三泰虎

中国在月球暗面做什么

What the Hell Is China Doing on the Dark Side of the Moon?

中国到底在月球暗面做什么?

One year ago last month, a Chinese robot touched down on the dark side of the moon. 

It was the first probe to land on the side of the moon that permanently faces away from Earth as both bodies circle around the sun. And if Beijing realizes its ambitions in coming years, it won’t be the last time it makes history—and threatens U.S. dominance in space.

The Chang’e 4 probe and the Yutu 2 rover it carried have stayed busy photographing and scanning minerals, cultivating cotton, potato and rapeseeds, growing yeast, and hatching fruit-fly eggs in the moon’s low gravity.

The experiments are intriguing in their own right, but China’s real agenda is more than scientific. For decades, Beijing has been building the infrastructure for an eventual manned mission to the moon, effectively duplicating what the United States achieved in 1969 and hopes to achieve again before 2024.

The reasons for this latter-day space race are clear, experts said, even if the real-world pay-off isn’t. 

一年前的上个月,一个中国机器人在月球暗面着陆。

这是第一个着陆在月球另一侧的探测器,由于两个天体都围绕太阳旋转,月球暗面永远都远离地球。如果北京在未来几年实现其雄心,这不会是它最后一次创造历史,将会威胁美国在太空的主导地位。

嫦娥四号探测器和它携带的玉兔二号探测器一直忙于拍摄和扫描矿物,在月球的低重力环境下种植棉花、土豆和油菜籽,培育酵母,孵化果蝇卵。

这些实验本身就很有趣,但中国真正的目的不仅仅是科学。几十年来,北京一直在为最终的载人登月任务建设基础设施,实际上只是在重复美国1969年的成就,希望在2024年之前再次实现。

专家们说,造成这种现代太空竞赛的原因是显而易见的,即使现实世界的结果并非如此。

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“Space has always been symbolic of leadership, through prestige, that translates into strategic influence,” Joan Johnson-Freese, a space expert at the Naval War College in Rhode Island, told The Daily Beast. “China seeks to be acknowledged as the technology leader in Asia, and there is no more visible place to do that than space.”

While the current, high-profile U.S. moon mission is mired in Trump-era politics, China’s keeps plodding forward with fewer bold pronouncements and more actual accomplishments. 

As Chang’e 4 and Yutu 2 work away, the China National Space Administration is quietly planning a follow-up probe. Chang’e 5 could blast off this year. Unlike the one-way Chang’e 4, which is limited to bouncing back data via a relay satellite, its successor is designed to collect samples and bring them back to Earth.

Meanwhile, the Chinese space agency has resumed work on its Tiangong 3 space stationand is also testing a new manned capsule for deep-space missions. 

木星的卫星上埋藏的海洋能指向地球之外的生命吗?

罗德岛海军战争学院的空间专家琼·约翰逊-弗里斯在接受《每日野兽》采访时表示:“太空一直是领导力的象征,通过声望,转化为战略影响力。中国希望成为公认的亚洲区技术领导,而要做到这一点,没有比太空更瞩目的地方了。”

尽管目前备受瞩目的美国登月计划深陷特朗普时代的政治泥潭,但中国的太空计划却在不断进步,大胆的表态越来越少,取得的实际成果却越来越多。

随着“嫦娥四号”和“玉兔二号”的升空,中国国家航天局正悄悄地计划进行后续探测。今年嫦娥五号可能发射升空。与单向“嫦娥四号”不同,它仅限于通过中继卫星传回数据,“嫦娥四号”后继卫星的目的是收集样本并将其带回地球。

与此同时,中国航天局已经恢复了天宫3号空间站的工作,并正在测试用于深空任务的新型载人太空舱。

When the 22-year-old, U.S.-led International Space Station finally craps out some time in the late 2020s or early 2030s, Tiangong could become the only permanent habitat in low Earth orbit. If the United States wants to maintain a significant human presence over Earth after the ISS, it might have no choice but to ask China for permission to embark. 

That would make Tiangong the “de facto international space station,” Johnson-Freese argued. Neither NASA nor the Chinese space agency responded to requests for comment.

