三泰虎

为什么古代印度和中国没有发生过战争

Why weren't ancient India and China ever at war?

为什么古代印度和中国没有发生过战争?

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以下是Quora读者的评论:

Yogita Jadhav, works at Bharati Vidyapeeth's Medical College

many reasons i think

1) himalayas acting as a physical barrier, thus large scale confrontation was minimal

2)china and india had been quite peaceful and non inading countries through out the history (yes, even china-until recently

3)culture of peace -friendly diplomatic relations among the rulers - effect of  that -buddhism was spread to china

4)main chinese territory was limited to Easten coast ,, far from north indian plains of ancient indian civilisation, with difficult terrain and extreme climate of region in betweeen both areas- remember Tib, himalayas, gobi desert

5) Indus and Ganges rivers in india , and yellow river in china made both areas self sufficient in the history , so that there was no competition for resources , thus no war for the same.

6) china itself had multiple dynasties and disunited as did India ,thus fighting amongst themselves- so that till british came to rule the Nation as an entity was under developed .

please correct me if i am wrong.

1) 喜马拉雅山脉是一个天然屏障,因此大规模的对抗几乎没有。

2)在历史上,中国和印度一直是相当和平的,互不侵犯的国家(是的,中国也是如此,一直到近期)

3)统治者之间的友好外交关系文化—和平文化的影响—佛教传到了中国

4)中国的主要领土被限制在东海岸,远离古印度文明时期的北印度平原,这两个地区都有复杂的地形和极端的气候——还记得喜马拉雅山和戈壁沙漠吗?

5)印度的印度河、恒河以及中国的黄河使这两个地区在历史上实现了自给自足,因此没有了对资源的竞争,也就没有了战争。

6)中国本身历经多个朝代,和印度一样四分五裂,因此互相争斗—直到英国的到来,将印度统一殖民前,这个国家并不发达。

如果我错了,请纠正我。

 

Shivaprasad Poovandur, lives in India

There is an account of a Chinese expedition battling Indian forces in the later half of the 7th century AD. This episode is mentioned only in a few history books and is generally unknown.

The Chinese Emperor sent Wang-hiuen-tse as an envoy to the Indian Emperor Harshavardhana Pushyabhuti (who evidently knew much of China before he met Hiuen Tsang and had earlier sent embassies to China) in the year 646. However, Harsha died, either late in 646 AD or early in 647 AD. So when the Chinese diplomatic mission arrived in India, Harsha was dead and he had left no heir to the throne.

Wang-hiuen-tse’s party was attacked and plundered along the Nepal-Bihar border by some Himalayan chief, who was seemingly goaded into doing it by the late Emperor’s minister, who had allegedly usurped the throne. Wang retaliated with the help of Ti-n and Nepalese soldiers.

Harsha’s death was most likely followed by chaos and anarchy in the country, resulting in political disintegration and the rise of ambitious chiefs who vied for the inheritance of the vast empire. Wang himself might have supported the cause of one of these claimants, incurring the wrath of the claimant’s rivals.

有一个关于公元7世纪下半叶中国远征印度的故事。这一事件只在少数历史书中被提及,通常不为人知。

公元646年,中国皇帝派遣王浩渊作为特使前往印度皇帝哈沙瓦达那(他显然在遇见玄奘之前就对中国有很多了解,而且早些时候还曾派遣大使馆到中国)。然而,哈沙死于公元646年末或公元647年初。因此,当中国外交使团抵达印度时,哈沙已经去世,没有留下任何王位继承人。

在尼泊尔-比哈尔邦边界,王浩渊的政党遭到了一些喜马拉雅酋长的攻击和掠夺,这些首领似乎是被已故皇帝的大臣煽动起来的,据说他已经篡夺了王位。王在尼泊尔士兵的帮助下进行了报复。

哈沙死后,国家很可能陷入混乱和无政府状态,导致政治,野心勃勃的首领们纷纷争夺庞大帝国的继承权。王可能支持了其中一人,招致了对手的愤怒。

 

Achal Gautam, lives in India

There was no direct boundary between India & China.

The modern Chinese boundaries are way beyond the traditional Chinese dynasties. India never ever faced any security challenges from North. All the invasion came into India via Afghanistan till medieval time and then Europeans came via sea. Afghanistan has always been key of Indian security

Both countries were very rich & prosperous . Even today, modern army would find very difficult to cross Himalayas.

