三泰虎

为什么中国城市看起来比美国城市更有未来感呢

Why do China's cities look a lot more impressive and feel more futuristic compared to U.S cities? Does China just have a greater desire for urban development?

为什么中国的城市看起来比美国的更令人印象深刻,更有未来感呢?中国是不是更重视城市发展?

以下是Quora读者的评论:

Shaun Lawson, amateur urban studies/planning student

A lot of it is because China's cities are just newer, with virtually no buildings older than 30 years old and most buildings younger than 10 years. If life worked like Sim City and you could just swap out infrastructure of equal historical value, you could freely bulldoze Manhattan in return for several trillion dollars and build a metropolis that makes Blade Runner look like Colonial Williamsburg, and I would move there tomorrow. 

这在很大程度上是因为中国的城市都是新建的,几乎没有超过30年历史的建筑,大多数建筑都是近10年内修建的。如果生活就像《模拟城市》一样,你可以交换同等历史价值的基础设施,你可以用几万亿美元推平曼哈顿,建造一个大都市,让《银翼杀手》看起来像殖民时期的威廉斯堡,而我明天就会立刻搬到那里去。

Most of Hong Kong was only built in the last 20-30 years at most; the real famous buildings in New York and Chicago were built at the turn of the century, when America was going through basically the same period China is now, and served a very similar role in the world, as the engine of progress and manufacturing.

香港的大部分地区最多是在最近二、三十年才建成的;纽约和芝加哥真正的著名建筑都是在世纪之交建造的,当时美国正在经历与中国现在基本相同的时期,在世界上扮演着非常相似的角色,是世界发展和制造业的引擎。

To do a Sim City makeover of an American city, however, you'd need to use eminent domain in a wildly unconstitutional fashion. The reason that Beijing has been able to bulldoze the entire city like two or three times in the last 60 years and build 20 subway lines covering an area not much smaller than Rhode Island is because people aren't allowed to sue the go nment and have a lot of carrots and sticks to encourage them to take their cash settlements and move somewhere else, no matter how historic their courtyard may be. Compare this to legendary sloth and difficulty of New York subway construction, where zoning ordinance, legal battles, and to a large extent just the relatively much, much higher costs of labor and concrete keeps things very, very slow. 

然而,要对一座美国城市进行模拟城市改造,你必须违反宪法来使用国家征用权。北京能够在过去60年推平整个城市两到三次,在不比罗德岛州面积小的区域内建设20条地铁线路的原因,是因为人们不得起诉政府,当地有很多的胡萝卜和大棒的政策鼓励他们采取现金结算,搬迁到其他地方,无论他们的院落有多大的历史意义。与之相比,纽约地铁建设的拖沓和困难是出了名的。在纽约,各地政策、法律纠纷,以及在很大程度上,相对高得多的劳动力成本和混凝土成本让事情进展非常缓慢。

On the other hand, unlike China, we don't have chemical explosions of 300 tons of TNT going off in our harbors any more, and people aren't kicked out of their homes by the thousands and have historic neighborhoods bulldozed (although we did that to a lot of black and immigrant neighborhoods while building rail and highway infrastructure in the last two centuries). Hoorah for American progress.

另一方面,与中国不同的是,我们的港口没有发生300吨TNT的化学爆炸,人们并没有被成千上万的人赶出家园,历史街区也没有被夷为平地(尽管在过去的两个世纪里,我们在修建铁路和公路基础设施时,也对许多黑人和移民社区这么做过)。为美国的进步欢呼。

Also, Americans don't really like paying for infrastructure? Basic crap, like roads, schools, healthcare, modernized power plants. We kick it around in town hall meetings and cry about socialist slippery slopes and tend to constantly kick things back and forth between federal, state, and local go nments, and operate at a much lower efficiency, and try to privatize things that really can't or shouldn't be privatized--prisons, waste reclamation, water. As a nation we just have poor impulse control and a love of instant gratification, as well as cultural pro-business anti-go nment attitudes, and it messes up the (expensive and often controversial) infrastructure you need to maintain any modern state, much less the superpower we are.

