三泰虎

中国军工业进军全球,取得非凡胜利

印度网民评论:中国军工业进军全球。上月土耳其选择一家名不见经传的中国防务公司,计划采购一种远程导弹防御系统,令华盛顿和布鲁塞尔的军工界大感意外。业界高管和武器销售分析家称,中国可能是凭借低廉价格击败了老牌竞争对手。不管怎样,土耳其的选择,对中国来说是个突破。这个国家已将目光投向在武器技术的价值链上攀升,力图让自己成为全球武器市场中的有力竞争者。斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所高级研究员彼得·魏泽曼说:“这是中国军工业的一个非凡胜利。”

外文标题:China's arms industry makes global inroads
外文地址:http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/china/Chinas-arms-industry-makes-global-inroads/articleshow/24473795.cms


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BEIJING: From the moment Turkey announced plans two years ago to acquire a long-range missile defense system, the multibillion-dollar contract from a key Nato member appeared to be an American company's to lose.

For years, Turkey's military had relied on Nato-supplied Patriot missiles, built by the American companies Raytheon and Lockheed Martin, to defend its skies, and the system was fully compatible with the air-defense platforms operated by other members of the alliance.

There were other contenders for the deal, of course. Rival manufacturers in Russia and Europe made bids. Turkey rejected those - but not in favor of the American companies. Its selection last month of a little-known Chinese defense company, China Precision Machinery Export-Import Corp oration, stunned the military-industrial establishment in Washington and Brussels.

The sale was especially unusual because the Chinese missile defense system, known as the HQ-9, would be difficult to integrate with existing NATO equipment. China Precision is also subject to sanctions from the United States for selling technologies that the United States says could help Iran, Syria and North Korea develop unconventional weapons. A state department spokeswoman said this month that American officials had expressed to the Turkish government "serious concerns" about the deal, which has not yet been signed.

Industry executives and arms-sales analysts say the Chinese probably beat out their more established rivals by significantly undercutting them on price, offering their system at $3 billion. Nonetheless, Turkey's selection of a Chinese state-owned manufacturer is a breakthrough for China, a nation that has set its sights on moving up the value chain in arms technology and establishing itself as a credible competitor in the global weapons market.

"This is a remarkable win for the Chinese arms industry," said Pieter Wezeman, a senior researcher at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, which tracks arms sales and transfers.

In the past, Chinese companies have been known mainly as suppliers of small arms, but that is changing quickly. From drones to frigates to fighter jets, the companies are aggressively pushing foreign sales of high-tech hardware, mostly in the developing world. Russian companies are feeling the greatest pressure, but American and other Western companies are also increasingly running into the Chinese.

"China will be competing with us in many, many domains, and in the high end," said Marwan Lahoud, the head of strategy and marketing at European Aeronautic Defense and Space, Europe's largest aerospace company. "Out of 100 campaigns, that is, the commercial prospects we have, we may have the Chinese in front of us among the competitors in about three or four. They have the full range of capabilities, and they are offering them."

The Stockholm institute released a report this year on global weapons transfers that found the volume of Chinese conventional weapons exports - which included high-end aircraft, missiles, ships and artillery - jumped by 162 percent from 2008 to 2012, compared with the previous five years. Pakistan is the leading customer. The institute now estimates that China is the fifth-largest arms exporter in the world, ahead of Britain. From 2003 to 2007, China ranked eighth.

China's foreign arms sales are also rising fast in dollar terms. According to IHS Jane's, an industry consulting and analysis company, Chinese exports have nearly doubled over the past five years to $2.2 billion, surpassing Canada and Sweden, and making China the world's eighth-largest exporter by value.

The total global arms trade revenue in 2012 was estimated to be $73.5 billion, and the United States had a 39% share, according to IHS Jane's.

Xu Guangyu, a retired major general in the People's Liberation Army and director of the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, said in an interview that the push by Chinese companies to develop and sell higher-tech arms was "a very normal phenomenon."

"In arms manufacturing, China is trying to increase the quality and reduce price," he said. "We're driven by competition."

Xu said that besides pricing, Chinese companies had another advantage: they do not "make demands over other governments' status and internal policies." He added: "Our policy of noninterference applies here. Whoever is in the government, whoever has diplomatic status with us, we can talk about arms sales with them."

Chinese officials know that China's encroachment on Western-dominated military markets raises concerns. When asked about the missile-defense sale to Turkey, a Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman said, "China's military exports do no harm to peace, security and stability," and do not "interfere with the internal affairs of recipient countries."