印度和中国之间没有直接边界。

现代中国的边界远远超出了中国传统的朝代。印度从来没有面临过来自北方的任何安全挑战。直到中世纪,所有入侵都是通过阿富汗进入印度,后来欧洲人从海上进入印度。阿富汗一直是印度安全的关键

这两个国家都非常富有和繁荣,即使在今天,现代军队也很难穿越喜马拉雅山。

 

Pradip Gangopadhyay, Seeker of Truth

There has been war between ancient India and China. The forces of Raja Ranjit Singh led by General Zorowar Singh (who annexed the independent kingdom of Ladakh in the 1840s) had a small war in the Aksai Chin area with Tiban forces in the 1840s. Tib was then under nominal control of the Manchu dynasty. That war led to a stalemate. Even earlier there was conflict between independent Ladakh and Chinese/Tiban forces in the 17th century.

Mahomed Tughlak did launch an expedition to China in 1337 ce.

Having heard of the great wealth of China, Mahomed Tughlak conceived the idea of subduing that empire; but, in order to accomplish his design, it was found necessary first to conquer the country of Hemachal, which lies between the borders of China and India. Accordingly, in the year A.H. 738 (A.D. 1337), he ordered 100,000 horses, under the command of his sister’s son, Khoosrow Mullik, to subdue this mountainous region, and to establish garrisons as far as the frontiers of China. When this should be effected, he proposed to advance in person with his whole army to invade that empire. The nobles and counsellors of state in vain assured him, that troops of India never yet could, and never would advance a step within the limits of China, and that the whole scheme was visionary. In the year A.H. 738 (A.D. 1337), the King insisted on making the experiment, and the army was accordingly put in motion. Having entered the mountains, small forts were built on the road, to secure a communication; and proceeding in this manner, the troops reached the Chinese boundary, where a numerous army appeared to oppose them. The numbers of Indians were by this time greatly diminished, and being much inferior to the enemy, they were struck with dismay; which was only increased, when they considered their distance from home, the rugged country they had passed, the approach of the rainy season, and the scarcity of provisions, which now began to be severely felt. With these feelings, they commenced their retreat towards the foot of the range of hills, where the mountaineers, rushing down upon them, plundered their baggage, and the Chinese army also followed them closely. In the distressing situation the Indian army remained for seven days, suffering the extreme of famine. At length, the rains began to fall in torrents; the cavalry were up to the bellied of their horses in water. The waters obliged the Chinese to remove their camp to a greater distance, and gave to Khoosrow Mullik some hopes of effecting his retreat; but he found the low country completely inundated, and the mountains covered with impervious woods. The misfortunes of the army seemed to be at a crisis; no passage remained to them for retreat, but that by which they entered the hills, which was accompanied by the mountaineers; so that in the short space of fifteen days the Indian army fell a prey to famine and became the victims of the King’s ambition. Scarcely a man returned to relate the particulars, excepting those who were left behind in the garrisons; and the few of those troops who evaded the enemy did not escape the fatal vengeance of their King, who ordered then to be put to death, on their return to Dehly.

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/48654.html 译者:Joyceliu

古印度和古中国之间有过战争。辛格将军(Zorowar Singh,他在19世纪40年代吞并了独立的拉达克王国)领导的拉贾·兰吉特·辛格(Raja Ranjit Singh)军队在19世纪40年代与中国军队在阿克赛钦地区发生过小规模战争。xz当时处于满清王朝的统治之下。早在17世纪,独立的拉达克和中国xz军队之间就发生过冲突。

公元1337年,穆罕默德·图赫拉克发动了远征中国的讨伐。

在得知中国的巨大财富后,穆罕默德·图赫拉克就有了征服这个帝国的想法;但是,为了完成他的计划,首先必须征服位于中国和印度边界之间的赫玛恰尔邦。因此,在公元738年(公元1337年),他下令派出10万匹战马,由他姐姐的儿子霍斯罗·穆立克(Khoosrow Mullik)指挥,征服这一山区,并在中国边境建立驻军。军队开始行动,进入山区后,在路上修建了小炮台,以确保通讯畅通;军队到达了中国的边界,许多军队奋起抵抗。这时印度人的人数已大大减少,他们比敌人少得多,感到十分沮丧。当他们想到背井离乡,沿途崎岖的乡村,雨季的来临,以及食物的匮乏时,他们的恐惧只增不减。带着这种感觉,他们开始向山脚下撤退,山民冲了过来,抢走了他们的行李,中国军队也紧紧地跟着他们。印度军队在这种悲惨的情况下,忍受了七天的极度饥荒。最后,大雨倾盆而下;这场大雨迫使中国人把他们的营地移到更远的地方,给了霍斯罗·穆利克一丝希望;但是他发现低洼的地方完全被淹没了。在短短的15天时间里,印度军队成了饥荒的牺牲品,成了国王野心的牺牲品。除了留在军营里的人以外,几乎没人生还。那些逃过敌军击杀的士兵中,只有少数人躲过了国王的致命报复,国王在他们返回Dehly时下令处死他们。

