The India-Pakistan crisis: What we know
New Delhi (AFP) - A string of violent escalations have pushed India and Pakistan to the brink of conflict, sparking global alarm and calls for restraint between the nuclear-armed neighbours.
Here is an explanation of the events so far, and the possible next steps:
- What triggered the crisis? -
On February 14, 40 paramilitaries were killed in a suicide bomb attack in the Indian-administered part of Kashmir, igniting outrage. It was the deadliest militant attack there in three decades, and was claimed by Pakistan-based group Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM).
Kashmir has been a major flashpoint since the end of British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. A ceasefire line divides it between India and Pakistan, but both claim the Himalayan region in its entirety.
Kashmir has seen hostilities during three India-Pakistan wars, as well as a limited conflict in 1999.
India has 500,000 troops stationed in the region to counter an armed insurgency by separatists seeking either independence or a merger with Pakistan.
- How did India react? -
Prime Minister Narendra Modi threatened a "jaw-breaking" response after the bombing. New Delhi demanded action from Islamabad, which it accuses of using militant groups as proxies to fuel unrest in Kashmir and carry out terror attacks in India.
On February 26, Indian warplanes crossed the Kashmir ceasefire line into Pakistani airspace, dropping bombs on what New Delhi described as a large JeM camp where militants were preparing to stage more attacks in India.
Islamabad confirmed the incursion and the dropping of payloads in undisputed Pakistani territory, a few kilometres outside the part of Kashmir it controls.
But it said New Delhi's claim of killing scores of militants was "self-serving, reckless and fictitious".
- What was Pakistan's response? -
An infuriated Islamabad vowed retaliation after the raid, India's first use of air power on Pakistani soil since the two fought a war in 1971 -- when neither had nuclear weapons.
On February 27, Pakistani jets flew across the Kashmir ceasefire line in what Islamabad described as a show of strength, hitting open spaces after locking on to military targets.
But there was a dramatic escalation when the Pakistani planes were chased by Indian fighters. In the ensuing fight, both sides claimed to have shot down each other's warplanes.
Pakistan said it downed two Indian jets, and detained one of their pilots. New Delhi confirmed the loss of one of its planes, and said a Pakistani jet was shot down -- which Islamabad denied. India has demanded the "immediate and safe return" of the pilot.
As tensions reached a level not seen in years, Pakistan closed its airspace completely.
- What happens next? -
The crisis has sparked alarm across the world, with major powers urging the two nuclear-armed rivals to act with restraint.
Both sides have sought to play down the threat of war -- Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan and Indian foreign minister Sushma Swaraj have said they do not want to escalate further.
A lot rests on how India reacts to the Pakistani retaliation and the capture of its pilot, analysts said.
"If India were to... retaliate again, that could really take things to another level," Michael Kugelman of the Wilson Center told Bloomberg TV.
But the fact that Pakistan has one of its pilots "may limit its options and may make it a bit more cautious".
And given limited communication between the two, "there is increased scope for misunderstanding and miscalculation", wrote Rahul Roy-Chaudhury of the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
"India is led by a government that's very conservative, and has been very tough on Pakistan. There's an election coming up in a few weeks in India... I find it hard to believe that India would be ready to de-escalate," Kugelman said.
"I don't know if we've seen the last of these fireworks on the sub-continent, unfortunately."
译文来源：三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/47136.html 译者：Jessica.Wu
Ben5 hours ago
$50 on India.
ericka19 hours ago
How about we stay out of it and deal with the internal problems we have.
confused17 hours ago
That's because both of those countrys have nukes
Olger H14 hours ago
I'll bet the British regret ever creating Kashmir and Pakistan
Jeffrey T9 hours ago
What we have known for a long time is don't fly Russian made jets.
kalim10 hours ago
Pakistan is showing what happened with evidences while India don't have any evidence yet.
Rich & Sandy15 hours ago
According to news reports, Trump called and told them to build a wall
john9 hours ago
pakistan maybe the better fighter but they need a truce because they've already exhausted their ammo supply and no money buy more.
SanJuanKid15 hours ago
"An infuriated Islamabad..." Pakistanis and Indians both get infuriated very easily. Is it something in their diet?
bob16 hours ago
The best way to help India is for us to stop aid to Pakistan.
Lilo2 hours ago
The writer of this article either has no clue of the historical events, or lying deliberately under inducement.
Doc Mills2 hours ago
Indian fighter jet: WW2 museum piece
Roma10 hours ago
Is AFP on the pay list of Islamabad?
d10 hours ago
hindu and Pakistan people are descendants of Indians separated by religions
Logician10 hours ago
India is just as weak and spineless as the US.
India needs to reclaim Pakistan in order for there to be peace.
Fight to the end . . .
The Retaliator2 hours ago
India has the right to defend itself from pak terror
Gene9 hours ago
We don’t know anything!
Liberty9 hours ago
I wonder if we can still get the tech support guys from India and Pakistan to answer the phone right now? I hope not.
Ningc8 hours ago
India and Pakistan have been in crisis concerning Kashmir again and again since India got their independence at 1947. We do not need to be policeman all over the world especially on this matter.
bifff9 hours ago
india will win they have nuke missles
Phil7 hours ago
Love it, I'm rooting for Pakistan.
Voltron10 hours ago
India sent their finest jets to bomb Pakistan, a vietnam era Mig-21...lol
Tom5 hours ago
Nothing will happen, neither side has thewill to go to war.
JJ9 hours ago
We know India needs to stop buying cheap inferior Russian made combat platforms
Katfish2 hours ago
This is a crisis, but our border isn't?