The largest Chinese arms production companies, all state-owned, declined interview requests. Their finances are opaque, though there are some statistics on their Web sites and in the state news media.

The China North Industries Group Corporation, or the Norinco Group, said on its Web site that its profits in 2012 were 9.81 billion renminbi, or about $1.6 billion, a 45 percent increase from 2010. Its revenues in 2012 were 361.6 billion renminbi, or about $59 billion, a 53 percent increase over 2010. Another company, the China South Industries Group Corporation, or CSGC, said on its Web site that it had profits of about $1 billion in 2011, on revenue of about $45 billion, both big increases over 2008.

China's investment has been heaviest in fighter planes - both traditional and stealth versions - as well as in jet engines, an area in which China had until now been dependent on Western and Russian partners, said Guy Anderson, a senior military industry analyst in London with IHS Jane's.

"China has been throwing billions and billions of dollars at research and development," he said. "They also have a strategy of using the gains they get from foreign partnerships to benefit their industrial sector. So they should not have any trouble catching up with their Western competitors over the medium term, and certainly over the long term."

He estimated that China was still a decade away from competing head-to-head with Western nations on the technology itself. But Chinese equipment is priced lower and could become popular in emerging markets, including in African and Latin American nations.

"We are in an era of 'good enough' - the 90 percent solution that will do the job at the best possible price," Mr. Anderson said. "In some cases, that may even mean buying commercial equipment, upgrading it slightly and painting it khaki."

New customers for Chinese equipment include Argentina, which in 2011 signed a deal with the Chinese company Avicopter to build Z-11 light helicopters under license. Mass production for the Argentine military began this year, and 40 helicopters are expected to be built over the next several years. The value of the contract has not been made public.

Companies selling drones, another focal point in the Chinese arms industry, are ubiquitous at arms and aviation shows. At an aviation exposition in Beijing in late September, one Chinese company, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, had on display a model of a CH-4 reconnaissance and combat drone, with four models of missiles next to it.

Though the drone had been "designed for export," one company representative said, there were no foreign buyers yet. The company was still being licensed by the government to sell the aircraft abroad. He added that the drone was not yet up to par with some foreign models, and that the engine was a foreign make, though other parts - including the missiles - had been developed in China.

The Aviation Industry Corporation of China, or AVIC, had on display a model of a Wing Loong, the best-known Chinese drone export, which sells for about $1 million, less than similar American and Israeli drone models. An article in People's Daily said the export certificate for the Wing Loong, or Pterodactyl, was approved in June 2009, and it was first exported in 2011.

At the Paris Air Show in June, Ma Zhiping, president of the China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation, told Global Times, another state-run newspaper, that "quite a few countries" had bought the Wing Loong, which resembles the American-made Predator. Clients were in Africa and Asia, he said.

Two fighter jets made by Chinese companies are being closely watched by industry analysts and foreign companies for their export potential. One is Shenyang Aircraft's J-31, a fighter jet that Chinese officials say has stealth abilities. A People's Daily report last month said that the J-31 was being made by Shenyang, an AVIC subsidiary, mostly for export, citing an interview with Zhang Zhaozhong, a rear admiral in the Chinese Navy. In March, the airplane's chief designer, Sun Cong, told People's Daily that the J-31 could become China's main next-generation carrier-borne fighter jet.

The other jet is the JF-17, a less-sophisticated aircraft that an American official said had been in the works for about two decades in an "on-again, off-again" project. The jet was ostensibly the product of a joint venture between Pakistan Aeronautical Complex and China's Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation, also an AVIC subsidiary, but China did the real work, said the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of the secrecy surrounding military projects. So far, Pakistan is the only client, and the official said he believed Pakistan had made a "political decision" to buy it.

China is Pakistan's biggest ally, and each relies on the other to help counter India. Besides the JF-17, the two nations have had official joint production agreements on a frigate, a battle tank and a small aircraft.

A defense official from Japan, a territorial rival of China that monitors its arms trade closely, said Chinese jets still had big shortcomings that could hurt international sales; most notably, China cannot make reliable engines or avionics, he said. The JF-17 uses a Russian engine.

"I believe they can make a few very good engines in the laboratory, but they can't make it in the factory, kind of mass produce it in factories, because of lack of quality control and maybe experience," he said.

He added that Chinese engineers had been trying to develop an engine, the WS-10, a copy of a Russian model, but had been having problems.

