三泰虎

中国过去十年突飞猛进,远远甩开了印度,这要怪印度教育?

The single biggest reason why China surged ahead in last 10 years while India fell by the wayside

中国过去十年突飞猛进而印度半途而废的原因

Ten years ago, India was seen as a potential superpower, capable of combating the rise of China. Today China has risen so fast that it challenges the techno-military might of the US. India is too far behind to matter.

The main reason is India’s dismal educational system, producing unemployable college graduates and schoolchildren close to functional illiteracy. The latest Annual Status of Education Report reveals that barely 50% of children in Class 5 and 73% in Class 8 can read a Class 2 text. Only 44% of Class 8 children can do simple division. How can such a country become a superpower?

Ten years ago, China was still exporting mainly labour-intensive items made in factories employing thousands of workers at low wages. India at the time had emerged as a formidable exporter of computer software, ahead of China in this high-tech area. It had also risen fast as a world-class exporter of generic drugs, small cars and refined petroleum products.

Today, China has not just surged ahead of India but created hi-tech world champions, such as Huawei in 5G telecom, and BYD in batteries. China is the world’s largest producer of solar cells, aluminium and steel. India meanwhile has not produced a single global champion or become a global power in a single new field in the last decade. Its eminence in generic drugs has been eroded by growing dependence on Chinese active drug ingredients. India’s software industry is struggling.

印度学生,<a href=http://www.santaihu.com/e/tags/?tagname=%E5%8D%B0%E5%BA%A6%E6%95%99 target=_blank class=infotextkey>印度教</a>室

十年前,印度被视为一个潜在的超级大国,有能力对抗中国的崛起。如今,中国的崛起速度之快已使它能挑战美国的科技军事实力。印度则落后太多,已经到了无足轻重的地步。其中的主要原因是印度糟糕的教育制度,这一制度下培养的大学毕业生和在校生实质上近乎文盲,难以为雇主所用。

最新的印度《年度教育状况报告》显示,五年级和八年级的学生中分别只有50%和73%能读懂二年级的课文。只有44%的八年级孩子能做简单的除法。这样一个国家如何成为超级大国?

文章指出,十年前,中国仍主要出口劳动密集型产品,这些产品是雇用大量廉价劳动力的工厂生产的。当时,印度已经成为一个举足轻重的计算机软件出口国,在这一高科技领域领先于中国。印度还迅速崛起为世界顶级的仿制药、小型汽车和精炼石油产品出口国。

如今,中国不仅领先于印度,而且诞生了一些高科技领域的世界领军企业,比如5G电信领域的华为和生产电池的比亚迪。中国是世界上最大的太阳能电池、铝和钢铁生产国。与此同时,印度过去十年中没有诞生一个全球领军企业,也没有在任何一个新领域成为一个全球大国。由于越来越依赖中国的原料药,印度在仿制药领域的地位受到削弱。印度的软件业也在苦苦挣扎。

As columnist Gurcharan Das has pointed out, China’s success owes much to its emphasis on meritocracy. Its high-quality educational system has driven relentlessly to catch up with the West, and now produces world-class academic output. China overtook the US in the number of published academic papers in 2016, though it lags well behind in quality. China’s R&D spending is 2.1% of GDP, less than the US’s but higher than Europe’s average. India’s R&D spending has stagnated at around 0.65% of GDP for two decades. It lacks not just money but quality scientists for research.

BJP-leaning scientists at the recent Indian Science Congress claimed India had test-tube babies in the Mahabharata era (hence 100 Kauravas), and aircraft in the Ramayana era. One scientist rejected the theories of Einstein and Hawking, instead proposing “Modi waves”, for which he wanted to get a Nobel Prize. If this is the direction in which politics pushes science, India has no future.

China has decent colleges in almost all provinces.... Deng Xiaoping decreed decades ago that China must send tens of thousands of students abroad every year, ignoring worries about a brain drain, convinced that many would return to enrich the country with world-class human capital. In 2008, China launched a Thousand Talents scheme to woo back top-quality overseas academics with world class facilities and salaries. This has greatly boosted human capital and buttressed China’s hi-tech capabilities.

