三泰虎

中国为何基础设施比第三世界国家发达得多

How did China manage to construct a vastly superior infrastructure despite having a per capita GDP similar to third-world countries?

中国的人均GDP只有第三世界国家水平,但中国的基础设施为何比第三世界国家发达得多? 

QUORA网站读者评论:

Robin Daverman, World traveler

Others have already talked about the government support and the financial capital. I want to mention one more thing - the Chinese construction engineers and workers are some serious maniacs! In most developed countries, construction starts with people driving heavy equipment, clear out the land, build the road, dig the ditches, etc. In China, a lot of those are build by people doing rock-climbing/wire-walking. Like this.

别人都在说政府支持和金融资本。我想再提一件事—中国的建筑工程师和工人是狂热的! 在大多数发达国家,建筑是工人驾驶重型设备来清理土地、修路、挖沟等完成的。而在中国,很多建筑都是人们攀岩/走钢索来建造的。像这样:

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You see, the Chinese has a history of asking the impossible from their construction engineers, like this photo which was taken back in 1970.

你看,中国人有向他们的建筑工程师提出不可能的要求的传统,就像这张照片,拍摄于1970年。

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OK fine. That’s what the railroad looked like after it’s built.

这就是铁路建成后的样子。

译文来源:三泰虎    http://www.santaihu.com/46820.html       译者:Joyceliu

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People tend to think only of Beijing or Shanghai when they think about China, but actually, 85% of China are mountainous. Like this.

当人们想到中国时,他们往往只想到北京或上海,但实际上,中国85%的地方是山区。就像这样。

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Sometimes there are good, fertile farmland up on top of the mountains. You just have to climb up. So the Chinese kids have been climbing up and down the mountains for a couple thousands of years. Like this 800 meter cliff hike or this 125 mile hike alone the cliffs near an icy river

有时山顶有肥沃的农田。你要做的就是爬上去。所以中国的孩子已经在山上爬上爬下几千年了。就像这种800米悬崖徒步,或者冰河附近悬崖上的125英里徒步

or a four-hour climb over the slippery rock surface

或者在光滑的岩石表面攀爬四个小时

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or a five-hour journey across a 1-foot wide loose rock path

或者在一条1英尺宽的松散岩石小路上走上5个小时

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To go to school. They do this by the time they are five or six years old.

就为了去上学。他们五六岁的时候就学会了。
 

 

Ben Bradfield, Living in China for 5 years

I’ll play the Devil’s Advocate on this one and offer an opposing view that I believe has some hard factual elements, but may not be the one everyone wants to hear

What China has that third-world countries don’t have, GDP per capita aside, is an gigantic army of cheap labor. Labor is and always has been China’s fundamental factor that allows everything to be produced and sold at a much cheaper price than elsewhere. Despite all the talk you hear about China upgrading capacity, revolutionizing its economy, etc., what you be sure of is that the transformation will continue to be highly dependent on cheap labor, both skilled and unskilled. Infrastructure and construction in general is very labor-intensive, so it makes sense that China is able to make gains in this area much more quickly and efficiently than those found in other places.

在这个问题上,我要唱反调,提出相反的观点,我认为是有一些事实因素,但可能不是每个人都想听的。

撇开人均GDP不谈,中国拥有而第三世界国家没有的,就是一支庞大的廉价劳动力大军。劳动力一直是中国的根基,它使得所有商品的生产和销售价格都远低于其他地区。尽管你听到过很多关于中国提升产能、改革经济等言论,但你可以肯定的是,中国的转型将继续高度依赖廉价劳动力,无论是熟练劳动力还是非熟练劳动力。一般来说,基础设施和建设都是劳动密集型的,因此,中国在这方面取得的进展比其他地方快得多、效率高得多,是有道理的。

 

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