三泰虎

中国科学家正在购买返程机票

Chinese Scientists Are Buying Return Tickets

中国科学家正在购买返程机票

(Bloomberg Opinion) -- China’s most sprawling effort at revealing the universe’s deepest mysteries is a 1,640-foot-wide silver dish that settles comfortably between hills in a remote part of the country’s southwest. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope is more sensitive than any telescope on Earth. This month, the Chinese go nment announced that it had begun formal operations. FAST is expected to further human understanding of gravitational waves and cosmic rays, and — just possibly — detect extraterrestrial communications. But for the Chinese go nment, which spent $180 million on the massive instrument, the most important return on its investment will be the homecoming of Chinese scientists who have been living and researching abroad.

中国为揭开宇宙最深处的秘密所做的最大努力是在中国西南偏远地区的群山之间建造一个1640英尺宽的银盘。这个500米口径的球面望远镜(FAST)比地球上任何望远镜都要灵敏。本月,中国宣布已开始正式运营。FAST有望进一步加深人类对引力波和宇宙射线的理解,并有可能探测到外星通讯信号。但是对于为了这个大型仪器投资了1.8亿美元的中国来说,其投资最重要的回报则是吸引那些一直在国外生活和研究的中国科学家回到中国。

According to a recent study in the journal Science and Public Policy, it’s been happening for a while. The number of Chinese scientists who departed the U.S. for China in 2017 was 69% higher than 2010 departures. The factors driving this phenomenon are complex but come down to the Chinese go nment’s decades-long investments in scientific education, research and facilities like FAST. Those efforts are likely to accelerate the return of China’s scientists in coming years, and they will bring economic, geopolitical and cultural benefits with them. In time, they could challenge the preeminence of American science.

根据最近发表在《科学与公共政策》杂志上的一项研究,这种情况已经持续了一段时间。2017年离开美国回国的中国科学家人数比2010年高出69%。造成这一现象的因素很复杂,但归根结底是中国数十年来在科学教育、研究和FAST等设施上的投资。这些努力可能会在未来几年加速中国科学家回国,带来经济、地缘政治和文化方面的优势。假以时日,他们将挑战美国科学的卓越地位。

A rising tide of returnees was not preordained. As recently as the late 1970s, China’s universities and its science were a shambles.  To narrow the gap, ....China’s reformist leader, resolved to send thousands of students abroad. Eventually, he hoped, a few might come back and make improvements. As of 2017, China had allowed, and often paid for, 5.2 million students to get better educations abroad.

不断升温的回国潮并不是注定的。就在上世纪70年代末,中国的大学和科学还是一团糟。为了缩小科技差距,中国改革领导人决定送数千名学生出国。他希望,最终会有一些人回来,做出改进。截至2017年,中国已经允许并经常资助520万名学生在国外接受更好的教育。

China also invested extensively in universities and university enrollment, creating the world’s largest (and improving) population of engineers and scientists, while funding research and development at world-beating rates. From 2000 to 2017, Chinese spending on research and development grew more than 17% per year, compared with 4.3% per year in the U.S. The Americans kept a slim lead in total spending — the U.S.  accounted for 25% of global R&D spending in 2017, compared with 23% for China — but that gap is narrowing (and may have flipped in China’s favor in 2019).

中国还在大学和大学招生方面进行了大量投资,培养了世界上数量最多(并在不断增加)的工程师和科学家,同时以世界一流的速度资助研究和开发。从2000年到2017年,中国在研发方面的支出每年增长超过17%,而美国为每年4.3%。美国人在总支出中保持着微弱的领先地位——美国在2017年占全球研发支出的25%,而中国为23%——但这一差距正在缩小(2019年中国可能已经反超了)。

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Spending is an imperfect measure of scientific leadership, but there’s no question that China has earned dividends from its efforts. Today it’s in the global vanguard for key fields, including artificial intelligence, nanotechnology and biotechnology.