正如专栏作家古尔恰兰·达斯指出的那样,中国的成功在很大程度上要归功于它对英才教育的重视。高质量的教育体系令其不屈不挠地追赶西方,如今又产生了世界级的学术成果。2016年,中国发表的科研论文数量超过了美国,尽管在质量上远远落后。中国的研发支出占国内生产总值(GDP)的2.1%,低于美国,但高于欧洲的平均水平。二十年来,印度的研发支出一直徘徊在GDP的0.65%左右。印度不仅缺乏资金,而且缺少从事科研的优秀科学家。

在最近举行的印度科学大会上,一些支持印度人民党的科学家声称,印度在摩诃婆罗多时代就有试管婴儿,在罗摩衍那时代就有飞机。一位科学家驳斥了爱因斯坦和霍金的理论,提出了“莫迪波”。如果这是政治推动科学发展的方向,印度就没有未来。

中国几乎所有省份都有不错的大学。中国决心在技术和经济影响力上成为世界第一,因此中国不断提高大学的教学和研究标准。几十年前,中国每年就输送数以万计的学生到国外学习,不顾人才外流的担忧,坚信许多人会回国,为这个国家带来大量世界顶级的人力资本。2008年起,中国又开始用世界顶级的设施和薪水吸引海外顶尖学者回国。这极大地增强了人力资本并支撑了中国的高科技能力。(译文来自参考消息网 http://column.cankaoxiaoxi.com/g/2019/0122/2369670.shtml)

(作者:印度著名经济记者斯瓦米纳坦·艾亚尔  Swaminathan A Aiyar)

印度经济时报读者的评论:

Kavi Tanna 298

There is no way to compete with China in manufacturing, not even with good quality education. Our only hope is specific industries like pharma, IT, oil refining, etc.

印度制造业无论如何也竞争不过中国的,即便印度教育质量提上去了,也竞争不过中国

我们印度唯一有希望的是诸如制药、IT、炼油之类的产业

 

Kavi Tanna
Got nothing to do with education, got everything to do with China going into manufacturing. Even if Scamgress had their act together and went into manufacturing same time as China there is no way we could have competed

跟教育有个球关系啊。

即便国大党全力以赴、勠力同心,即便印度与中国同时发展制造业,我们印度也竞争不过中国

 

Rahul Soni 62

though the article is right in many senses. but China has grown tremendously due to its theft of petabyte of data of US defense servers.

从很多方面来看,文章说得还是有道理的。

不过中国是靠窃取美国技术而发展起来的

 

Dominator Force 157

What merit did the IITs and IIMs achieve other than a cheap western labour arbitrage? The growth of any nation is predominantly decreed by its Engineering education.

印度理工学院和印度管理学院有啥贡献,无非是为西方培养劳动力。

一个国家能否发展起来,是看这个国家工程专业的教育质量的

 

Honest Soul 4767

The author of this article has no credibility. He is trying to blame BJP for everythingLike Mani Shankar Aiyar that cynical chap

作者不靠谱,他是要把一切问题归咎于印度人民党

 

Rakshit Karia 84

The Guy who has written this article probably never went to China

作者可能没有去过中国哦

 

Anirudh Chakrabarty

In 1991 engineers from China we''re trained at RDSO. My father was amongst the team that trained them. The Chinese used to marvel at our technology English skills etc. Today the Indians go to china to get trained.

1991年,中国工程师来印度RDSO接收训练。

我父亲就是为中国工程师进行培训的成员之一

当时啊,中国人惊叹我们技术,惊叹我们的英语水平如此之高。

如今轮到印度人去中国接受培训了,哎

 

Amar Akbar Antony

In China there is no religion. In India, Ayodhya, Triple Talaq, Christian conversions, rape by priests etc are more important than development. Caste is more important than anything else. The findings are not surprising at all.

中国不受宗教问题的困扰。

在印度,阿约提亚,说三次就离婚、牧师强奸女人等这些比发展经济更重要。种姓凌驾于任何问题之上。

这个调查结果一点也不令人意外

 

Ashok Jena 52

This article shows true face of our education system.People should take note of it and demand for quality education.

文章揭露了印度教育的真面目

人们应铭记在心,并要求政府提供优质教育

 

Ramaben Patel 4320

The standard of education and most particularly in Govt. schools is extremely poor against what you find in USA schools. If I have to educate my children, I shall never ever think of putting them in Govt. school. Let us see where the children of Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Industrialists etc. have been studying when they were in Primary and secondary education classes.If the Country is to progress, quality of education ,not only should improve but should be number one.

