三泰虎

在减少贫困方面,印度应该从中国得到什么借鉴

India’s record of reducing poverty pales in comparison to China, Brazil and Mexico. What lessons should India learn from these countries in its efforts at reducing poverty?

印度减少贫困的记录与中国、巴西和墨西哥相对比。在努力减少贫困方面,印度应该从这些国家吸取什么教训?

以下是Quora读者的评论:

Muhammed Borhanuddin, M.S. International Relations

An Indian man, Dashrath Manjhi, made history. He shortened a journey of 55 Km to 15 Km by carving a 110-meter way through a hillock using a hammer and chisel by himself alone, simply for his villagers not to die on the way to hospitals in case of emergency. He took 22 years to accomplish this work.

印度人达什拉斯·曼吉创造了历史。他独自一人用锤子和凿子在一座小山丘上凿出了一条110米长的路,把55公里的路程缩短到了15公里,这么做只是为了让村民们在紧急情况下不至于死在去医院的路上。他花了22年才完成这项工作。

Sincere efforts can make impossible things possible for life.

真诚的努力可以使不可能的事情成为可能。

The Chinese have accomplished the great job simply by a politically unbiased willingness and by their sincere and tireless efforts.

中国人民完成这项伟大的事业,完全是出于政治上不带偏见的意愿,是出于真诚和不懈的努力。

China under the co unist go nments has successfully reduced an amount of poverty and in a period of time that no other nation could imagine, let alone had ever accomplished.

在党的领导下,中国成功地在短时间内减少了贫困人口,这个时间之短是其他国家都无法想象的,更别说取得了任何成就了。

They broke through every barrier along that journey, which we may think possible or impossible, ethical or unethical.

他们在这段旅程中突破了每一个障碍,我们可能认为这些障碍是可能突破的,也可能是无法解决的,是合乎道德的,也可能是不道德的。

How have they done this?

他们是怎么做到的?

They have made a united national effort and have poured billions of dollars into those efforts to bridge the impoverished and the well-off—spread the economic achievements through a progressive nationwide infrastructure.

他们全国上下齐心协力,投入了数十亿美元的资金,通过全国范围内的基础设施建设,帮助贫困人口和生活广泛的人们取得经济收入。

They have forced the impoverished rural people to relocate to where they could make better earnings, thereby a better living.

他们让贫困的农村人搬迁到可以获得更高收入的地方,从而过上更好的生活。

They have trained the backward people how to work better toward that goal— sometimes in measures that many outsiders like us viewed as human rights violations. But the Chinese have adamantly thrown away those accusations and pushed them forward. Eventually they are close to what they envisioned, what they needed for themselves, carelessly of what you and I viewed as.

他们向落后地区的人们提供培训,教他们如何更好地实现这一目标—有时采取的措施会被许多像我们这样的局外人视为侵犯人全。但中方坚决否认了这些指控,并坚定第推进。最终,他们实现他们所预期的,他们自己所需要的,而不是你和我所认为的。

One does not need a lot of things to change the fate, but prudence, and a gut and a consistent perseverance. China that has once again ascended after a long stride to becoming the world’s second biggest economy in the span of just a few decades is about to prove it in the lifespan of the current generation.

一个人并不需要太多东西来改变命运,但需要谨慎,勇气和坚持不懈的毅力。在短短几十年的时间里,中国经历了漫长的跨越,再次崛起为全球第二大经济体,而这一成就将在这一代人的有生之年得到证明。

I do not think anything can hold it back.

我认为没有什么能阻止中国。

 

Bill Chen, Keen geopolitics observer

想致富,先修路 or, if you want to get rich, build roads first.

想致富,先修路。

This was a popular slogan that was introduced in the early 1980s. Almost every Chinese has internalized this as a key national strategy towards prosperity and a better life.

这是20世纪80年代初中国提出的一个流行口号。几乎每一个中国人都把这作为实现繁荣富裕和更好生活的关键的国家战略。

China has held firm to the belief that if you connect people, wealth will naturally flow downstream and create virtuous cycles of opportunity. In engineering parlance, we call such a system positive feedback.

中国坚信,只要把人民联合起来,财富自然会流入,创造机会的良性循环。用工程术语来说,我们称这样的系统为正反馈。

China connected in stages, starting from the coast. As she grew richer, she took on ever more ambitious projects in the challenging interior, from cutting through mountains, to spanning deep valleys, to bridging huge rivers. China already occupy many of the world’s top 10 records for the highest/longest bridge/tunnel/rail etc.