投资并不是衡量科学领导力的完美标准,但毫无疑问,中国已经从其努力中获得了回报。如今,它在人工智能、纳米技术和生物技术等关键领域处于全球领先地位。

Those advances won’t bring back all of the young talent that’s left China over the decades — the U.S. is still the world’s scientific superpower — but they certainly help. The FAST facility is a good example of how this might work. Chinese scientists have been involved in radio astronomy for decades. But because the biggest and best radio telescopes were all abroad — notably, the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico — Chinese radio scientists were reliant upon host scientists and countries for research opportunities and collaborators. The commissioning of FAST flips the tables. Li Di, FAST’s chief scientist, earned his doctorate at Cornell University, and previously worked as a research scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Now he’s in China. International collaborators will be welcome at FAST, but China will set the agenda, allot the telescope time, and — ultimately — reap the bulk of the benefits.

这些进步没办法将过去几十年离开中国的年轻人才全部吸引回国——美国仍然是世界上的科学超级大国——但肯定会有所帮助。FAST设施就是一个很好的例子。中国科学家从事射电天文学已经有几十年了。但是由于最大最好的射电望远镜都在国外,特别是波多黎各的阿雷西博天文台,中国的射电科学家在研究机会和合作者方面都依赖于当地的科学家和国家。FAST的首席科学家李迪在康奈尔大学获得博士学位,之前曾在加州帕萨迪纳的喷气推进实验室担任研究科学家。现在他已回到中国。FAST欢迎国际合作者,但中国将设定议程,分配望远镜时间,并最终收获大部分利益

In the Science and Public Policy study released in December, researchers traced the career paths of Chinese scientists via the addresses associated with their scientific publications (a necessary approach, because of the lack of reliable data on either side of the Pacific). In 2017, 4,569 Chinese scientists left the U.S. for China, compared with 2,703 in 2010. Even more notable than the scale of the return is the quality. Twelve percent of China’s scientific publications were written by scientists with overseas experience, and the share of high impact publications — those that are regularly cited by other scientists — is higher than peers who remained in China. Those scientists, in turn, train younger Chinese scientists and connect them to the increasingly global nature of scientific inquiry in the 21st century.

在去年12月发表的《科学与公共政策研究》中,研究人员通过与他们发表的科学论文相关的地址,追踪了中国科学家的职业道路(这是一种必要的方法,因为太平洋两岸都缺乏可靠的数据)。2017年,4569名中国科学家离开美国前往中国,而2010年为2703名。中国12%的科学出版物是由有海外经验的科学家撰写的,而高影响力出版物的比例——那些经常被其他科学家引用的出版物——比留在中国的同行更高。这些科学家反过来又培养了更年轻的中国科学家,使他们与21世纪日益全球化的科学研究联系起来。

For now, there is still more talent flowing into the U.S. than out of it. But the quickening uptick of China’s scientific returnees should serve as a powerful reminder that scientific superpower status requires constant investment and a commitment to openness and collaboration across borders. For decades, the U.S. has attracted and benefited from Chinese scientific talent because it made those commitments. China’s research investments mean that the U.S. needs to reaffirm them, or risk ceding its accustomed role as the world's undisputed scientific leader.

目前,流入美国的人才仍多于流出的数量。但是,中国科学海归数量的快速增长应该有力地提醒我们,科学超级大国的地位需要持续的投资,以及对开放和跨境合作的承诺。几十年来,美国一直吸引并受益于中国的科学人才,因为美国给出了这些承诺。中国的研究投资意味着,美国需要重新重视,否则就有可能失去其作为全球无可争议的科学领袖的传统角色。

美国雅虎网友评论: 

译文来源:三泰虎     http://www.santaihu.com/49212.html      译者:Joyceliu 

William L

Chinese scientists contribute immensely to the US. They like to settle in the US because it offers them complete fre m and a nice environment to raise their families. But with the current rising anti-immigrant and anti-Chinese sentiments, they are treated more and more like 2nd class citizens and they might rethink. Living in China has its some disadvantages but it's not as bad as westerners might think. In fact, Chinese societies have become more free now

中国科学家为美国作出了巨大贡献。他们喜欢在美国定居,因为美国给他们提供了良好的环境。但随着目前反移民和反华情绪的上升,他们越来越被视为二等公民,他们可能会重新考虑。生活在中国有一些缺点,但并不像西方人想的那么不堪。事实上,中国社会现在变得更加紫游

 

Beeyesterday

China graduates ~11 times as many STEM students as the US.

