三泰虎

关于中国,每个美国人应该知道些什么

What should every American know about China?

关于中国,每个美国人应该知道些什么?

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以下是Quora读者的评论:

Luke Miers, lived in Chengdu, Sichuan, China (2017-2018)

I'm not American, but I do have some thoughts on the topic:

From a western perspective, trying to understand China is like trying to complete a puzzle that gets bigger by two pieces for every one that you put in the right place. We make the mistake of assuming China is a large, grey, rectangular monolith. China is not the USSR. It is a remarkably flexible capitalist country populated by hardworking pragmatists.

The competition there is brutal on all levels. There is fierce competition for places in schools, the workforce, the housing market, for a marriage partner and almost anything else you could name. The Chinese are used to using just about every waking hour to attain these things, with no guarantee as to whether or not their efforts will pay off. For most, the reward for this effort is small.

The western university student casually saunters into the library at 2pm, only to find the place mostly full of Chinese students. Grrrr! Why do they take up all the space?! Don't they know other people want to study too?! They got there at 9 in the morning and will be there all day.

我不是美国人,但我对这个问题有话想说:

从西方的角度来理解中国就像试图完成一个拼图,只要你把它放在正确的位置,它就会变大两倍。我们误以为中国是一个巨大的灰色矩形整体。中国不是苏联。它是由勤奋的实用主义者组成的人口大国。

中国的竞争是残酷的。在学校、劳动力、住房市场、婚姻伴侣以及几乎任何能想到的方面,竞争都很激烈。中国人总是利用醒着的每一个小时来实现这些目标,却无法保证他们的努力是否会有回报。对大多数人来说,这种努力的回报很小。

下午2点,西方大学生漫不经心地走进图书馆,却发现那里几乎全是中国学生。呃!他们为什么占据了所有的位置?难道他们不知道其他人也想学习吗?他们早上9点就到图书馆,在那里呆上一整天。

 

Jerry Mc Kenna, I have voted in the US since 1972

China should be judged without preconceptions. It should not be judge by standards that are purely American. We often judge countries by how well they fit 18th century standards designed for Great Britain or other parts of Europe. We might as well judge a game of baseball by the rules for soccer.

China was a very poor country after the revolution, often identical with India, but after 1978 it grew much faster.

The Chinese weren’t looking for diversity of religion nor were they looking for freedom of speech in the Western sense. They were looking to improve the economy of the country. Using the standards of the game they were playing they have done very well.

Too many Americans are worried that the rise of China will cause problems for the US. Does anyone think that China wants to disrupt the existing commerce between the US and China? Can anyone point to a Chinese military exercise that was aggressive?

China is not the US, it is not a Western country. It is not a threat to us.

对中国不应该有先入之见。不应该用纯粹美国的标准来评判中国。我们常常根据一个国家是否符合18世纪为英国或欧洲其他地区设计的标准来判断这个国家。我们还会用足球的规则来评判棒球比赛。

中国在经历革命后,是一个非常贫穷的国家,和印度一样,但在1978年后,它增长得更快。

中国人既不寻求宗教的多样性,也不寻求西方意义上的言论自由。他们希望改善这个国家的经济。他们做得很好。

太多美国人担心中国的崛起会给美国带来问题。有人认为中国想要破坏中美之间现有的贸易吗?有谁能指出中国的军事演习具有侵略性吗?

中国不是美国,也不是西方国家。它对我们没有威胁。

 

Robert Free, lived in China

It demands very little from other countries, but it demands those things very strongly

Aside from food and traffic, it's quite safe

It's a diverse, multicultural society

People and government are more interested in peace and prosperity than democracy

They have a valuable contribution to make to the world order that could be made much more valuable if America views China as a potential partner and if China does not overreact every time another country says something they don't agree with.

The world cyber war has started and China, Russia and the USA are the biggest armies. The first country to defend properly will win. None of them have so far.

Chinese are overall, practical, scientific, studious and diligent. America used to be these things. If America does not return to these qualities, all the bombs and trade walls in the world won't prevent it being surpassed by yet another country.

Although America has invaded China, China has never invaded America.