还有,美国人真的不喜欢为基础设施买单吗?基本都是垃圾,比如道路、学校、医疗、现代化的发电厂。我们在市政厅会议上大吵大闹,为社会主义大滑坡嚷嚷,很多事情都在联邦、州和地方政府之间踢皮球,处理的效率很低,并试图将不可能的东西,不应该的东西私有化——监狱、废物回收、水。作为一个国家,我们对冲动缺乏控制、对即时满足十分迷恋,文化上又有亲商的反政府态度,这就搞砸了维持现代国家所需要的(昂贵且经常有争议的)基础设施,更不用说我们还是个超级大国了。

Also, this is the building spike in China now. More or less, what is being built now is the architecture that will be considered iconic of China 100 years from now; labor and commodity prices will increase and the money supply will get tighter, and hopefully legal rights will increasingly strengthen, until it becomes much more difficult to just build a city of 20 million people from the ground up.

另外,这是中国现在的建筑高峰。现在正在建设的建筑100年后将或多或少被视为中国的标志性建筑;劳动力和商品价格将上涨,货币供应将更加紧张,希望合法权利将越来越强,要建设一个2000万人口的城市变得越发困难起来。

I'd also like to say that while shameless eminent domain, collaborative utilitarian go nments, and nationwide embrace of infrastructure funding tend to get great results in urbanization, while avoiding the slums prevalent in so many other developing countries, I absolutely hate 90% of Chinese architecture and urban planning. The Forbidden City was built in the Ming Dynasty but it still has perfect drainage; after any heavy rainfall in Beijing almost every sidewalk is covered in toxic puddles for days. Almost every modern skyscraper is a cheap, badly insulated Le Corbusier phallus or else a cookie cutter villa complex, because the ghost of Levittown somehow crossed the Pacific

我还想说,虽然无耻的土地征用权,协作的功利主义政府,以及全国范围内对基础设施投资的接受,往往会在城市化进程中取得巨大的成果,同时避免了许多其他发展中国家普遍存在的贫民窟,但我绝对讨厌90%的中国建筑和城市规划。紫禁城建于明朝,但排水系统仍然很好;但现在北京下大雨之后,几乎每条人行道都会被污水淹没好几天。几乎每一座现代化的摩天大楼都是廉价的、隔热性差的勒柯布西耶菲勒斯别墅群,或者说是一座千篇一律的别墅群,因为莱维敦的鬼魂莫名其妙地穿越了太平洋。

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There are exceptions.

也有例外。

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Another point would be that average young Chinese are just more comfortable with the future in general than Americans, since they're not held back by lots of sunk costs and emotional commitment to outdated infrastructure built a hundred years ago. Telephones went straight from landlines being a luxury to universal 3G wireless, from clunky coal-burning trains to selling high speed rail systems back to Germany. Internet penetration is higher and the tech world is generally more competitive, with software like Taobao, Alipay, and WeChat really blowing away western competitors. 

另一个观点是,一般的中国年轻比美国人更适应未来,因为他们没有被大量的沉没成本和对100年前建造的过时基础设施的情感承诺所束缚。电话一直在发展,从作为奢侈品的固定电话到随处可见的3G无线电话,从笨重的烧煤火车到将高速铁路系统卖回德国。互联网普及率更高,科技界的竞争也更激烈,淘宝、支付宝和微信这样的软件真的把西方的竞争对手都吓跑了。

 

CGTN Social Team, works at CGTN

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Cities are the nerve centers of the world. An estimated 56 percent of the global population live in urban settlements today, with that number set to grow exponentially in the coming decades.

城市是世界的神经中枢。据估计,目前全球56%的人口居住在城市,未来几十年,这一数字还将呈指数增长。

China, which has added an astounding 650 million people to its cities in the last four decades, is bound to play a key role in global urbanization.

在过去40年里,中国城市新增人口达到了惊人的6.5亿,中国必将在全球城市化进程中发挥关键作用。

As the United Nations observes World Cities Day (WCD) on October 31, it is worth noting that of the 20 fastest growing cities in the world today, seven are from China – Shanghai, Chongqing, Beijing, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Xi'an.