Here's a set of numbers that are never reported in the American MSM ... this might explain the trend.

中国的STEM学生数量是美国的11倍。

这是一组从未在美国MSM上报道过的数字…这或许可以解释这种趋势。

 

Stormyesterday

China has a central go nment that has long term economic plans. First it was China as the rice basket (agriculture), which worked horribly as not all land was suited for rice back . Then it was China as the world's factory which succeeded beyond ALL expectations as most goods we see in supermarkets now are "Made in China". The economic plan unveiled over 10 years ago was Invented in China. That's why the R&D investment. If they succeed in this, the USA is screwed. They have more people, who work harder than most American students, and the good ones they sent here to learn our ways are taking our teachings back to China to educate a new generation .... I am worried because it's well known Chinese Scholars are relentless and hardworking.

中国有一个制定长期经济计划的中央政-府。首先是中国作为稻篮子(农业),因为不是所有的土地都适合种植水稻。当时中国作为世界工厂取得了超出预期的成功,因为我们现在在超市看到的大多数商品都是“中国制造”。十多年前公布的经济计划是中国发明的。这就是研发投资的原因。他们有更多的人才,他们比大多数美国学生更努力,这些来此学习我们的方法的优秀人才正在把我们的教学成果带回中国,教育新一代……我很担心,因为众所周知,中国学者是非常勤奋的。

 

blandcs20002

Considering the state of America’s educational system, losing our status as a world leader in science is a forgone conclusion. We have squandered the opportunity to develop a scientifically literate society by not investing in our future.

考虑到美国教育体系的现状,失去作为世界科学领袖的地位是不可避免的。我们浪费了发展一个有科学素养的社会的机会,没有为我们的未来投资。

 

Chef Of The Future

Yeah, the Chinese have a LOT more math and science students...but look at where WE have the advantage. Meth labs. Rap stars. "Alternative facts". It's funny how some people think it's a good idea to deny science. So while the Chinese scientists are returning home to pursue science. So what? They'll never beat our Noah's arc "museum".

是的,中国有更多的数学和理科学生……但看看我们的优势在哪里。冰毒实验室。说唱明星。“另类的事实”。有趣的是,有些人甚至认为否定科学是个好主意。因此,当中国科学家回国追求科学的时候。那又怎样?他们永远无法打败我们的诺亚方舟“博物馆”。

 

Oscar

In the US, athletes get paid millions and billions while scientists getting peanuts.

在美国,运动员赚取数百万甚至数十亿美元,而科学家的收入十分菲薄。

 

A P

How did America become the world’s leading superpower in science and technology??

By plundering all of Germany after World War 2, forcing thousands of Germans scientists to work for the US or else threaten them with war crimes charges. The US then went in a university building spree after 1945 in order to foster a population that could make sense of all the stolen technology from the Germans. Non-military, industrial secrets and equipment were auctioned off to the public. Read an article in Harper Magazine published in October 1946 titled “Secrets by the Thousands.”

美国是如何成为世界领先的科技超级大国的?

二战后对整个德国的掠夺,或者以战争罪的罪名威胁,迫使成千上万的德国科学家为美国工作。1945年之后,美国掀起了一场大学建设热潮,目的是培养一批能够搞懂从德国人手中窃取的技术的人。非军事、工业机密和设备被拍卖给公众。1946年10月,《哈珀杂志》发表了一篇题为《千千万万的秘密》的文章。

 

Rus

China invests in science while we invest in tax handouts to the rich.

中国为科学投资,而我们为了减免富人的税收而投资。

 

Walnutcalvery

Chinese scientists are being looked through suspicious glasses for decades. It's getting much worse since the trade war started, many of them just plan depressed and distrusted where they are working for. So, rather being treated as second class citizen, why not just go back to China with dignity?! In China, they have better chance to grow with full potential and being grateful.