译文来源:三泰虎  http://www.santaihu.com/47940.html  译者:Joyceliu

它对其他国家的要求很少,但它对这些东西的要求非常强烈

除了食物和交通,这里很安全。

这是一个多元文化的社会。

人民和政府更关心的是和平与繁荣。

如果美国把中国视为潜在的合作伙伴,如果中国在其他国家每次说不同意的事情时不要反应过度,那么他们对世界秩序的贡献将会更有价值。

世界网络战争已经开始,中国、俄罗斯和美国都拥有是最大的军事规模。第一个正确防守的国家将会获胜。

中国人全面、务实、科学、好学、勤奋。美国曾经也是这样。如果美国不重塑这些品质,世界上所有的诈弹和贸易壁垒都无法阻止它被另一个国家超越。

虽然美国侵略过中国,但中国从来没有侵略过美国。

 

Desmond Ng, A Chinese by birth, a Chinese by upbringing.

Don’t immediately assume what works for you must work for others, and that if others don’t share your thoughts and ways that must mean they can’t succeed.

I’ve read so many Americans debate endlessly online about this.  How can they bring democracy to his totalitarian regime? Why do they continue to show off their false growth narratives. How much are the Chinese paying me to write this answer?

That maybe China as of this moment doesn’t need democracy? China is rapidly becoming richer and more powerful, almost reaching superpower status.

Also, if even Donald Trump has enough grasp on world economy to assert that China is becoming rich enough to challenge the US, how come so many still attempt to explain away China’s growth as lies or deceit?

Sorry but I’m not allowed to disclose that last part.

tl;dr Some countries have different values than you, some very different.

不要认为适合你的东西一定适合别人,如果别人不分享你的想法和方法,那一定意味着他们不会成功。

我在网上看到很多美国人无休止地讨论这个问题。为什么他们继续炫耀他们虚假的经济增长故事。中国人究竟付了我多少钱来写这个答案?

中国正迅速变得更加富有和强大,几乎已经达到超级大国的地位。

此外,如果连唐纳德•特朗普都断言中国正变得足够富有,足以挑战美国,那么为什么还有那么多人仍把中国的增长视为谎言或欺骗?

有些国家的价值观和你不同,有些简直南辕北辙

 

Fran Northouse, Teacher

China is a vast country, like the US, with modern cities and sophisticated populations. It is filled with people working hard to achieve what we have always called the “American Dream” but which is very much a modern Chinese dream these days. The Chinese currently have the “Protestant work ethic” that made America great.

China is a force to be reckoned with, but the people generally have no desire to overpower any other country. They just want to get ahead in their own lives

中国和美国一样幅员辽阔,拥有现代化的城市和精明的人民。人们一个个都努力工作,来实现我们一直所说的“美国梦”,但这是一个非常现代的中国梦。中国人现在拥有了让美国变得伟大的“职业道德”。

中国是一支不可小觑的力量,但是中国人民一般没有压倒任何国家的欲望。他们只想在自己的生活中取得成功

 

Ward Chartier, Retired. Former manufacturing ops GM (2017-present)

China has 5000 years of recorded history.

The Chinese language is complex and supports authors expressing themselves in equally complex ways in literature, poetry, science, government, and spiritual beliefs.

Chinese fine arts, particularly ceramics, bronze castings, calligraphy, wood block printing, paintings, are simply fabulous.

Chinese people have a deep respect for learning. Scholars, professors, and teachers are at the top of the traditional Chinese social hierarchy. I’ve seen huge bookstores in China full to overflowing on weekends. People want to buy books and learn something.

Chinese society has most of the aspirations that people around the world also have. People want to raise their children, have jobs, socialize with their friends, have hobbies, and enjoy life.

中国拥有5000年的历史。

汉语是复杂的语言,它支持作家以同样复杂的方式在文学、诗歌、科学、政府和精神信仰中表达自己。

中国美术,尤其是陶瓷、青铜器、书法、木版印刷、绘画,简直精美得令人难以置信。

中国人非常尊重学习。学者、教授和教师处于中国传统社会阶层的顶端。我看到中国的大型书店在周末人满为患。人们想买书,学习新知识。

中国社会拥有世界人民的大多数愿望。人们希望抚养他们的孩子,有工作,与朋友交往,有爱好,享受生活。

 

Billy Hughes, lives in China (2012-present)

That they call you mei guo ren - which directly translated means ‘Beautiful country people’

Yes, they think you’re beautiful, or America is. The Chinese name for America is ‘Beautiful Country’ 美国 (mei guo)

That’s a massive compliment they’re paying you right there whereas the stupider Americans on Quora/Fox News/Alt Right websites are calling Chinese people savages, brutes and commies. Who comes out looking good from such an exchange?