中国从沿海地区开始,分段进行。随着她越来越富有,她在富有挑战性的内陆地区开展了更多雄心勃勃的项目,从开山,到跨越深谷,再到跨越大河。中国已经占据了世界最高/最长桥梁/隧道/铁路等的前10名。

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Once the connections arrive, modernization begins in the various cities, towns and villages served by the transport system.

All this can only happen with tandem growth in the electricity grid.

现代化开始在交通系统服务的各个城市、城镇和村庄推进。

所有这些都只能通过电网的串联增长来实现。

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China from space, 1993

从太空俯瞰中国,1993年

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China from space, 2010

从太空俯瞰中国,2010年

Villagers are given land and modern houses built as like-for-like replacements. Life is so good in some rural areas residents are reluctant to change their hukou for the city.

村民们获得了土地和现代化的房屋,就像“等类置换”一样。在一些农村地区,生活如此安适,居民不愿意变更为城市户口。

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This is what has happened over and over again throughout China over the past 4 decades. The development was necessarily staged, because of the continental size and the abject low base she started from.

在过去的40年里,这种事情在中国发生了一次又一次。这一发展必然是阶段性的,因为它的陆地面积极大,起点又低得可怜。

How did China eradicate so much poverty? She made money and spent it on the poor in a clever and efficient manner.

中国是如何消除这么多贫困的?她以一种聪明而有效的方式赚钱并把钱花在穷人身上。

In other words, she pumped trillions to fill the gaping hole caused by poverty, and there is a ways to go before the poorest inland provinces reach parity with the coast.

换句话说,她投入了数万亿美元来填补贫困造成的巨大缺口,而在最贫困的内陆省份与沿海省份平齐之前,还有很长的路要走。

 

Balaji Viswanathan

China is adjacent to developed countries like Japan & South Korea. They are its top trading partners [Other than the USA].

中国毗邻日本、韩国等发达国家。他们是中国的最大贸易伙伴(美国除外)。

Mexico is adjacent to the developed nation of USA. Mexico is part of the NAFTA - free trade area with copious trade with USA and Canada.

墨西哥毗邻美国这个发达国家。墨西哥是北美紫游贸易区的一部分,与美国和加拿大有着丰富的贸易往来。

Brazil is also close to the USA and has other “richer” countries like Argentina and Chile.

巴西离美国也很近,还有阿根廷和智利等“更富裕”的国家。

India is not adjacent to any developed nation or even a moderately successful nation. India’s neighborhood is in a worse position than India. The recent rise of China and its trade has been helpful to India, but China proper [their eastern seaboard] is still very, very far from India.

印度与任何发达国家都不相邻,周围甚至连个中等发达国家也没有。印度的邻国处境比印度更糟糕。中国最近的崛起及其贸易对印度有帮助,但中国本身(其东部沿海地区)离印度仍然非常、非常远。

India has thus very less trade with its neighbors, unlike the other 3. It has very little pressure to compete or copy as our peers are bigger basket cases than us. While China can copy the other Confucian countries quite easily [similar systems] India doesn’t have easy models to copy.

因此,与其他三国不同,印度与邻国的贸易非常少。它几乎没有竞争和模仿的压力,因为我们的邦邻比我们更糟糕。虽然中国可以很容易地模仿其他儒家国家(类似的制度),但印度没有容易模仿的模式。

That said, India can adopt some broader ideas:

也就是说,印度可以采纳一些更广泛的想法:

1.Get women into the workforce. India is abysmal - even worse than its terrible neighborhood - when it comes to employing women in factories and offices. One thing I’m always fascinated in China is how many women are employed. In public places they always outnumber the men. We are trying to do with one hand what is a two hand job.

1.让女性进入职场。在工厂和办公室雇佣女性方面,印度糟糕透了—甚至比它糟糕的邻居还要更糟糕。我对中国一直很感兴趣的一件事是中国有多少职业女性。在公共场所,她们的人数总是比男人多。我们试图用一只手来完成两只手的工作。

2.From Mexico try to imitate the idea of Prospera - A Model from Mexico for the World - where mothers are directly given money by the go nment to spend on their children. For that we also have to solve the problem of drunken husbands. Brazil has a similar program called Bolsa Familia - How to Reduce Poverty: A New Lesson from Brazil for the World? - that again pays families to send children to school.