It is not uncommon for customers to overcome weaknesses in Chinese manufacturing by buying Chinese platforms and outfitting them with better Western equipment. Algeria placed an order last year for three Chinese corvettes, but is outfitting the ships with radar and communications equipment from Thales Nederland, a unit of the Thales Group, based in France. Thailand has been awarding contracts to the Saab Group, based in Sweden, to upgrade Chinese-built frigates, said Ben Moores, a senior analyst at IHS Jane's.

This year, a Chinese company was competing against foreign counterparts, including at least one American company, for a $1 billion Thai contract for naval frigates, but lost to Daewoo of South Korea.

As China moves to catch up with established Western rivals, competing not only on price but also with comparable technology, Hakan Buskhe, chief executive of Saab, said his company and others would be likely to find themselves under pressure to cut their own research and development costs to lower pricing - a trend that could benefit North American and European governments looking to squeeze more ability out of shrinking defense budgets.

"We need to be able to develop more for less," he said.

Edward Wong reported from Beijing and Tokyo, and Nicola Clark from Paris. Gerry Doyle contributed reporting from Hong Kong. Patrick Zuo and Bree Feng contributed research from Beijing.

上月土耳其选择一家名不见经传的中国防务公司,计划采购一种远程导弹防御系统,令华盛顿和布鲁塞尔的军工界大感意外。业界高管和武器销售分析家称,中国可能是凭借低廉价格击败了老牌竞争对手。

不管怎样,土耳其的选择,对中国来说是个突破。这个国家已将目光投向在武器技术的价值链上攀升,力图让自己成为全球武器市场中的有力竞争者。斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所高级研究员彼得·魏泽曼说:“这是中国军工业的一个非凡胜利。”

众所周知,中国公司以往主要出口小型武器。但这种状况在迅速改变。从无人飞机到护卫舰再到战斗机,中国军工企业正大力推动对外销售高技术装备, 主要是在发展中国家。俄罗斯企业感受到的压力最大,美国和其他西方公司也日益与中国人发生“遭遇战”。欧洲航空防务及航天公司战略与市场营销主管马万·拉 胡德表示:“中国将与我们在许多领域竞争,且是高端竞争。”

斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所今年有关全球武器交易的报告称,从2008年到2012年,中国的常规武器——包括高端飞机、导弹、舰船和火炮——出 口数量比之前5年猛增162%。估计中国如今是世界第五大武器出口国,位居英国之前。而2003年到2007年,中国排在第八。以美元衡量,中国对外武器 销量也迅速增长。军工业咨询和分析公司简氏信息集团称,过去5年中国军火出口增加近一倍,达22亿美元,超过加拿大和瑞典,这令其成为第八大武器出口国 (按金额算)。2012年全球武器贸易收入约为735亿美元,其中美国占了39%。

北京知道,中国进入由西方主导的军火市场引发了担忧。被问及有关对土耳其防空导弹销售一事时,中国外交部发言人表示,中国军品出口不损害和平、安全与稳定。

驻伦敦的简氏信息集团高级军工分析家盖伊·安德森表示,中国对武器研制投入最多的是战机。但在飞机发动机领域,中国人仍依赖西方和俄罗 斯伙伴。他估计,中国距离与西方国家在技术上正面竞争仍有10年,但其装备定价较低,在新兴市场,包括非洲和拉美,受到欢迎。他说:“中国人一直在投入大 量资金搞研发,还制定了战略,通过与外国合作获益,推动本国军工业发展。所以就中期而言,中国赶上西方竞争对手不应有困难,长期而言就更不用说了。”(作者黄安伟、尼古拉·克拉克,乔恒译)

文章摘译部分转自环球网:http://oversea.huanqiu.com/political/2013-10/4472203.html

以下是《印度时报》读者的评论:


来源:三泰虎论坛 http://bbs.santaihu.com/thread-7637-1-1.html



CNU. (Hyderabad)
Could be second hand / used arms.
Agree (0)Disagree (4)Recommend (0)

卖的可能是二手或使用过的军火。

Satender Kumar (Unknown)
Most of these Arms falling into hands of Al Qaida.................
Agree (2)Disagree (4)Recommend (1)

这些军火大多数落入基地组织手中......

mthusain (Lucknow)
We should also do.
Agree (1)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

我们也应该这样做

Ajit Rj (Unknown)
Missile will blast in mid-air like other chines product :)
Agree (1)Disagree (10)Recommend (0)