“China is in a no-lose situation,” Johnson-Freese added via email. “It can ‘beat’ the U.S. (back) to the Moon—or not—but soon thereafter be able to say anything the U.S. can do, we can do, too.”

To be clear, the United States isn’t standing still in space. NASA still leads the International Space Station and in recent years convinced Congress to keep the station in service as long as its basic components were safe and economical. 

当22岁的美国主导的国际空间站最终在21世纪20年代末30年代初退役时,天宫可能成为低地球轨道上唯一的永久性栖息地。如果美国在国际空间站退役之后登上月球,它可能别无选择,只能请求中国允许其登入。

这将使天宫成为“事实上的国际空间站”,约翰逊-弗里斯说。美国国家航空航天局和中国航天局都没有回应记者的置评请求。

“中国正处于不输不赢的局面,”约翰逊-弗里斯通过电子邮件补充道。“它可以‘打败’美国(重返月球)——或者不,但很快就能说美国能做到的,我们也能做到。”

需要明确的是,美国并非在太空项目中停滞不前。美国国家航空和宇宙航行局仍然领导着国际空间站,并在最近几年说服了国会,只要空间站的基本组件安全经济,它就可以继续运行。

The U.S. space agency is also deploying a new space telescope and sending probes across the solar system as part of an ever-expanding search for extraterrestrial life. 

And then there’s the moon. NASA for years has mulled returning human explorers to the lunar surface for the first time since 1972. Not only is there plenty of science to be done, but the moon could also function as a staging base for astronauts heading to Mars. To say nothing of the commercial value of the moon’s minerals.

Last year, the Trump administration slapped an arbitrary 2024 deadline on a new manned lunar landing. That year, of course, represents the close of a possible second term for Trump. Experts actually tend to agree 2024 is possible, but only if Congress coughs up $30 billion—and if there are zero problems developing all the hardware a moon landing requires. Tools like a new heavy rocket, a manned capsule, and a lander. 

美国航天局还部署了一架新的太空望远镜,并向整个太阳系发射探测器,作为不断扩大的外星生命搜寻行动的一部分。

然后是月球。多年来,NASA一直在考虑让人类探险家重返月球表面。不仅有大量的科学工作要做,而且月球还可以作为宇航员前往火星的中途基地。更不用说月球矿物的商业价值了。

去年,特朗普政府设定了2024年为新的载人登月的最后期限。当然,那一年标志着特朗普可能的第二个任期的结束。专家们实际上倾向于认为2024年有可能,但前提是美国国会拿出300亿美元,而且在开发登月所需的所有硬件方面,如新的重型火箭、载人太空舱和着陆器等工具都不存在任何问题。

Trump’s Moon shot has already shown signs of falling apart. Developing the manned lander was always the riskiest part, according to John Logsdon, a professor emeritus of political science and international affairs at George Washington University and a former NASA adviser. NASA hasn’t built one in nearly half a century. 

Wary of throwing good money after bad, Congress approved only half of the billion dollars NASA wanted for the mission in 2020. “Our appetite doesn’t match our allocations,” Logsdon told The Daily Beast.

China’s more deliberate journey into space could be an attractive model for other, smaller space-faring countries. For decades, the United States has been the world leader in space, organizing other nations—including rivals like Russia—to explore the galaxy for the benefit of all humankind. 

特朗普的登月计划已经显示出分崩离析的迹象。乔治华盛顿大学政治学和国际事务荣誉退休教授、前NASA顾问约翰•罗格斯登说,研发载人着陆器一直是风险最大的部分。NASA已经有近半个世纪没建过了。

出于谨慎,国会只批准了NASA在2020年需要的10亿美元中的一半。“我们的野心和我们的配置不匹配,”罗格斯登告诉《每日野兽》。

中国更为慎重的太空之旅可能会成为对其他规模较小的航天国家具有吸引力的模式。几十年来,美国一直是世界太空的领导者,组织其他国家——包括俄罗斯这样的竞争对手——为了全人类的利益探索银河系。

“As U.S. leadership continues to erode under President Trump, other nations, especially Japan and the E.U., may begin to consider acting more independently and join China in more substantial cooperative space projects,” Gregory Kulacki, a space expert with the Massachusetts-based Union of Concerned Scientists, told The Daily Beast.

