三泰虎

为何印度不效仿中国,进行农村城镇化

Why doesn't India follow China's policy to transform villages into prosperous cities?

为什么印度不效仿中国的政策,把改造成繁荣的城市?

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Quora评论翻译:

Abhinit Rai, Almost conservative , Advaitvaadi, learner, simple!

Sorry but I didn't watch that 1 hour long video. However, one thing that I want you to realize is that a village is not a sign of backwardness, neither is a city, a sign of modernisation. It is all about sustainable development and optimum use of resources of a given place. Today, almost 50% of our workforce is directly involved in agriculture, yet the contribution to GDP of this sector is less than 20%. This suggests that we have a lot of disguised unemployment in this sector. The Make-in-India is supposed to bring in labour intensive industries which will allow both the industries and agriculture to grow fast. This is because agriculture could adopt modern techniques for greater yield as there will be lesser people on the same amount of land. Of course, this needs to be coupled with some other innovative techniques like Land Banks. In a nutshell, when people will have job opportunities in both rural and urban areas, they will have a decent standard of living in both the areas. We don't need to urbanise the entire India to call it prosperous

我想让大家认识到的一件事是,村庄不是落后的标志,城市也不是现代化的标志。这一切都关乎某个特定区域的可持续发展和资源的最佳利用。今天,印度近50%的劳动力直接从事农业生产,但农业对国内生产总值的贡献率还不到20%。这表明,我们在这个领域存在很多隐性失业。“印度制造”理应带来劳动密集型产业,这将使工业和农业快速增长,在同等面积的土地上,劳动人口将会减少。当然,这也需要与其他创新技术相结合。简而言之,当人们在农村和城市地区都有工作机会时,他们在这两个地区都能过上体面的生活。我们不需要将整个印度城市化才能称之为繁荣。

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46797.html  译者:Jessica.Wu

 

Amith Prabhu, worked at PayPal

In theory it should and India is trying to develop. However the major impediment is land and capital.  India has one of the higest densities of population in the world. What that means is there are people settled there and if the land has to be re-purposed they have to be relocated.

Many areas can be repurposed for 10,000x productivity and utilized for the industry that most makes sense but the impediment is you have people settled there for generations who are hanging on by the skin of their teeth in abject poverty.

印度正在发展。然而,主要的障碍是土地和资本。印度是世界上人口密度最高的国家之一。这意味着到处都有人定居,如果需要重新规划土地,他们就必须搬迁。

许多地区可以被改造成用于从事生产力翻10000倍并最有意义的行业,但障碍在于,那里的人们世世代代都生活在赤贫之中。

 

Puneet Tuli

There are many reasons, India can't follow China for transform of Villages into Cities like people mentality, political reasons, democracy and communism, current demands of situation and most important timings. But China also started transforming of villages 2006 onwards(as per video) when they already developed their many cities, manufacturing and service sectors, education institutions etc., whereas in India this all are in developing stage nothing is fully developed.

So I feel more than transformation of Indian Villages there is more requirement to upgrade Indian Cities right now. If you analysis, there is no Indian city in comparison of  China cities like Shanghai, Beijing, Hong kong, Tianjin etc. In fact, in China there are 14 main cities but in India it is just 7, half of China.

So I think thats why Indian Government is doing very good job by improving or giving opportunities to people to improve manufacturing sector by Make in India campaign, improving education facilities and development Indian cities.

印度不能像中国一样把乡村改造成城镇,原因有很多,比如人民的心态、政治原因、当前形势的要求,还有最重要的是时机。中国从2006年开始对农村进行改造,那时他们已经建设了许多城市,建立起了发达的制造业和服务业、教育机构等,而在印度,这些都处于发展阶段,没有完全开发。

所以我觉得不仅仅是印度的农村需要转型,印度目前的城市更需要升级。对比一下,你会发现印度没有哪个城市可以和中国的上海、北京、香港、天津等城市相比。中国有14个重点城市,但印度只有7个,只有中国的一半。

所以通过“印度制造”(Make in India)运动,改善教育设施和发展印度城市,为人们改善制造业提供机会,印度政府做得很不错。

 

Rahul Ramabhadran, Man proposes, serial killer disposes.

India is still an agricultural country and contributes significantly to the GDP. India still needs to move forward to become an industrial or services oriented nation. Therefore, farmers are an integral part of the nation. If farmers are displaces, it means a large chunk of population is displaced and they have to be rehabilitated somehow.

Also, India being a democratic country, six years is a really short period of time to effect such a massive change. Since there are politicians with agricultural backgrounds, there are sure to be obstacles in the way to pass a Bill to effect this. And Modi is just a prime minister, not a superhero.