像其他中国货一样,中国导弹会在半空中爆炸 :)

krathod245 (Location) replies to Ajit Rj
Moron, the keyboard you are typing that comment is "Made in China".
Agree (9)Disagree (1)Recommend (3)


傻瓜,你打字用的键盘就是“中国产”。



Tapish Aggarwal ()
China making in roads in every possible field.........lets see how much we can follow them except in terms of population.
Agree (5)Disagree (0)Recommend (2)

中国进军每一个可能的领域.....让我们看看,除了人口之外,我们能怎么跟上他们。

Umesh Rai (Noida)
China is earning from every segment and that too by huge margin. this is the reason they are growing faster than any country in the globe.
Agree (6)Disagree (0)Recommend (3)

中国从每个领域赚钱,而且利润还挺大。这就是他们比地球上任何国家发展更快的原因。

punit kumar (DELHI)
Congress has killed indian Industry
Agree (4)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

国大党扼杀了印度的产业

omee sharma (chennai)
China is earning exporting the arms our politicians are earning importing the arms.
Agree (9)Disagree (0)Recommend (3)

中国从军火出口中赚钱,而我们的政客从军火进口中赚钱(佣金)。

chandru k (Unknown)
India is a vast democratic country.The progress in India will be slow,but steady..
Agree (0)Disagree (10)Recommend (0)

印度是一个庞大的皿煮国家。印度的进步将是缓慢但稳定的。

badegg (US) replies to chandru k
Please continue to comfort yourself in this way. HAHAHA!
Agree (3)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)


请继续这样安慰自己吧,哈哈!



CulRaj (Mumbai)
China's main buyer is Pakistan! It uses American aid to buy commodities and services from China. Why doesn't USA pay China directly to supply arms to Pakistan! USA is supporting its competition by giving such aid. They need to understand this!
Agree (3)Disagree (1)Recommend (1)

中国军火的主要买家是巴基斯坦!后者用美援从中国购买商品和服务。为什么美国不直接把钱付给中国,并让后者向巴基斯坦供应武器呢!美国通过这种援助来支持其竞争力。他们应当理解这点!

sun sun (Andromeda...)
Half of the Arms Produced by China will be Gifted to Pakistan....
Agree (1)Disagree (1)Recommend (1)

中国生产的一半军火将会被送给巴基斯坦........

Anoop Nair (Unknown)
Well China has put their foot into another business. Are these copies as it usually happens with other products? Will they fire with precision is another thing to see lol.
Agree (1)Disagree (3)Recommend (2)

好吧,中国涉足了另一项生意。这些复制品是否和其他中国货一样不耐用?它们是否能精确命中目标还有待观察,(大笑)

Goddy (Mumbai)
1000 years ago, during the dark ages in Europe, China was the most advanced civilization on Earth. It seems that history is going to repeat itself soon.
Agree (9)Disagree (0)Recommend (4)

1000年前,当欧洲还处在中世纪时,中国是地球上最先进的文明,似乎历史不久将重演。

John Doe (Delhi)
all this while india's arms industry stagnates. soldiers on the front say that indian made guns jam all the time. so when they are in 'action' our soldiers cannot shoot back.
Agree (1)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

与此同时,印度军工业停滞不前。前线士兵说印度造的枪一直卡住,一旦对方“行动”,我们的士兵没法回击。

h (oman)
Ha ha ha chinese missiles have a high probability of failure on demand. Turks will suffer.
Agree (2)Disagree (7)Recommend (1)

哈哈,中国导弹的失效率很高。土耳其人有的受的。

GRA Mumbai (Mumbai)
The word " made in china" is synonymous with cheap , copied and poor quality , Is it not ?
Agree (3)Disagree (10)Recommend (0)

“中国产”是廉价、抄袭和劣质的同义词,不是吗?

iFocus ()
Good luck to their customers! Those will work just like those fake iPhones! Will be glad if Pak uses all its US aid to buy this kind of fake Chinese stuff.
Agree (3)Disagree (6)Recommend (1)

祝他们的客户好运!那些武器将会像假冒的iPhone一样烂!如果巴基斯坦把所有美援用于购买这种伪造的中国货,我会很高兴的。

Converted Muslim..... (Germany)
Most dangerous country on rise. World will experience another Changez Khan rules if Chiness not stopped now.
Agree (0)Disagree (10)Recommend (0)