What you should know is that there is a lot of love for America amongst ordinary Chinese people and that you need to come here and see it for yourself.

That’s what I think you should know.

他们叫你美国人,直接翻译过来就是“美丽国度的人民”

是的,他们认为你们很美,或者说美国很漂亮。美国的中文名字是“美丽的国家”。

在Quora/Fox News/Alt right网站上,愚蠢的美国人称中国人为野蛮人。在这样的交流中谁的表现更好?

你应该知道的是,普通的中国人对美国爱意满满,你需要来这里亲眼看看。

以上就是我认为你应该知道的。

 

William Regan, I've been living in China for seven years.

I think there are a lot of misconceptions Americans have about Chinese people. Some of them might be due to the media, some to education/upbringing, and some due to just plain ignorance.

我认为美国人对中国人有很多误解。其中一些可能是由于媒体,一些是由于教育/教养,还有一些仅仅是由于无知。

1.Chinese people, as a whole, still have relatively positive things to say about the USA. People here seemed to like Obama. A lot of people, believe it or not, still like Trump—despite the escalating trade war.

2.China provides a glimpse of “the future”. Chinese consumers don’t carry the same prejudices and associations with technology. Most people in China embrace technology as something that greatly improves their lives. “The future is now” is an accurate way to describe China—especially in the mobile tech scene. Westerners are much slower to adopt new technologies—and more wary about their privacy.

1.总的来说,中国人对美国有相对积极的看法。这里的人们似乎喜欢奥巴马。信不信由你,尽管贸易战不断升级,但很多人还是喜欢特朗普。

2.中国给了我们对“未来”的惊鸿一瞥。中国消费者对科技没有同样的偏见和联想。在中国,大多数人都认为科技能极大地改善他们的生活。“未来就是现在”正是对中国的准确描述,尤其是在移动技术领域。西方人接受新技术的速度要慢得多,而且他们对自己的隐私更加谨慎。

3.China is a land of massive discrepancy. Cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin, and Guangzhou could be considered more modern than their European or American counterparts. There are world class subway systems and high speed trains, massive and modern infrastructure, ubiquitous WiFi coverage, facial recognition cameras, and robot assistants at hospitals. But just travel one hour outside these cities — and facilities and infrastructure can honestly be compared to Subsaharan Africa (I’ve been there). The differences between a 1st tier city and a small town or village are very pronounced and impossible to ignore.

4.In one way, China has a similar demographic profile as the USA. You have elderly, retired people who live simple lives and don’t use computers, phones, or the internet much. Their sense of society might be socializing with friends over morning tea — or talking with neighbors at the local market. (While elderly Americans might be found socializing at a local church or neighborhood organization) You have “working age” people with mortgages, children to raise, and whose outlooks have been shaped by their experiences of a poorer China + a rising China. Then you have a group that might be compared to millennials in the USA — a group the elder generations might view as lazy, too busy playing video games, and too self-absorbed. I think the same can be said about American society.

3.中国是一个存在巨大差异的国家。北京、上海、深圳、天津和广州等城市比欧洲或美国的城市更现代化。这里有世界一流的地铁系统和高速列车,大规模现代化的基础设施,无处不在的WiFi覆盖,面部识别摄像头,以及医院里的机器人助手。但只要从这些城市外向外走一个小时,市政设施和基础设施可能就和撒哈拉以南的非洲差不多了(我去过那里)。一线城市与小城镇或乡村之间的差异非常明显,不容忽视。

4.在某种程度上,中国的人口结构与美国相似。有些老年人、退休人员过着简单的生活,不怎么使用电脑、电话或互联网。他们的社交意识可能就是跟朋友一起喝喝早茶,或者在当地市场和邻居聊聊天。(你可能会发现美国老年人会在当地教堂或社区组织参加社交活动)你们有“工作适龄”的人背负着房贷,有孩子要抚养,在他们脑海中,中国就是一个穷国,同时也是一个正在崛起的国家。然后,你们有一个群体,可能跟美国的千禧一代半斤八两——老一辈人可能认为这群人懒惰、只知道玩电子游戏、过于自私。我认为美国社会也是如此。

I think the most important thing to take away from this is the amount of similarities both Americans and Chinese share with each other. Appreciating our differences makes life more colorful for all—but recognizing our commonalities allows us to see each other in a more humane light, instead of viewing any one not like ourselves as an alien or adversary who needs to be enlightened, righted or wronged.