印度仍然是一个农业国家,农业对GDP的贡献很大。印度仍然需要向前迈进,成为一个以工业或服务业为主导的国家。农民是国家不可或缺的一部分。如果农民流离失所,就意味着大量人口流离失所,他们必须以某种方式重获新生。

此外,对于印度来说,实现如此巨大的变革,6年的时间实在是太短了。由于有些政客有农业背景,通过一项法案来实现这一目标肯定会遇到阻碍。莫迪只是个总理,不是超级英雄。

 

Marc Stern, works at Medical Devices

Never been to India, but have read about some the issues faced there. The other answerers probably have better knowledge.

I knew several people who grew up on a farm in the US and Europe and felt a strong tie to the land. The felt like that if they sold it, they would lose a part of themselves so leaving wasn't really an option.

从来没去过印度,但了解那里面临的一些问题。

我认识几个在美国和欧洲的农场长大的人,他们觉得自己与这片土地息息相关。他们觉得如果卖掉,他们就会失去一部分自我,所以离开土地不是一个选择。

 

Mukesh Menaria, I know "nothing"...

Because I didn't vote government to do that.

Villages can be upgraded with required amenities but transforming them to cities(we already have enough cities with major troubles without proper planning and safety features). Not sure about rest but that is one thing I am happy with as it is. They currently are providers(as opposed to cities which are consumer) and if transformed without careful planning(Currently all cities have reached their threshold despite 'careful' planning) would lead them same way most cities of India looks like.

我不支持政府这么做。可以对农村进行升级,提供必要的便利设施,但不需要把农村改造成城市。农村目前是供应商(而城市是消费者),如果不经过仔细规划就进行转型,农村将会走大多数印度城市一样的老路。

 

Jason Kumar, worked at India

Because there always are some conflicts between India government and people,government want to transfer poor village into small town.but local people don't want to do it.in China.government will give  compensation to people and built new house.roads etc.Because it can change and improve life standards .so people are willing to do.

因为印度政府和人民之间总是有一些冲突,政府想把贫穷的农村发展为小城镇,但当地人却不想这么做。在中国,政府会补偿人民,帮他们盖新房,这样可以提高生活水平,所以人们愿意这么做。

 

Vignesh Ramakrishnan,

Rampant urbanization also has its own disadvantages like increased consumerism and lesser sustainability.

城市化也有缺点,比如消费主义的增长和可持续性的降低。

 

rthy Sach Hohan, studied at Medicine and Healthcare (2018)

Hahaha.. isnt surprising but you should know that indian politicians are not in mood to develop India. They instead love to develop their houses and bank acns ...

哈哈哈,这并不奇怪,但你应该知道,印度政客没有心情发展国家。相反,他们只喜欢扩建自己的房子,提高自己的银行存款……

 

Saquib Siddiqui, What doesn't kill you, makes you stronger.

Ashwin take a good look at your local and state politicians. Do you think they even bother to care a bit about developing villages? They are corrupt and they don't care. In May 2014 after sweeping the general elections PM Modi talked about each MP adopting a village and making it world class. Bullshit. Where are these model villages? Have you heard about them? It's been 9 months, what substantial has Modi done so far? He talk in monologue. When was the last time he spoke directly to people? And, oh yes he passed the Land acquisition bill at the blink of an eye to please his capitalistic masters. No consent required from people (who gives a damn anyways). Govt approves ordinance to ease Land Acquisition Act to push reforms - The Times of India . Surprisingly, the 15 years CM Shiela Dikshit didn't even knew that there were farmers and villages in Delhi!

The money is not the problem, India has more than enough. It's the lack of good  intentions in our political leaders.

看看印度各邦的政客,你认为他们会费心关心农村的发展吗?他们贪污腐败,根本不在乎。2014年5月,莫迪总理在大选中大获全胜后谈到,每一位议员都要认领一个村庄,将其建设成世界级村庄。这些都成了废话,这些模范村在哪里?你有听说过吗? 这么多年过去了,莫迪做了什么实质性的工作?他是在自说自话,他最后一次直接和人民对话是什么时候?一眨眼的功夫,他就通过了征地法案以取悦他的主子,而不需要征得人民的同意(也没人在乎他们同不同意)。政府批准放宽征地法案以推动改革。令人惊讶的是,这15年里首席部长Shiela Dikshit甚至不知道在德里有农民和村庄!

钱不是问题,印度有的是钱。问题在于我们的政客们没有意愿改造农村。

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