering relations with African countries and over the last few years Chinese influence in the continent has increased markedly. The country has emerged as Africa’s largest trading partner. Two-way trade has increased dramatically to an all-time high of $166.3 billion, triple the figure for 2006. Both imports and exports have registered impressive growth rates. According to estimates, there are around 800 Chinese firms in Africa, investing in the infrastructure, energy and banking sectors. The deepening relationship between China and the continent has led to the formation of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). The first ministerial conference of FOCAC was held in 2000 with the most recent one held this past July in Beijing.

全球老牌和新兴大国在非洲争夺影响力。借用一个历史术语,新一轮“瓜分非洲”很大程度上是为了获得日益稀缺的自然资源,比如石油和天然气。全球巨头公司,举几个例子来说,比如英国石油、图洛石油、雪佛龙、中国海洋石油,在非洲大陆投入巨额资金,为的是确保能源安全和充分满足全球对这些产品日益增加的需求。在非洲大陆许多国家,比如加纳、安哥拉、乌干达和莫桑比克,石油和天然气领域的投资被政府和决策者看做是经济发展最重要的驱动力。根据国际能源机构(IEA)的预测,非洲大陆在2010至2035年期间的投资规模将达到大约2.1万美元。国际基金组织主导和世界银行支持的结构调整计划附加了一些苛刻条件,部分导致了非洲数年经济困境,而能源为撒哈拉以南非洲提供了经济复苏机会。对于一块经常被看做全球蛮荒之地的大陆来说,非洲拥有潜在的重大利益和诱惑。

为了利用这些资源,发达国家和新兴大国,比如美国、中国、巴西和印度,以及英法等前殖民国家,在非洲大陆争夺影响力。中国在培养和非洲国家的关系方面领先。在过去几年里,中国人在非洲大陆的影响力显著增大。中国已经成为非洲最大贸易伙伴。双方贸易额急剧增加,创下1663亿美元的历史新高,是2006年的三倍。进口和出口也创下了令人印象深刻的增长率。根据预测,有大约800家中国公司在非洲投资基础设施、能源和银行领域。中国和非洲大陆之间的深化关系促进了中非合作论坛(FOCAC)的形成。首届中非合作论坛部长级会议在2000年举行,最近一届已经于今年7月在北京举行。

The increase in Chinese influence in Africa has been seen with alarm in many developed countries. Critics, both outside and within Africa, say that there is little or no long-term benefit of the increase in trade to the continent as exports to China comprise mostly primary commodities such as oil and agricultural produce. They also assert that the no strings-attached aid policy pursued by the Chinese leads to a reduction in the pressure on governments to improve on issues such as human rights. Chinese support to dictators is seen as being counterproductive to the welfare of the masses and as benefitting Africa’s elite. Some commentators have gone so far as to accuse the Chinese of pursuing a neocolonialist policy in the continent.

It is, indeed, ironic that the very nations that divided up Africa and its peoples in the last quarter of the 19th century are accusing the Chinese of being neocolonialists. The original scramble for Africa took place between 1884 and 1885 following a conference in Berlin. As in other parts of the globe, the colonial powers left deep imprints on the continent. Some of the main problems that continue to plague Africa were perpetuated, nee fostered, by the colonial powers to further their own ends. The frequent outbreak of violence between Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda is one such example where Belgian policy favoured the minority Tutsis much to the chagrin of the majority Hutus. Post-independence, this historical sense of deprivation has often led to acts of ethnic cleansing carried out by the majority. Economic exploitation and policies favouring firms from the metropole were also promoted by the colonial powers.