2.墨西哥试图复制普洛斯佩拉的理念——一个来自墨西哥的世界典范——母亲们直接从政府那里拿钱,花在孩子身上。我们还必须解决醉酒丈夫的问题。巴西有一个类似的项目叫做Bolsa Familia——如何减少贫困:巴西给世界上的一个新教训?-为送孩子上学的家庭支付费用。

3.From China, imitate the idea of barefoot doctors - China’s village doctors take great strides - these village doctors have dramatically changed China’s healthcare indicators. Rather than investing a lot of money on educating professional doctors [MBBS] who will eventually end up in the cities, educate semi-professional village doctors on a massive scale.

3.来自中国,模仿赤脚医生的想法——中国的乡村医生取得了巨大的进步——这些乡村医生极大地改变了中国的医疗指标。与其投入大量资金培养职业医生,最终将他们送到城市,不如大规模培养半职业的乡村医生。

4.Really open up the country to trade. Trade as a percentage of GDP is terrible. Both the right wing and the left wing in this country play with a screwed up idea of Swadeshi - buying only local things and not trading freely with the outside world. The culture of fear and distrust permeates everywhere.

4.真正放开这个国家的贸易。贸易占GDP的比例很糟糕。这个国家的右翼和左翼都有一种变了味的“抵制英国货运动”的想法——只买当地产的商品,不与外部世界紫游贸易。恐惧和不信任的文化无处不在。

5.Build up the infrastructure. Majority of the country’s budget goes into social programs and subsidies. That leaves very little for building the future - the infrastructure needed to build a great manufacturing output.

5.建设基础设施。国家预算的大部分用于社会项目和补贴。几乎没有为建设未来留下什么——建设一个伟大的制造业产出所需的基础设施。

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/49370.html 译者:Joyceliu

 

Vaibhav Pandey, Geopolitics Observer

Although poverty alleviation has been the goal of all the go nments till now, lack of holistic definition and approach has led to very little changes on the ground.

虽然到目前为止,扶贫一直是各国政府的目标,但由于缺乏整体的清晰定义和方法,导致实际改变非常小。

1.China  can take quick decisions. While China built some of the largest hydroelectricity dams on the earth, Indian go nment faced numerous hurdles in this area. The Sardar Sarovar Dam, recently in news, invited great protests. World Bank even withdrew funding for the dam.

1.中国可以迅速做出决定。中国建造了世界上一些最大的水电站,而印度政府在这方面面临着许多障碍。最近的新闻报道,Sardar Sarovar大坝引起了巨大的抗议。世界银行甚至取消了对大坝的资助。

2.Mexico gained from having the US in its neighborhood. The guarantee of a stable geopolitical environment coupled with trade benefits allowed it to look inwards and invest in poverty alleviation. India has had wars with both China and Pakistan. Peace comes in phases for us. Similar is the case for Brazil.

2.墨西哥因与美国为邻而获益。稳定的地缘政治环境的保障加上贸易利益,使它能够着眼于国内并为扶贫投入资金。印度与中国和巴基斯坦都有过战争。和平是慢慢到来的。巴西的情况也类似。

 

Reduction in poverty is possible by providing quality service delivery. Also growth in private sector will have a compounded effect on poverty alleviation.

通过提供高质量的服务来减少贫困是可能的。此外,私营部门的增长将对减轻贫困产生复杂的影响。

1.Investments in infrastructure should be the top priority for the go nment. Investments in health, energy and education infrastructure are pressing needs for India in the 21st century.

1.基础设施投资应该是政府的首要任务。在卫生、能源和教育基础设施方面的投资是印度在21世纪的迫切需求。

2.Technological improvements in agriculture have to be supplemented with legal aid. Land leasing laws need to be in place.

2.农业方面的技术进步必须辅以法律援助。需要制定土地租赁法律。

3.Skilled workforce still remains a distant dream. Employability of Indian graduates is quite low. In order to leverage the huge demographic dividend India must invest in skill development.

3.熟练劳动力仍然是一个遥远的梦想。印度毕业生的就业能力相当低。想要利用巨大的人口红利,印度必须投资于技能提升。

4.India must stop viewing the private sector suspiciously and view it as a tool to supplement the public sector. Ease of doing business should be improved and insolvency processes need to be streamlined.