It could be decades before the end-game is clear, Christopher Impey, a University of Arizona astronomer, told The Daily Beast. “If you take the long view, which the Chinese always do, in 50 to 100 years we will be living in the solar system and there will be a substantial economic activity off-Earth,” he said.

“They want to be first,” Impey added of the Chinese, “and they want to be in the driver’s seat for that future.”

“在特朗普总统的领导下,美国的领导地位继续削弱,其他国家,尤其是日本和欧盟马萨诸塞州忧国忧国科学家联盟的空间专家Gregory Kulacki告诉《每日野兽》。

亚利桑那大学的天文学家Christopher Impey告诉《每日野兽》,游戏结束可能需要几十年的时间。他说:“如果从长远来看,这就是中国人一贯的做法,50到100年后,我们将生活在太阳系中,地球外将有大量的经济活动。”

“他们想要成为第一,”Impey补充道,“他们想要掌控未来。”

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译文来源:三泰虎     http://www.santaihu.com/49278.html      译者:Joyceliu 

外文链接:https://www.yahoo.com/news/hell-china-doing-dark-side-094323325.html

David

In the grand scheme of things the moon is just a destination. It may unlock some mysteries as to how the earth and solar system developed but at the end of the day it is just an exercise to practice space travel. So it is good China wants to make the challenge. Only if all nations could all work together in collaboration would we see accelerated scientific achievements.

从长远来看,月球只是一个目的地。它可能会解开地球和太阳系如何演变的一些谜团,但说到底,它只是开展太空旅行的练习。因此,中国想要挑战是件好事。只有所有国家都通力合作,我们才能看到科学成就的加速发展。

 

Prospector16 hours ago

Title: "What the Hell Is China Doing on the Dark Side of the Moon?"

Third paragraph: "The Chang’e 4 probe and the Yutu 2 rover it carried have stayed busy photographing and scanning minerals, cultivating cotton, potato and rapeseeds, growing yeast, and hatching fruit-fly eggs in the moon’s low gravity."

标题:“中国到底在月球的暗面做什么?”

第三段:“嫦娥四号探测器和它携带的玉兔二号探测器一直忙于拍摄和扫描矿物,在月球的低重力环境下种植棉花、土豆和油菜籽,种植酵母,孵化果蝇卵。”

 

Logician16 hours ago

Setting up fast food outlets for astronauts on their way to Mars?

在通往火星的路上为宇航员开快餐店?

 

josh17 hours ago

if we were able to go to the moon wayyy back then on that really primitive tech.. it should be alot easier to get there now, seems like its taking a while....

如果我们能回到那个时候,用那种原始的技术登上月球…现在去那里应该容易多了,似乎需要一段时间……

 

John18 hours ago

The side of the moon that we never see. No telling who has set up shop over there.

我们从未见过的月球暗面。不知道谁在那边开店了。

 

Tim18 hours ago

Sweet. Chinese can move to the moon and find some more unusual things to eat.

不错。中国人可以搬到月球上,寻找一些更不寻常的食物。

 

Bosco117 hours ago

How do signals from the "back" side of the moon get to earth? Remember when Apollo 13 was using the gravity of the moon to sling shot back to Earth? Wasn't is about 12 minutes when they were out of contact with Earth on the back side of the Moon?

月球背面的信号是如何到达地球的?还记得阿波罗13号在月球引力的作用下发射回地球吗?他们在月球背面与地球失去联系的时间是12分钟吗?

 

michael16 hours ago

We must FIRST start to see other people from other countries as humans and brothers and sisters and not “Chinese” or “American” because until that happens our real potential won’t be reached! Only through teamwork and hard work will we conquer space.

我们必须首先把其他国家的人当作人类和兄弟姐妹,而不是“中国人”或“美国人”,因为只有这样,我们才能真正发挥我们的潜力!只有通过团队合作和努力工作,我们才能征服太空。

 

curt17 hours ago

You think by now we would have some sort of base on the moon.