印度教育的质量,特别是印度公立学校的教育质量太差了,实在让人难以恭维,比美国学校差多了。

我孩子要上学的话,我是不会让他去公立学校读书的。

看看印度当官的孩子上什么学校。

国家要进步,教育质量必须跟上,不仅仅是提高,而是要追求最好

 

Honest Soul 4767

Core problems in India:1. Over population2. Reservation based on caste3. Regional political parties4. Corruption at all level including Doctors Lawyers and CAs5. Tax chori

印度的核心问题在于:人口太多了、根据种姓给预留名额,地区政党纷争,还有就是腐败问题,就连医生和律师也腐败

 

Anil Nahar 1161

Congress Laid policy in last 60 Odd years wanted only average education so easy to get votes , Visited couple of times China , India will not be in next 100 yrs can reach to level of infrastructure level reached BJP is also falling in same trap .

国大党过去60年的政策是让人们接受基础的教育,这样捞选票容易。

我去过中国几次,再过100年,印度基础设施也达不到中国的水平。

印度人民党也在步国大党的后尘

 

Maanoj Bhandari 124

it''s the problem with the society. man has landed on moon. however our society still grapples with female fetecide honour killing and triple talak. superstition religion is what drags the society down... one major thing that the author didn''t point out is China is a no religion country... there is a unified law regime.. in India we have Hindu law Muslim law Punjabi law and so on ... these things not only drag the society down but also creates a divide ... we Indians are greedy self centred people who only think about them selves.... country people society everything is secondary

这是印度社会的问题。

人类已经登月了,我们印度社会还存在把女婴胎儿流掉,荣誉谋杀等问题,宗教迷信阻碍了印度社会的进步。

作者有一点没有提到,那就是中国不是宗教国家,而是法治国家。

而印度存在印度教法律,法律等等

这些阻碍了印度社会的进步,造成了社会裂痕。

我们印度人是贪婪的,以自我为中心,只为自己考虑。

什么国家啊,什么社会啊,统统是次要的

 

Ek Sat 51

author - blood sucking brahmin parasite

作者是吸血的婆罗门蛀虫

 

Vasantray Vachhani

Mr Aaiyar is funny. He is not able to recognize the reason why China is far ahead of India now and gap shall increases. The two blockades are population explosion and Decayed judiciary. God save Indian illiterate, selfish and greedy people from corrupt leaders like Aaiyar.

作者艾亚尔先生让人笑话了

他没有认清中国遥遥领先印度的原因,而且差距还会扩大

印度进步的绊脚石主要有两个,一个是人口爆炸,另一个是司法腐败

 

Saleem Ansari 15

We can Rename China to India. Problem solved.

可以把中国改名为印度,问题解决

 

Reservation Mukth Bharat 112

In China the labours in the factory work through the year and only once in a year they have a vacation. (They still work as bonded Labour).

在中国,工厂里面上班的工人全年只放假一次啊。

Vasantray Vachhani

I have not seen any person working like a bondage in Chine during my stay and job in China. Please correct

我在工作的时候,从来没看过奴工啊

 

Flag Vasudeva Ungati 388

corruption, favouritism and black money are dragging India down. we were front runners in the technology in early 2000s. we lost that also to China. India is always an advantage point to China.

腐败、 徇私枉法和黑钱阻碍了印度的进步

2000年初,我们本来还是技术领先的,如今这方面也落后中国了,哎

 

indian

China''s rise is not about 10 years. It is from 1970s

中国的崛起并非是最近10年的事,而是从1970年开始的

 

Deviprasad Nayak 2994

India leg behind in all fields due to the colonial education system based on foreign language.

印度为什么全面落后中国,还不是要怪用外语进行教学媒介的殖民教育制度

 

AR 107

Perhaps we need a different method of governance.

也许我们该换一个统治方式了

 

Anonymous

Why are you ashamed of writing that it is for the simple reasons Indians are incompetent and Chinese are smart! Trying to find lame excuses in the form of Governance, education system, blah blah -- these are all symptoms, not causes.

为什么你们就羞于承认一个简单的事实,那就是印度人是无能的,中国人是聪明的!

老是找一些蹩脚的理由,比如怪教育制度啊之类的,这些是“果”,不是“因”

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