4.印度必须停止以怀疑的眼光看待私营部门,将其视为公有经济的补充工具。应该改善营商环境,简化破产程序。

 

Angad Sharma,

I don’t understand the inclusion of Mexico - Mexico’s has a large amount of its population living under the poverty line. India is doing much better.

我不理解为什么要把墨西哥包括在内——墨西哥有大量人口生活在贫困线以下。印度的情况要好得多。

In comparison to China, India is still better because China’s economy is built largely on debt, which is close to 250% of its GDP now. This debt will have to be paid back eventually, probably sending China’s GDP growth into the negative and a lot of the population it lifted out of poverty back in.

与中国相比,印度的情况要好一些,因为中国的经济很大程度上是建立在债务基础上的,目前债务占GDP的比例接近250%。这些债务最终必须偿还,这可能会使中国的GDP陷入负增长,并使许多摆脱贫困的人口重新陷入贫困。

Brazil has been doing spectacularly poorly, considering its sovereign wealth in natural resources is among the highest in the whole world. Its GDP has dropped drastically since 2010.

巴西的自然资源是全球最高的国家之一,但该国的表现一直相当糟糕。自2010年以来,其GDP大幅下降。

India is eliminating poverty in a much more sustainable way than China, and much more efficiently than Brazil considering we don’t have as many resources. Of course, more can be done - like Balaji Viswanathan) suggested - open up trade, cut regulation, include women, and spend on infrastructure over subsidies.

考虑到我们没有那么多资源,印度正在以比中国更可持续的方式消除贫困,也比巴西更有效率。当然,还有更多的事情可以做——就像Balaji Viswanathan建议的那样——开放贸易,削减监管,让女性参与经济发展,并投资建设基础设施,而不是单纯地提供补贴。

 

Sree V, B Tech Engineering

Our Country did a reasonable job in reducing Poverty . During the 25 years of Liberalisation , % of people below poverty line has come down ( from 45 % to less than 20 %).

我们国家在减少贫困方面做得很好。在紫游化的25年里,生活在贫困线以下的人口比例从45%下降到20%以下。

Poverty Reduction is possible with a Good Policy Continuum . Major impacting factors are not necessarily Economic

只要有良好的政策连续性,减贫是可能的。主要的影响因素不一定是经济上的。

Reasonable Economic Growth

合理的经济增长

Constant effort to push the people high up on Skill - Value Chain

不断努力,鼓励员工向技能价值链的上层前进

Developing a Society which does not discriminate on gender /caste /religion basis

发展一个没有性别/种姓/宗教歧视的社会

Society which respects dignity of labour, quality of skill , Technology , Productivity & quality of life

尊重劳动者的尊严、技术质量、科技、生产力和生活质量的社会

Our Society which wants to exploit the helplessness of the poor

我们的社会想利用穷人的无助

But Our Political System keeps on encouraging & trapping people into remaining poor by “ Populist schemes”.

但是,我们的政治制度继续鼓励和诱骗人们通过“民粹主义计划”保持贫困。

Let us look at China’s example. How did they use Technology ? how did they set up manufacturing centres in rural areas to upgrade the skills and make them employable /competitive skills ? It has taken a few years. But they did it. In India , we can also look at how Technology can be used to create competitive rural service centres , to start with our own Industry . Big industries can help in mentoring,Technology , even marketing , financing etc

让我们以中国为例。他们如何使用科技?他们是如何在农村地区建立制造中心来提高技能,并令民众具备就业/竞争技能的?这花了几年的时间。但他们做到了。在印度,我们也可以想想如何利用科技来创建有竞争力的农村服务中心。大型企业可以在辅导、科技、甚至营销、融资等方面提供帮助。

The key is pouring lot of investments in Skills & Rural Industrial /service Infrastructure ( We are any way spending lakhs of crores on freebees , subsidies , loan waivers etc ) . Involve Private sector / NGOs too. Even if some investments don’t fructify , some industries don’t do well don’t worry . The skills give confidence to the poor , they can fish themselves , they don’t to be given fish everyday

关键是在技能和农村工业/服务基础设施方面进行大量投资(否则我们也是要把数万亿卢比花在免费赠品、补贴、贷款减免等方面)。把私营部门/非政府组织也组织进来。即使有些投资不会产生收益,有些行业不景气,不用担心。这些技能给了穷人信心,他们就可以自己捕鱼,不需要每天等着别人送鱼了。

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