几十年来,人们一直用有色眼镜看待中国科学家。自从贸易战开始,情况变得更糟了。所以,与其被当作二等公民,还不如带着尊严回中国。在中国,他们有更好的机会充分发挥潜力。

 

Y

Our administration prefers spending on warfare over R&D and innovation, and our private sectors are controlled by Wall Street chasing after short term profit. It is a matter of time that we will be left behind if we don't change our ways of doing things.

我们的政府更喜欢把钱花在战争上,而不是研发和创新上,我们的私营部门被华尔街所控制,追逐的是短期利润。如果我们不改变做事的方式,我们就会落后,这只是个时间问题。

 

J

Instead of science and engineering, today’s US education is more focusing on the topics of diversity, whatever-ism, LGBTXXXX, non-binary, etc. Both teachers and students enjoy this kind of subjects because you can pass by talking blah blah blah your opinions and enjoying attention when talking. People here don’t want hard technical stuff.

今天的美国教育不关注科学和工程,更关注多样性、什么主义、LGBTXXXX、非二元性等主题。老师和学生都喜欢这类课程,因为你可以通过废话来传递你的观点,在说话时享受注意力。这里的人不想要硬核技术。

 

Saturn

Technology needs to flow in both directions to be beneficial each other.

技术需要朝着两个方向流动,以使彼此受益。

 

Harleyrider

I wonder how many foreign students are allowed to study in China?

我想知道有多少外国学生可以在中国学习?

 

DM

This is how the Japanese became a manufacturing and economic superpower.

日本就是这样成为制造业和经济超级大国的。

 

John

another reason is because china is paying MUCH higher salaries than if the scientists remained here in the US. In china you get paid well by doing science. Not true in america!

另一个原因是,中国支付给科学家的工资比留在美国要高得多。在中国,从事科学研究的报酬很高。在美国不是这样的!

 

JIM

Say what you want, China is doing what the US did in the past and for some reason lost our way and with the present administration that hates science, America is doomed to fail. China is doing what America did many many years ago. If we do not change, we are DOOMED.

不管你怎么说,中国正在做美国过去做过的事情,出于某种原因,我们迷失了方向,而现在的政府讨厌科学,美国注定要失败。中国正在做美国多年前做过的事情。如果我们不改变,我们就完了。

 

Malaychai

Lure them back with bigly incentives and fre m to explore their full potential. Just chinese working there would be sufficient. Now is the time to bring them home

用高额激励和紫游来吸引他们回来,发掘他们的全部潜力。现在是把他们带回家的时候了。

 

Luke

look at how bad asian men are treated in this country on the media and in reality. that is the reason why Chinese scientists are leaving. there is no feeling of a home for them.

看看这个国家在媒体和现实中是如何对待亚洲男人的吧。这就是中国科学家离开的原因。他们在这里找不到家的感觉。

 

Tom

Those highly inquisitive and talented people we call as scientists have no known national or geographical boundaries . They will be there as long as there are scientific challenges and .the means to do their works . They belong to all of us ! .

我们称之为科学家的那些极具好奇心和才华的人没有国界或地理的界限。只要有科学上的挑战,只要有完成他们工作的方法,他们就会在那里。这些科学家属于我们全人类!

 

WANG

American students are good about vaping, drug, Social science, justice, art, psychology, those majors only require English speaking.

美国学生擅长吸电子烟、毒品、社会科学、司法、艺术、心理学,这些专业只要求会说英语就行。

 

HenryJ

China worships scientists. America worships Kardashians.

中国崇拜科学家。美国崇拜卡戴珊。

 

T

Imagine when the best and brightest PhD immigrant candidates don’t stay in the US anymore. And I’m not talking just the Chinese. Indian, Russian, European,...what are you left with?

想象一下,当最优秀、最聪明的博士移民候选人不再留在美国,会怎样。我说的不仅仅是中国人,还有印度人,俄罗斯人,欧洲人…你还剩下什么呢?

 

david

Americans don’t want to study math and sciences because they are too difficult.

美国人不想学习数学和科学,因为这些科目太难了。

外文链接:https://finance.yahoo.com/news/chinese-scientists-buying-return-tickets-023728684.html

三泰虎原创译文,禁止转载!:首页 > 美国 » 中国科学家正在购买返程机票

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