中国人在非洲的影响力增大被许多发达国家看做是警钟。非洲和非洲以外的批评家称,中非贸易增大对非洲大陆不具有或者只有很少长期利益,因为非洲对中国的出口大部分是石油和农产品等初级产品。他们还宣称,中国人没有附加条款的援助政策导致政府改善人泉等问题的压力减少。中国人对独裁者的支持被看做是对民众福祉起到适得其反的作用,对非洲精英却有利。一些评论员甚至指责中国人在非洲大陆追求新殖皿煮义政策。

讽刺地是,正是那些在19世纪最后25年里瓜分非洲及其人民的国家指责中国人奉行新殖皿煮义政策。随着柏林一场会议的举行,第一次对非洲的瓜分在1884年和1885年期间上演。和全球其他地区一样,殖民国家在非洲大陆留下了深深的痕迹。仍然困扰非洲的一些主要问题受到这些旧宗主国的支持。卢旺达胡图人和图西人之间经常爆发暴力冲突就是这样一个例子:比利时的政策偏向少数民族图西人,令主体民族胡图人感到愤怒。独立后,历史上受到剥削经常导致主体民族对少数民族进行种族清洗。经济剥削和偏向都市公司的政策也受到殖民国家的支持。

A 2007 article by Jedrzej George Frynas (currently a professor at Middlesex University in the UK) and Manuel Paulo in the magazine African Affairs shed light on this exploitation further. According to them, the development of oil resources in African colonies was pursued by the colonial powers to further their strategic and economic interests, and private as well as public firms of these powers developed the oil sector. In Anglophone Africa, a Shell–BP venture was given an effective monopoly for oil exploration and production in Nigeria. A colonial ordinance issued in 1914 stipulated that only British oil companies were permitted to obtain oil licences in Nigeria, allowing Shell–BP to dominate the country’s oil production. Similarly, in Francophone African countries like Algeria and Gabon, French oil interests were supreme. In Algeria, the newly-independent government was forced to sign a guarantee that French oil companies would receive preferential treatment in the granting of oil concessions for six years after the country’s independence. Apart from this, the military footprint of the US has also grown considerably in the continent. The military presence, apart from combating terrorism, has a vital support role in ensuring thatcin the continent in countries such as Nigeria are secure.

On the other hand, Chinese investment in the region is not based on extracting monopoly contracts for its firms. Similarly, in terms of development lending, as opposed to conditional lending by multilateral agencies (such as the World Bank) controlled by developed countries, Chinese aid to the region is unconditional and usually spent on infrastructure projects that have a greater impact on people’s lives. Sinopec, one of the leading Chinese state-owned oil companies, acquired oil concessions in Angola on the back of an oil-backed credit of $2 billion from China’s Eximbank to rebuild the country’s railways, state buildings, hospitals and roads. Far from being seen as neocolonialist, the “Beijing consensus” between African countries and China — to borrow a term coined by Joshua Cooper Ramo of the UK-based Foreign Policy Centre — is viewed as a much more attractive alternative economic development model in the continent, compared to the Washington consensus.

(目前是英国密德萨斯大学的一名教授)Jedrzej George Frynas 和 Manuel Paulo 2007年在《非洲事务》杂志上撰写的一篇文章进一步阐明了这种剥削。按照他们的说法,殖民国家在非洲殖民地追求石油资源开发,主要由宗主国的私营或者国有公司接手,为的是进一步推动战略和经济利益。在说英语的非洲国家里,比如尼日利亚,壳牌和BP的合资企业获得石油开发的有效垄断。1914年颁布的殖民法令规定,只有英国石油公司才能被允许获得尼日利亚石油开采许可证,结果壳牌BP统治了该国的石油生产。类似地,在讲法语的非洲国家里,比如阿尔及利亚和加蓬,法国石油公司的利益至高无上。在阿尔及利亚,新成立的政府被迫签署一项保证,即在该国独立后的6年里,法国石油公司能在发放石油开采权上享受特惠待遇。除此之外,美国在非洲大陆的军事足迹也显著增加。除了反恐之外,美国的军事存在对确保尼日利亚等非洲国家的油田安全方面起了重要的支持作用。

另一方面,中国在该地区的投资并不基于为其公司获得垄断合同。类似地,在发展借贷方面,与发达国家控制的多边机构(比如世界银行)提供的有条件贷款相反,中国人对该地区的援助是无条件的,通常花在对人民生活有更大作用的基础设施项目中。作为中国国有领先的石油公司之一的中国石化获得了安哥拉的石油特许权,前提是以石油作为抵押获得中国进出口银行20亿美元的贷款,用于重建该国的铁路、政府大楼、医院和公路。相比华盛顿共识,中国和非洲国家达成的“北京共识”——借用英国外交政策中心 Joshua Cooper Ramo 创造的术语——被非洲看做是吸引力大得多的可供选择的经济发展模式。

以下是巴基斯坦网民的评论:

Hasan

All that china wants in Africa, is same as what the west did earlier. There is NO difference. All this infrastructure china is building is with chinese bank loan, making it mandatory to do all business with chinese firms, chinese equipments and chinese engineers. There is no helping african people. China has found another colony for its goods just like pakistan.