联合国在10月31日庆祝世界城市日(WCD),值得注意的是,当今世界上发展最快的20个城市中,有7个来自中国——上海、重庆、北京、苏州、广州、南京和西安。

In fact it was at the Shanghai International Expo 2010 that the idea for an international day to encourage international community's interest in global urbanization was conceived and led to the UN General Assembly passing a resolution in December 2013 to designate October 31 as World Cities Day.

事实上,正是在2010年上海世博会上,人们提出了国际城市日的想法,并促使联合国大会在2013年12月通过决议,将10月31日定为世界城市日。

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China has been at the center stage of global urbanization in recent decades. In 1978, just a little over 171 million people, or 17.92 percent of the total Chinese population, lived in cities.

近几十年来,中国一直处于全球城市化的中心阶段。1978年,中国只有1.71亿人(占总人口的17.92%)居住在城市。

By 2017, the number of China's urban dwellers soared to about 813 million or 58.52 percent of the country's population, surpassing the global urbanization average of 54.74 percent.

2017年,中国城市居民数量飙升至约8.13亿人,占全国人口的58.52%,超过了全球平均54.74%的城市化水平。

By 2030, urban population will account for 60 percent of the global population and one in every three people will live in cities with at least half a million inhabitants, according to United Nations' data on world's cities.

根据联合国关于世界城市的数据,到2030年,城市人口将占全球人口的60%,每三个人中就有一个人将生活在至少有50万居民的城市。

In comparison, China's urbanization rate will reach 70 percent by 2035 with over 1 billion Chinese citizens living and working in cities with a combined area of 100,000 square kilometers, according to a report published by the National Academy of Economic Strategy (NAES) under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

相比之下,根据中国社会科学院国家经济战略研究院(NAES)发布的一份报告,到2035年,中国的城市化率将达到70%,超过10亿中国公民将在总面积为10万平方公里的城市生活和工作。

The pace and scale of urbanization has had a profound impact not only on China's political, environmental, and economic conditions but has created ripples across the world in profound ways, influencing everything from global climate prospects to socioeconomic conditions, and indeed the world economy.

城市化的速度和规模不仅对中国的政治、环境和经济状况产生了深远的影响,而且从全球气候前景到社会经济状况,乃至世界经济,都在世界范围内产生了深远的影响。

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Urbanization has been an important catalyst in pulling more than 700 million people out of poverty, many of whom participated in China's massive rural-urban migration, moving from the countryside to the cities and from agriculture into jobs in industry and services.

城市化是使7亿多人摆脱贫困的重要催化剂,其中许多人参与了中国大规模的城乡人口迁移,从农村到城市,从农业到工业和服务业的就业。

China's cities have largely avoided the social ills of rapid urbanization such as widespread urban unemployment and poverty. This has been achieved partly by regulating the flow of people to its cities, but more so by creating the conditions for rapid growth in income and employment.

中国的城市在很大程度上避免了快速城市化带来的社会弊病,比如普遍的城市失业和贫困。这在一定程度上是通过控制城市人口流动实现的,但更多的是通过为收入和就业的快速增长创造条件实现的。

The continued urbanization is bound to cause a surge in China's consuming capacity in the coming decades as it transforms into a high-income country. China's mega cities now have income levels comparable to some member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

未来几十年,随着中国向高收入国家转型,持续的城市化必然会导致中国消费能力激增。目前,中国特大城市的收入水平可与经济合作与发展组织(OECD)的一些成员国相媲美。

Brookings Institute's Global Metro Monitor in 2018 reported that 103 of the world's 300 largest metropolitan economies are now in China.

布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institute) 2018年发布的《全球地铁观察》(Global Metro Monitor)报告称,全球300个最大的大都市经济体中,目前有103个在中国。

 译文来源:三泰虎  http://www.santaihu.com/49460.html  译者:Joyceliu

 

Robert Narracci, Architecture

1) Newness : a very large percentage of Chinese development is recent compared with US development and is by nature newer looking.

1)新:与美国相比,中国的发展有很大一部分是最近才出现的,看起来更新。

2) Boom time : the recent decades of economic exuberance has led to forward thinking experimentation in architecture.