 

Thuyết Vị Lai

The Ming–Kotte War was a military conflict between the expeditionary forces of the Chinese Ming empire and the Sinhalese Kotte kingdom, located in the southern territories of Ceylon. This conflict happened when Ming China's treasure fleet returned to Ceylon in 1410 or 1411. It resulted in the overthrow of King Alakeshvara in favor for Parakramabahu VI of the previous royal family.

Background

In Ceylon, the Kotte kingdom had waged a war against the Jaffna kingdom.[3] In this war, Alakeshvara gained military prestige.[3] He soon came to power and ruled Kotte with a puppet king from the previous royal dynasty, eventually usurping the throne of the kingdom.[3] During the Ming treasure voyages, a large Chinese fleet led by Admiral Zheng He arrived in local waters to establish Chinese control and stability of the maritime routes in the waters around Ceylon and southern India.[3] Alakeshvara posed a threat to Chinese trade by committing piracy and hostilities in the local waters.[3]

明柯特战争是发生在中国明朝远征军和锡兰南部地区锡兰族的锡兰王国之间的军事冲突。这场冲突发生在1410年或1411年,明朝的宝船回到锡兰。战争的结果是推翻了国王Alakeshvara,支持前王室的Parakramabahu六世。

背景

在锡兰,科特王国发动了一场反对贾夫纳王国的战争。在这场战争中,Alakeshvara获得了军事声望。他很快就掌握了权力,与前皇室王朝的傀儡国王统治科特,最终篡夺了王位。明朝时期,由郑和率领的中国舰队到达当地海域,建立中国对锡兰和印度南部海域的控制和稳定。Alakeshvara通过在当地水域进行海盗和敌对行动,对中国贸易构成威胁

Alakeshvara was hostile to the Chinese presence in Ceylon during the first Ming treasure voyage, so Admiral Zheng He decided to leave Ceylon for other destinations.[4] During the third Ming treasure voyage, the Chinese fleet returned to the Kotte kingdom.[3] This time the Chinese came with the intention to depose Alakeshvara by military force.[3] Dreyer (2007) states that the confrontation against Alakeshvara in Ceylon most-likely happened during the outward journey of the Chinese fleet in 1410 rather than the homeward journey in 1411,[5] but he also notes that most authorities think that the confrontation happened during the homeward journey in 1411.[3]

在明朝第一次出海中,Alakeshvara对中国在锡兰的存在有敌意,所以郑和决定离开锡兰去往其他目的地。明朝第三次出海航行期间,中国舰队返回了科特王国。这一次,中国人的意图是用武力推翻阿勒凯什瓦拉。Dreyer(2007)指出,在锡兰与Alakeshvara的对峙最有可能发生在1410年中国舰队出航期间,而不是在1411年的返航途中。

Aftermath

After the third Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He returned to Nanjing on 6 July 1411 and presented the Sinhalese captives to the Yongle Emperor.[8] The Yongle Emperor eventually decided to free Alakeshvara and return him to Ceylon.[3][8]

The Chinese were allied with Parakramabahu VI and dethroned Alakeshvara in favor of him.[9][10] The Yongle Emperor had requested from the Ministry of Rites to recommend someone to serve as the new king of Kotte.[3] As documented in Chinese records, Parakramabahu VI was elected by the Sinhalese present at the Ming court, nominated by the Ming emperor, and installed by Admiral Zheng He with the backing of his fleet.[10] By the time the Chinese embassy arrived, the previous Sinhalese dynasty had re-established themselves in Kotte.[3] With Parakramavahu VI as the ruler in Ceylon, both economic and diplomatic relations between China and Ceylon was improved.[9] From then on, the Chinese treasure fleet would experience no hostilities during visits to Ceylon on subsequent voyages.[3]

On 13 September 1411, the emperor granted both rewards and promotions for those who participated in Sinhalese confrontation after the joint recommendation of the Ministry of War and the Ministry of Rites.[11]