你以为现在我们已经在月球上建立了某种基地吧。

 

John18 hours ago

Maybe Pink Floyd knows?

也许平克·弗洛伊德知道?

 

joec106617 hours ago

Screw the moon, let's send manned missions to the sun

去XX的月球,让我们向太阳发射载人任务。

 

Shelman18 hours ago

Are they building a Dollar Genral Store?

他们正在建一元店吗?

 

Sue14 hours ago

PLEASE stop putting out misinformation about astronomy! 

There is no such thing as a "dark side of the moon"! 

It's NEAR side, and FAR side!

请停止发布关于天文学的错误信息!

根本就没有“月球阴暗面”这种东西!

只有近地面和原地面!

 

2bones17 hours ago

Billions of tons of trash go into our oceans every year and everyone is worried about the moon? Let's focus on cleaning up our own planet first before we go and destroy another.

每年都有数十亿吨的垃圾进入我们的海洋,可人人都在担心月球。让我们先把我们自己的星球清理干净,然后再去摧毁下一个星球吧。

 

Clyde Kevorkian17 hours ago

Diversity, our greatest strength, will make it impossible for the US to put a man on the moon by 2024 ...

多样性,是我们最大的优势,将使美国不可能在2024年之前把人送上月球。

 

SPECTRE17 hours ago

It's "the FAR side of the Moon," not "the dark side."

是“月球的远端”,不是“阴暗面”。

 

SD Native12 hours ago

The US military has its own spacecraft, launch, and orbital capacity that seems to be doing quite well. NASA is the scientific branch of the US space effort: "For decades, the United States has been the world leader in space, organizing other nations—including rivals like Russia—to explore the galaxy for the benefit of all humankind. "

PS-Can any "journalist" write an article that isn't filled with anti-Trump rhetoric?

美国军方有自己的航天器,发射,轨道能力,似乎做得很好。NASA是美国太空计划的科学分支:“几十年来,美国一直是世界太空的领导者,组织其他国家——包括俄罗斯等竞争对手——为了全人类的利益探索银河系。”

ps:“记者”能不能写一篇不充斥反特朗普言论的文章吗?

 

My Two Cents16 hours ago

Pink Floyd "Dark Side of the Moon." Back in the day this is what was considered Grammy material, not today's tripe.

平克·弗洛伊德的《月之暗面》。在过去,月球暗面被认为是格莱美的素材,而不是今天的废话。

 

charles18 hours ago

The Moon doesn't have a "dark side". The Moon has day and night, in roughly a 28 Earth day period.

The Chinese probe is on the "far side". Being tidally locked, one side of the Moon constantly faces the Earth.

月球没有“阴暗面”。月球有昼夜,大约有28个地球日。

中国在探索“远地端”。由于被周期限制,月球的一面一直面向地球。

 

Mike12 hours ago

So, thanks to China, our space program will get funding and continue to operate.

所以,多亏了中国,我们的太空计划将获得资金并继续运作。

 

paul16 hours ago

Better send Space Force to check it out!

最好派太空部队去看看!

 

Donald18 hours ago

Can´t journalists get it through their heads that there is no "dark" side of the Moon. The far side that we never see has just as much sunlight as the near side.

记者们就不能想明白吗,月球没有“阴暗”面。我们从未见过的远端和近端都享受同样多的阳光。

 

Fido16 hours ago

Read the 2nd paragraph. "China threatens U.S. dominance in space"?

So, China shouldn't explore space? They're not allowed? So China should measure what US is doing and stay 2 steps back?

Unbelievable

读读第二段。“中国威胁美国在太空领域的主导地位”?

这么说,中国不该探索太空吗?他们不被允许吗?所以中国应该看看美国在做什么,然后自觉退后两步?

令人难以置信。

 

Osirus17 hours ago

FAR side of the moon, you fool. Both sides see light and dark.

月球的远端,你个傻瓜。月球的两半面都一样有光明和黑暗。

 

I'm Flummoxed17 hours ago

China is obviously building their own Moonbase Alpha.

中国显然正在建造自己的月球基地阿尔法。

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