最危险的国家在崛起。如果不加以阻止,世界将会经历另一次成吉思汗式的统治。

sukhi lalla (bombay)
China can go very fast because single party rule. India will be steady and slow but democracy will prevail in India.till the transformation of ruleing ideology.
Agree (0)Disagree (5)Recommend (0)

一党制的优势让中国进展迅速。印度的发展将会是稳定而缓慢的,除非意识形态改变,否则皿煮一直会在印度占上风。

Prashant Singh (Bangalore)
Hopefully Chinese arms are not like chinese electronic good... the phusssssss ones
Agree (4)Disagree (7)Recommend (1)

希望中国武器不会像中国电子产品一样烂...........

seham (chennai)
it means world has lost a good chance for everlasting peace
Agree (0)Disagree (3)Recommend (0)

这意味着世界失去了一个永久和平的绝佳机会。

karanam satyanarayana (hyderabad)
India has to learn from china how to develop indigenous arms instead of importing and getting kick backs for the deals.
Agree (6)Disagree (0)Recommend (1)

印度务必向中国学习如何自主发展武器,而不是一味地进口并从交易中收取回扣。

ghanada87 (Location)
What is noteworthy in the whole report is that China is spending billions and billions of dollar for research whereas in India we spending billions and billions of dollar to purchase arms. There is no effort to develop our own arm industry. Our politicians are busy in syphoning peoples assests in their pocket. No research, no development.
Agree (4)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

这篇报告中值得注意的是,中国花几十亿美元用于研究,而印度花同样的钱来购买军火。印度并未付诸努力去发展本国军火工业。我们的政客忙着捞钱,没有研究,没有发展。

Komatineni Komatineni (India)
This is not a good sign..
Agree (0)Disagree (1)Recommend (0)

这不是好迹象

rajat singh ()
Don't worry, i feel pity for those who buy chinese weapons, India gave INSAS to Nepal for free and those ungreatfull nepali's complained that it overheats on bright side India sold INSAS rifle to Oman .
Agree (0)Disagree (4)Recommend (0)

别担心,我可怜那些购买中国武器的国家,印度把英萨斯步枪送给尼泊尔,那些不知感恩的尼泊尔人居然抱怨会过热。印度还把英萨斯步枪卖给了阿曼。

Sachin Goel (Chandigarh)
Made in China is now seem to Made in Progress
Agree (3)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

“中国产”似乎在扎实推进中。

Jaishankar Prasad (jharkhand)
We do not understand the reason why India is not opening its defense sector to private companies if public sectors are not successful. It is one of the must lucrative business where margins are high.

我们不理解,既然公共部门不成功,为何不向私营企业开放国防工业。这是最有利可图的生意,利润很高。

Vikas Sheth (Doha, Qatar) replies to Jaishankar Prasad
Because if the defense sector is opened to the private sector, all the Babus sitting in the ministry will not be able to get their commission!


如果向私营企业开放国防产业,那么国防部的头儿就没法得到佣金了!



gireesh punjot ()
Forget US, China is going to eat the business of the whole world very soon.
Agree (8)Disagree (1)Recommend (4)

别说抢美国的生意,中国甚至很快将吃掉全世界的生意。

Dheeren Sayar (Mumbai)
Chinese armory is not world class.......!!!!!
Agree (1)Disagree (7)Recommend (0)

中国的军火不是世界级的!

Susnatha Nath (Silchar)
If these continues , it will be a global threat !
Agree (2)Disagree (4)Recommend (1)

照这么继续下去,它将成为全球性威胁!

Loves India (India)
Quality and China are antonyms........
Agree (2)Disagree (13)Recommend (0)

质量和中国是反义词.....

Simply Indian (India)
China surfing dangerous avenues here.. I mean going by chinese standards in quality.. i hope the missile does not burst at the launching country.. or worse the missile go and hit country Y instead of X.
Agree (0)Disagree (11)Recommend (0)

中国在冒险.....我意思是就凭中国货的质量标准,我希望导弹不会在发射国爆炸,又或更糟糕地是,本来导弹要打击X国,结果打到Y国。

Dark Horse (London)
Do these arms work or are like chinese firecrackers fusssss...........
Agree (4)Disagree (14)Recommend (1)

这些武器能用吗,是否像中国的鞭炮一样爆炸.......

Ajay Jain (Mumbai)
India should move fast in the arms manufacturing industry. If China can do it why not India?
Agree (2)Disagree (0)Recommend (0)

印度军工业应该行动迅速。如果中国行,为什么印度不行?

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