之后

明朝的第三次出海航行结束后,郑和于1411年7月6日返回南京。永乐皇帝最终决定释放Alakeshvara并将他送回锡兰。

中国与帕拉克拉马巴胡六世结盟,并取代了他的位置。永乐皇帝要求礼部推荐一个人担任科特的新国王。根据中国的记载,巴拉拉马巴胡六世是由当时在明朝朝廷的僧伽罗人选出来的,由明朝皇帝提名,由郑和在他的舰队的支持下任命的。中国大使馆到达的时候,前一个僧伽罗王朝已经在科特重新建立。随着帕拉马瓦胡六世在锡兰的统治,中国和锡兰的经济和外交关系都得到了改善。从那时起,中国舰队在随后的航行中,在锡兰不再显示出任何敌意。

1411年9月13日,在武部和礼部的共同推荐下,皇帝对参与僧伽罗人反抗的人给予嘉奖和提拔。

 

Gopal Sinha, former Civil Engineer

India and China both are great oriental civilizations and have enjoyed cordial cultural and commercial relations since long.

So long as the Chinese people were under the influence of Buddhism, there was no reason of a clash between the two - the spiritual guru and the sincere disciple.

Soon with the shift in indoctrination and inclination, the fault- lines of ideological divergence and political self-interests began to appear. 

The difficult Himalayan terrains and Ti-t as a buffer state, acted as a deterrent and provided safety against aggressions.

印度和中国都是伟大的东方文明,两国有着深厚的文化和商业渊源。

只要中国人还在佛教的影响下,就不存在精神上老师与弟子之间的冲突。

随着教化和倾向的转变,意识形态分歧和政治私利的断层线开始出现。

艰难的喜马拉雅地形作为缓冲带,起到了威慑作用,为抵抗侵略提供了安全保障。

 

Aman Zaidi, Coaching | Performance | Strengths Psychology practitioner

This is a very interesting question.

Shan Liu's answer is the best one so far on this thread.

The main points to consider are:

1.Ancient India and Ancient China were quite different from what we know then as today. They were not unified countries in ancient times. They were split into different kingdoms of varying geography and cartography.

2.The largest ancient Chinese kingdoms didn't share a border with the largest Indian kingdoms.

这是一个非常有趣的问题。

Shan Liu的回答是目前为止最出色的回答之一。

需要考虑的主要问题有:

1.古印度和古中国与我们今天所知的大不相同。他们在古代不是统一的国家。他们在地理和地图上被划分成不同的王国。

2.古代最大的中国王国与最大的印度王国没有接壤。

 

Badhrinath Kannan

Trying a different take on this.

Quoting Hu Shih

“India Conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border.”

There is a reason behind this. While the Chinese were arguably the greatest engineers and inventors in recorded human history, India focused more on spirituality, philosophy and religion. So cultural exchanges between the two nations were marked by this. Whether it was Buddhism or martial arts (Bodhidharma), all India reasonably exported to China (apart from things like spices, herbs etc. which would only grow in Indian climactic conditions) were ideas and thoughts either as texts or wandering teachers. The Chinese emperors and go nment - remember that China had a very well evolved system of governance from very early on in history - did what they do well in adapting these ideas, arguments and thoughts into their own context to help them consolidate power. For example Chinese buddhism that emerged in quite a short time was markedly different from the form of buddhism that prevailed in India. But it is not just Buddhism. The ancient Tamil Siddha texts talk about a Chinese monk locally called as Sri Bogar who came to India (and Sri Lanka) to learn about Siddhas and then went back to China to spread these ideas (his Chinese name being Lao Tse) before returning to South India for Samadhi.

试着换个角度看这个问题。

引用Hu Shih的话:

“20个世纪以来,印度在文化上征服并统治了中国,没有派出过一兵一卒。”

这背后是有原因的。在有记载的人类历史上,中国人可以说是最伟大的工程师和发明家,而印度人更关注灵性、哲学和宗教。两国之间的文化交流就是这样的。无论是佛教还是武术(菩提达摩),印度产品出口到了中国(除了香料、草药等只能在印度的气候条件下生长的东西)。中国的皇帝—记住,中国从很早的历史时期就有一个非常完善的治理体系—在将这些思想、论点和思想应用到自己国家,帮助自己巩固权力方面做得很好。例如,在相当短的时间内出现的中国佛教与在印度盛行的佛教形式明显不同。在古老的泰米尔悉达多文献中,有一个在当地被称为斯里博伽的中国僧人,他来到印度(和斯里兰卡)学习悉达多,然后回到中国传播这些思想(他的中文名字是老子),然后回到印度南部的三摩地。

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