2)繁荣时期:最近几十年的经济繁荣导致了建筑领域的前瞻性思维实验。

3) Economics : very cheap labor costs have made it 10x more economical to build in China than in the US and some of that savings has been thrown into a prideful bravado of architectural expression.

3)经济效益:非常便宜的劳动力成本使得在中国建造比在美国经济10倍,其中一部分节省下来的钱则被投向浮夸的建筑外观。

4) Talent Attraction : western architects frustrated by western malaise, conservatism, and (frugality) have opened up shops in China to participate in the exuberance.

4)人才吸引:西方建筑师对西方的萎靡、保守主义和(节俭)感到失望,在中国开展业务,参与到这股建筑热潮中。

PS That all being said, beyond the notable downtowns there are many pitifully poorly designed buildings in China. Just as in the US, the flashier stuff gets your attention but is a small percentage of the whole

顺便说一句,除了著名的商业区,中国还有很多设计糟糕的建筑。就像在美国一样,浮夸的东西确实会吸引你的注意力,但占比很小。

 

Michael Cheng, Lived in the San Jose Bay Area for 32 years and lived in LA and East Coast

That's one personal opinion.  I don't happen to share the same opinion.  If anything, I think Vancouver looks way more modern, if not futuristic, at night with its lean and clean lines.  

这是我个人的看法。我不同意你的看法。我认为温哥华的夜晚以其简洁干净的线条更显现代。

Shanghai and Beijing are both rapidly developing cities.  Almost all the towers are under 20 years old.  I don't particularly like the mishmash of architectural styles designed to attract attention.

上海和北京都是发展迅速的城市。几乎所有的高楼历史都不到20年。我对那些为了抓眼球而设计的建筑风格的大杂烩并不看好。

LA is a suburban sprawl that really can't be compared to any tier one city.  New York City is just dated, with only a few newer projects to light the way

洛杉矶是一个郊区,实在无法与其他一线城市相比。纽约市也过时了,只有几个新的项目还能撑起门面。

 

Lauren Anderson, I love this country.

City design is based on city planning & zoning. I've never been to China, but, in the U.S., property ownership rights are a big deal for individual citizens. And, to tell a person what to build & how to build on their own land is a big deal which involves various constitutional rights. If cities in China are able to build/develop in a more aesthetically pleasing way, on a grander scale, the go nment might have more power and rights over the land, as a whole, rather than multiple individuals. For example, if the go nment (one entity) owns/controls 500 sq. km., rather than 500 individuals (like in the U.S.), the go nment can make a more cohesive design, because there is only one entity making decisions, rather than 500.

城市设计以城市规划和分区为基础。我从来没有去过中国,但是在美国,房产所有权对每个公民来说都是一件大事。而且,告诉一个人在他们自己的土地上应该建造什么以及怎么建造是一件大事,涉及到各种宪法权利。如果中国的城市能够以一种更美观的方式,在更大的规模上进行建设/发展,那么政府可能对整个土地拥有更多的权力和权利,而不是多个个人。例如,如果政府(一个实体)拥有/控制500平方公里,而不是500个个人(如在美国),政府可以做出更具凝聚力的设计,因为做决策的只有这个实体,而不是500个人。

 

John Mahan, studied BA Business Marketing at The University of Texas at Austin

To put it simply...

简单地说……

China (and some other countries) has very new modern infrastructure compared to the U.S.

与美国相比,中国(和其他一些国家)拥有非常新的现代化基础设施。

The chinese go nment not only encouraged impressive looking buildings but also built some themselves. Anyone who watched the Beijing Olympics could see that China was desperately trying to impress the world...and in many ways they did

中国不仅鼓励那些外观令人印象深刻的建筑,而且自己也建造了一些。任何观看过北京奥运会的人都能发现,中国正拼命想给世界留下深刻印象……在很多方面,他们确实做到了。

 

Yu-Hsing Chen, lived in The United States of America

As most others noted, it's more than anything else because it's newer, that and they have too much hot money to throw around. it's certainly been a dream ground for architects around the world in the last decade +(图)

正如大多数其他人所说,因为它比较新,而且他们有太多的热钱可以用来投资。在过去的十年里,中国无疑是全世界建筑师的梦想之地。

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