中国在非洲所追求的和西方以前所做的一样,没有什么区别。一切基础设施是通过中国银行贷款修建的,强制把所有业务交给中国公司、中国装备和中国工程师,对非洲人民没有帮助。就像巴基斯坦一样,中国为自己的产品找到了另外一个殖民地。

abdussamad

There is no such thing as a free lunch. So why fault the Chinese for looking after their own interests?

天下没有免费的午餐。所以,中国人追求自己的利益,有什么错吗?

原创翻译:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com

Vikas

China goes all the way to help it’s friends. Pakistan is a shining example of it. They didn’t give them the nuclear technology but the bomb itself. Kudos. Way to go!

中国一直帮助朋友。巴基斯坦就是一个光辉榜样。他们不会给巴基斯坦人核技术,而是给核弹。致敬,就该这么做!

Sonia Wahab

The world will end if China comes in power like west. They are least sympathetic.

如果中国像西方一样统治世界,那么就是世界末日。他们最不具有同情心。

Adrian D’Souza
As if. India is as bad as China in investing in Africa. Case in point look at all of the land deals India buys up in Ethiopia. A country on the brink of starvation has much of its arable land bought out by Indians.

好像印度在非洲的投资行为和中国一样恶劣。一个恰当的例子:看看印度在埃塞尔比亚的土地交易。一个处于饥饿边缘国家的许多可耕种土地被印度人买走了。

mike flynn

Why am i not surprised the author does not discuss the on going Arab\Islamic invasion of sub-Saharan Africa. Been going on for centuries. Growing more intensely violent for years.

作者没有讨论阿拉伯/ysl正在对撒哈拉以南非洲的入侵,为什么我不感到吃惊。入侵已经持续了数百年,最近几年变得越来越暴力。

asim

Its not only africa china has also started penetration in middle-east. China has overtaken US by importing record oil from Saudia arabia.
With a population of 1.3b+ it has vital lessons for pakistan; Population is not a hinderance in growth its true committed leadership which makes the difference.
Democracy is also not important for progress.. Its the vision of leaders.

不仅在非洲,中国也开始在中东渗透。中国从沙特进口的石油创下记录,超过了美国。有13亿多人口的中国给了巴基斯坦一个重要的教训,即人口不会成为发展的障碍,能够带来不同的是果断坚决的领导。对于进步来说,皿煮并非重要,关键是领导人的眼光。

Raza Aslam

My company used do some work in Africa 30 years back. But the Chinese has just basically driven us out. Chinese government provides total support for their companies. They get cheap credit from their banks. They can do 100% of project using their engineers, machinery, training, support, financing. They will bribe aggressively and court the elite. The Chinese are very strategic, looking far ahead which are just not capable of doing.

我公司过去30年在非洲有一些业务。但中国人基本把我们赶出来了。中国为自己公司提供全力支持,银行提供低息贷款。他们可以从头到尾使用自己的工程师、机器、训练、支持、融资来完成工程。他们会积极行贿,奉承精英,非常具有战略眼光,能够看得很远。

from India

Very informative article. I would also like to point out that unlike China, Indian companies are investing on a long term perspective. Many African leaders have acknowledged that effort. India’s moto – “Both of us will grow” is more appreciated than China’s “First I will grow then you may”. Think about it !

非常翔实的文章。我也想指出一点,即不像中国,印度公司是基于长远眼光来投资。许多非洲领导人承认了印度的这一努力。印度的格言——“我们都会发展”比中国的“我先发展,然后你可能会发展”更受欣赏。想想看吧!