我认为最重要的是要从中吸取的是美国人和中国人之间有很多相似之处。欣赏我们之间的差异会让所有人的生活更加丰富多彩——但认识到我们的共同点会让我们以更人道的眼光看待彼此,而不是把任何与我们不同的人视为需要被启发、纠正或冤枉的外星人或敌人。

 

Will Wagner, lives in Arizona

That is a hard question. Given what is happening in North Korea, Americans should at least have a sense of what took place in the Korean War. I would bet most Americans are unaware that the United States and China fought a war

Lilly, the other thing is that Americans have some sense of how the Chinese and the Chinese Nation has seen its place in the world over the past 2000 years. It is not complicated and it gives Americans a sense of their decision making process. Most Americans project American thinking onto the Chinese.

Henry Kissinger; On China . The first 50–100 pages of this very easy to read and very enjoyable book will give you a good foundation. It's in the library

这是一个很难回答的问题。鉴于朝鲜发生的事,美国人至少应该对朝鲜战争发生了什么有所了解。我敢打赌大多数美国人都不知道美国和中国打过一场仗。

另一件事是美国人对中国人和中华民族在过去2000年在世界上的地位有了一定的认识。这并不复杂,它让美国人了解他们的决策过程。大多数美国人把美国人的思想投射到中国人身上。

亨利•基辛格的《在中国》这本书的前50-100页非常容易阅读,非常有趣,将给你一个良好的基础。图书馆里就能借到。

 

Anonymous

1.China is roughly as big as the USA (including Hawaii and Alaska) in terms of landmass.

2.There are way more ethnic Chinese on earth than USA population.

3.China is not eager for a war with any country especially the USA.

4.The official language of China is not Cantonese but Standard Mandarin, although the former one might be more common in Chinatowns in cities of the USA.

5.There are other Chinese languages such as Hakka, Ping, Wu and Jin. Other languages are also used in certain areas of China such as Korean, Tibetan and Uyghur languages.

6.There are 56 officially recognized ethnic groups living in China. Han is the dominant ethnicity while others include Manchus, Zhuang, Hui, Miao, Thai, Tibetans, Uyghurs, Mongols, etc.

1.中国的陆地面积与美国大致相当(包括夏威夷和阿拉斯加)。

2.地球上的华人比美国人口多得多。

3.中国并不急于与任何国家,尤其是美国开战。

4.中国的官方语言不是广东话,而是标准的普通话,尽管前者在美国城市的唐人街可能更常听到。

5.中国还有其他的方言,如客家话等。中国某些地区也使用其他国家的语言,如朝鲜语、藏语和维吾尔语。

6.中国有56个被正式承认的民族。汉族是主要民族,其他还有满族、壮族、回族、苗族、泰国族、、、蒙古族等。

7.Beijing is the capital city of China and Shanghai is the largest city and port. Hong Kong was handed back to China in 1997 and became a special administrative region ever since. Same for Macau in 1999. There are other great cities in China such as Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Tianjin and Xi’an. Xi’an was one of the three biggest cities in the world between 7th and 8th century, along with Baghdad and Istanbul.

8.China has all these potential world cities, but it also has many undeveloped rural areas. While Shanghai is as developed as Chicago, some remote areas in the west like Guizhou are as poor as some African countries.

9.China claims Taiwan, while Taiwan claims China, too.

10.China is one of the oldest civilizations in Asia. There are many Dynasties in Chinese history, such as Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Jin, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing. Among them, Han and Tang are generally regarded as peaks of ancient China.

7.北京是中国的首都,上海是中国最大的城市和港口。香港于1997年回归中国,从此成为特别行政区。1999年澳门也是如此。中国还有其他大城市,如深圳、广州、重庆、成都、杭州、南京、天津和西安。公元7世纪至8世纪,西安与巴格达和伊斯坦布尔并称世界上最大的三座城市。

8.中国拥有大有潜力的世界城市,但也有许多尚未开发的农村地区。上海和芝加哥一样发达,贵州等西部边远地区和非洲一些国家一样贫穷。

9.中国声称对台湾拥有主权,而台湾也声称对中国拥有主权。

10.中国是亚洲最古老的文明之一。中国历史上有许多朝代,如商、周、秦、汉、金、隋、唐、宋、元、明、清。其中,汉、唐被普遍认为是古代中国的巅峰时期。

11.Religion and spiritual practice are diverse in China. Traditionally Chinese form an unique type of practice which combines Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism into one. Other major religions are also accepted in China.

12.China has the best highway and high speed railway systems in the world. 7 of top 10 busiest harbors in the world are located in China.

13.Not all Chinese people are good at math, science, musical instruments or martial arts. Not all Chinese people are rich. Not all Chinese people hate Japan or India. Not all Chinese people like sweet food.

11.中国的宗教和信仰多种多样。中国传统上形成了一种独特的实践形式,将道教、儒学和佛教融为一体。其他主要宗教在中国也受到广泛接纳。

12.中国拥有世界上最发达的高速公路和高速铁路系统。世界上最繁忙的10个港口中有7个位于中国。

13.不是所有的中国人都擅长数学、科学、乐器或武术。不是所有的中国人都十分富裕。不是所有的中国人都讨厌日本和印度。并非所有的中国人都喜欢甜食。

14.China does have territory disputes with several neighbors especially with Japan, India and South China Sea countries. However, it is not true that China has disputes with every neighbor.

16.It is true that some people in China, especially those in Guangdong province, eat dogs. However, those dogs are not pet dogs. They are raised in certified factories just like other livestock such as pigs and turkeys. It’s just one of thousands of cultural differences between China and the Western civilization.

14.中国确实与几个邻国存在领土争端,特别是与日本、印度和南海国家。然而,中国并非与所有邻国都存在争端。

16.在中国,确实有人吃狗肉。然而,这些狗并不是宠物狗,而是和猪、火鸡等其他家畜一样,是在经过认证的工厂里饲养的。这只是中国和西方文明之间成千上万的文化差异之一。

17.NBA is one of the most widely watched foreign sport leagues in China. Perhaps there are more NBA fans in China than in any other countries except the USA. However, NFL, NHL and MLB are not so popular in China. Maybe they are not as popular as MLS or even NCAA.

18.The USA was among the Alliance of Eight Powers that invaded China during the Boxers Rebellion of 1900. However, China did not cede any territory to American in treaties signed afterwards. Later, as proposed by President Angell of University of Michigan, the USA returned war compensation in those treaties to China as an educational fund. Tsinghua University was established with those findings. Currently Tsinghua is one of the best universities in China and also a top 50 university worldwide. Five universities in the USA (Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Cornell and Michigan) also began to admit Chinese students with those fundings.

19.Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty is generally regarded as one of the most outstanding emperors in ancient China. In his tomb, there used to be sculptures of six war horses. They were based on six war horses that fought in battles with Taizong. Currently there are 2 left on site. Where are the other 4? They are in a museum at University of Pennsylvania.

17.NBA是在中国最受关注的外国体育联盟之一。也许中国的NBA球迷比除了美国以外的任何国家都要多。然而,NFL、NHL和MLB在中国并不受欢迎。也许他们不像美国职业足球大联盟(MLS)甚至全美大学生体育协会(NCAA)那么受欢迎。

18.美国是1900年义和团起义期间入侵中国的八国联军之一。然而,在随后签署的条约中,中国并没有将任何领土割让给美国。后来,根据密歇根大学安吉尔校长的提议,美国将条约中的战争赔偿作为教育基金返还给中国。清华大学就是基于这些资金成立的。目前清华大学是中国最好的大学之一,也是世界排名前50的大学。美国的五所大学(哈佛大学、耶鲁大学、哥伦比亚大学、康奈尔大学和密歇根大学)也开始接收这些学校的中国学生。

19.唐太宗被认为是中国古代最杰出的皇帝之一。在他的陵墓里,曾经有六匹战马的雕像。它们的原型是六匹战马,它们曾跟随太宗征战沙场。目前陵墓现场只剩下2匹。其他4匹呢?它们在宾夕法尼亚大学的一个博物馆里。

 

Shuang “Sophia” Xü-Dehls, ESOL Coach at The Educational Alliance (2019-present)

China is a big, multi-ethnic country, with more than 80 different dialects and minor languages being spoken. Not to mention that our population is 1.4 billion. Thus, one or ten or even a hundred Chinese you have met in your life can’t represent all the Chinese. There isn’t a single stereotype which is big enough to cover a nation with 1.4 billion people.

中国是一个多民族的大国,有80多种不同的方言和 语言。更不用说我们拥有14亿人口。因此,你一生中遇到的一个、十个甚至一百个中国人都无法代表所有的中国人。对于一个拥有14亿人口的国家来说,没有哪一种固有印象足够全面。

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