Feroz

The Chinese think they are clever but they are poor students of history. Indian businessmen spent a lifetime developing markets in most of East Africa decades ago but got kicked out nevertheless. This second round of colonization will meet a similar fate and Chinese assets will get nationalized sooner rather than later. Chinese seem to be buying US Treasury in Trillions too, no idea how that money will ever be recovered.

Reckless Gamblers who will put Las Vegas punters to shame !

中国人自认聪明,不过是历史差生。几十年前,印度商人毕生在东非发展市场,不过被踢了出来。第二轮殖民会遭遇类似命运,中国人的资产迟早会被国有化。中国人似乎在数以万亿美元地购买美债,不知道他们如何能收回这些钱。

中国人是会让拉斯维加斯赌客感到羞愧的鲁莽赌徒!

Raza Aslam

An example of Chinese success. A Chinese company Huawei is now the worlds largest telecommunication manufacturer, and is now larger than Motorola (owned now by Google) and Ericsson. It has 120,000 employees and was formed in 1988. Mot of cell phone equipment in Pakistan, Africa or rest of the third world is made by them. They are now moving into Europe. They follow a clever strategy of conquering the third world markets before attacking the developed country markets. Huawei is also has close connections with the chinese intelligence agencies. Chinese will do what it takes to succeed. They will steal patents, software code, bride, spy, anything and everything.

以下是中国人成功的一个例子:中国公司华为如今是世界最大的通信设备制造商,比摩托罗拉(如今由谷歌持有)和爱立信更大。华为成立于1988年,有12万名员工。巴基斯坦、非洲和其他第三世界国家的大多数手机设备是华为制造的。现在开始进入欧洲。他们奉行一个聪明的战略,即先征服第三世界,然后再进攻发达国家市场。华为也和中国情报机构有密切联系。为了成功,中国人什么都做得出来。他们会偷专利、软件代码,会行贿、侦查…

Falcon

Well…it depends on who you ask…if you ask China’s rivals they would say this is because of China’s weaker moral ground in pursuing international investments. If you ask China’s supporters, this is because China is building its political and economic clout. Truth is in between. Most importantly, businesses originating from emerging markets are much better equipped than rivals from developed countries at exploiting bottom of the pyramid market penetration strategies, working around institutional voids, rapid adaptation to local requirements, operational expertise in high risk environments, and level playing field because of low brand barriers.

这取决于你问谁…如果你问中国的竞争对手,那么他们会说这是中国追求国际投资时道德意识弱化的结果;如果你问中国的支持者,那么他们会说这是中国打造政治和经济影响力的结果。真相介于两者之间。最重要地是,新兴市场的商业做法在以下方面比来自发达国家的竞争对手的做法要有效得多:剥削金字塔底端的市场渗透策略、利用制度缺失、快速适应当地需求、高危险环境下的操作技术、较小品牌障碍带来的公平竞争环境。

原创翻译:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com

Nadir

So Chinas policies in Africa are acceptable because of the history of colonialism of imperial powers? What rubbish! Go and ask the Zambian miners who were shot and killed by Chinese managers! Go and ask all the local workers who are not hired by Chinese companies if they are members of unions. A major flaw in Chinese investment is that it does not offer opportunities to locals. Chinese firms ship in everything, from workers, managers, security guards, toothpaste, cooking oil etc.

The reason why Chinese investment is looked on so fondly by the ruling elite in Africa is because of the hands off policies of Chinese investors. African leaders are easily bought off by Chinese largesses, like say the construction of new palaces in Sudan and Equatorial Guinea and “gifted” to their Presidents.

Angola is perhasp the worst example to take. The oil bomb has made its capital Luanda the second most expensive city in the world, where the already poverty ridden population has been pushed out into unsustainable shanty towns with no water supply.

The Washington Consensus is flawed, but what China offers is no better. The extreme capitalism of Chinese foreign investment is dictated by profit, thats it. Which is then neocolonial.

帝国主义列强历史上搞过殖民,所以中国在非洲的这种政策就可以接受?简直是胡说八道!去问问被中国经理枪杀的赞比亚矿工!去问问没有被中国公司雇佣的当地工人是否是工会成员。中国投资的一大缺点是没有为当地人提供机会。中国公司把什么东西都运来,从工人、经理、保安、牙膏、食用油等一切都是。

中国投资之所以受到非洲统治精英的青睐,原因是中国投资者的不干涉政策。非洲领导人很容易被中国人慷慨赠送的礼物收买,比如苏丹和赤道几内亚修建的新宫殿被送给了他们的总统。

安哥拉可能是最糟糕的例子。石油zha弹让首都罗安达成为世界上生活成本第二高的城市,已经贫困不堪的人们被赶到没有水供应、不可持续的棚户区。

华盛顿共识有缺陷,但中国提供的北京共识没有更好。中国对外投资的极端资本主义是由利润决定的,就是这样,然后就成了新殖皿煮义。

友荐云推荐
  1. 人们的认识难道就只是这样的?
    虽然我们在非洲的活动也是追求自己的利益,但是,和上面说的比起来,我认为,上面说的那种利益,真是小人之心度君子啊。
    我认为,利益在于:
    1、金钱方面不可否认的。
    2、远超过金钱的是,我们想和第三世界人民做朋友。能够和他们成为朋友,那是我们最大的利益。

  2. 中国人在外的一些急功近利的做法,确实让人厌恶,应该接收批评,引以为戒,主席曾说过,谦虚使人进步,骄傲使人落后,总结的真好,嘿嘿,电影里台词是怎么说的?“出来混,迟早是要还的—–”。

    • 事实上中国一些小企业在非洲快生存不下去了。如果不是政府这样把什么都搬过去,很难保证工期和质量。还有中国是去援建的,不是去投资,何来雇佣当地工人,中国工人不去买当地人的东西是怕有摩擦,中国的工人拿比当地工人更低的工资,记住我们是去援建的,能用同样的钱造更多的东西怎么着了。

      http://www.amb-chine.fr/chn/zfjl/t869744.htm 多了解些! ❗

        • 😯 对 当地工人而言,不然怎么会有竞争力。我说了中国是去援建的,说白了就是去送钱。20%工资给自己工人,而西方援建非洲80%工资都给自己国籍的工人和付建材,金钱外交而已。中国现在不过是在改以前输出暴力革命的外交,别人不喜欢中国就是受不了这种暴动,现在选择不干涉别国内政,业回报应。

      • 也许中国应该改变一下子非洲的政策,无关紧要的工作就交给当地人来完成吧,如果是援建就算工期长点质量差点又有什么关系,反正不是给我们自己用的(话说我们自己用的质量不也就是那样么),这样还能和当地人搞好关系而不是恶化和当地居民的关系,全都是hi我们自己完成的话说不定别人还以为我们歧视呢,再说了中国工人和当地工人一起工作不是更容易表达出我们对非洲的友好么?而不是把自己关在工地不和别人交流让当地人以为我们抢夺他们的工作机会,有句话叫什么来着,恩大成仇,我可以这么说吗?

  3. 要去适应环境,不要等环境来适应你,这种人往往会被大自然所淘汰,适者生存,丛林法则从来都是如此。

  4. 从评论看,对中国怨念很深啊!市场经济,公平竞争,一个愿买,一个愿卖,这不就是西方倡导的自由市场经济吗?怎么了玩不过又耍赖嫉恨了?

  5. 一个国家不可能永远闭关锁国的,看看历史上的对外沟通模式吧:
    1、殖民时期:老欧洲的典型模式,军事+殖民为主;
    2、金钱控制:现在美国人玩得最为纯熟。经济为主,政治为辅。
    中国只不过也是在玩同样游戏,不过政治限制更小些而已。
    不知道印度人能否理解这些浅显的道理。

    输了就输了,大不了重新再来。中国被美欧不知坑过多少回了,如果按印度人的心态,难道还要剖腹自尽?

  6. 别人的成功既然归功于罪恶驱使,我看还是印度人的智商低下,达不到自己想要的目的,所以处处指责成功的国家,要是印度成功了,他还会那么说吗?

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