三泰虎

F-22和F-35的绞杀机? 中国歼-20隐形战机能否成为顶级空战机

F-22 or F-35 Killer?: Could China’s ‘Heavy’ J-20 Stealth Fighter Become the Ultimate Dogfighter?

F-22和F-35的绞杀机?中国现在的“重型”歼-20隐形战机能否成为顶级空战机?

 

In January 2011, the maiden flight of a large, dagger-like grey jet announced that China had developed its first stealth aircraft—the Chengdu J-20 “Mighty Dragon.” Six years later, after several substantial revisions, J-20s entered operational service with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.

As radar-guided missiles from fighters and ground-based launchers threaten aircraft from dozens, or even hundreds of miles away, stealth capabilities are increasingly perceived as necessary for keeping fighter pilots alive on the modern battlefield.

2011年1月,一架形似匕首的大型灰色喷气式飞机的首航宣告了中国已研发成功第一架隐形飞机——成都歼-20“巨龙”。六年后,经过几轮改进,歼-20进入中国人民解放军空军服役。

来自战斗机和地面发射器的雷达制导导弹可以威胁数十英里甚至数百英里以外的飞机,人们越来越坚信,为了让战斗机飞行员能在现代战场上生存下去,战斗机必须拥有隐形能力。

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But just how good is the J-20? And what is its intended role? After all, America’s first stealth fighter, the F-117 Nighthawk, was not even really a fighter and lacked any air-to-air capability whatsoever.

The PLA has, true to custom, kept its cards close to the chest, and has not shared performance specifications to the public. Thus, there are broad estimates of the J-20’s top speed (around Mach 2), and considerable-seeming range (1,200 to 2,000 miles), but those remain just that—estimates. For years, analysts even over-estimated the aircraft’s length by two meters. It’s broad but relatively shallow weapons bay can accommodate four to six long-range missiles or bombs, though not munitions with especially heavy warheads.

但是歼-20到底有多出色呢?它在军中能发挥什么作用?毕竟,美国的第一架隐形战机,F-117夜鹰,根本就算不上真正意义上的战斗机,不具备空对空战斗能力。

中国人民解放军一如既往地低调沉默,并未公开战斗机的性能指标。因此,人们对J-20的最高速度(大约2马赫)和射程(1200到2000英里)众说纷纭,但都还只是猜测。多年来,分析人士甚至把飞机的长度估多了两米。它的武器舱很宽,但进深相对较浅,可以携带4-6枚远程导弹或诈弹,无法装载重型弹头等弹药。

International observers generally concluded the large twin-engine jet possessed high speed and long operational range, but that the Mighty Dragon lacked the maneuverability necessary to prevail in close engagements with enemy fighters. Relatively modest aerobatic displays in the Zhuhai 2016 and 2018 airshows (you can see some of the latter here) reinforced the narrative in certain quarters that the J-20 isn’t optimized for gut-wrenching air combat maneuvers.

国际观察人士普遍认为,这架大型双引擎喷气式飞机拥有高速和长距离作战性能,但巨龙缺乏必要的机动性,无法在与敌方战斗机的近距离交战中取胜。在2016年、2018年珠海航展上,中规中矩的特技表演在某些方面也印证了J-20尚无法适应激烈空战演习的说法。

Given the above premises, observers mostly speculate the J-20 would either serve as long-range supersonic strike plane, or a hit-and-run interceptor used to slip past fighter screens and take out vulnerable supporting tanker and AWACS planes.

However, Rick Joe of The Diplomat argues these theories of the J-20’s supposedly specialized role might be a case of group-think, ignoring both design features and statements by Chinese sources suggesting the J-20 was intended as a multi-role fighter with “competitive” dogfighting capability.

鉴于此,观察人士大多猜测,歼-20要么作为远程超音速攻击机,要么作为打完就撤、在战斗机旁一闪即过、攻击脆弱的加油机和预警机的拦截机。

然而,《外交官》杂志的里克•乔认为,这些关于歼-20角色的猜测,可能只是一种群体思维,忽略了设计特点和中国消息人士的说法,即歼-20是一种多角色战斗机,具有“优异的”空战能力。

For example, a brochure distributed at Zhuhai 2018 explicitly stated the J-20 was capable of “seizing & maintain air superiority, medium & long range interception, escort and deep strike.” In other words, a multi-role fighter.

 “A commonly insinuated premise is that the Chinese aerospace industry was not capable of producing a fifth generation air superiority fighter, and would have to “settle” for a less technically challenging interceptor or striker instead,” Joe argues.

例如,在珠海2018年航展发布的宣传册中明确指出,歼-20具有“抓住和保持空中优势、进行中程和远程拦截、护航及深度打击”的能力。也即多角色战斗机。

“大家普遍有一种偏见,中国航天工业没有能力生产第五代空优战斗机,将不得不“退而求其次地满足”于技术难度较小的拦截器或攻击机,”乔称。

He points out that the lengthy J-20 is still shorter than the Russian Su-35 Flanker-E, one of the most maneuverable jet fighters ever designed. He further cites a 2001 study by Song Wecong, mentor of the J-20 designer Yang Wei, which you can read translated here. Wecong wrote that stealth aircraft “must have the capability to supercruise and perform unconventional maneuvers such as post-stall maneuvers.”

Song concluded the ideal stealth fighter would incorporate canards (a second, small set of wings close to the nose of the plane), leading-edge root extensions (or “strakes,” a thin surface extending where the wing emerges from the fuselages), and S-shaped belly intakes, in order to balance stealth, speed and maneuverability. These are all design characteristics evident in the J-20.

他指出,J-20的长度仍比俄罗斯苏-35 Flanker-E短,后者是有史以来最具机动性的喷气式战斗机之一。他还引用了2001年宋伟聪(音译)的一项研究,宋伟聪是歼-20设计师杨威的导师。伟聪称隐形飞机“必须具备超音速巡航能力,能执行失速后等非常规机动”。

宋总结说,理想的隐形战斗机应该拥有鸭翼(靠近飞机机头的第二副小机翼)、前缘根部延伸(或“弦”,机翼从机身伸出的地方延伸出来的薄层)和s型腹部进气道,以平衡隐形、速度和机动性。这些都是J-20设计上的明显特点。

While details on the J-20’s radar remains elusive (presumably a low-probability of intercept AESA radar), it also mounts arrays of electro-optical and infrared sensors with 360-degree coverage, reportedly designed to fuse sensor data to form a common “picture” and even share it with friendly forces via a datalink—technology seemingly modeled on the advanced sensors found on the American F-35. Such sensors could be particularly useful for detecting radar-eluding stealth aircraft.

J-20 pilots also are equipped with helmet-mounted sights that allow them to target high-off-boresight PL-10E heat-seeking missiles within a 90-degree angle of the plane’s nose simply by looking at the target. The short-range missiles are stored in small side-bays but can be cunningly rotated outside prior to launch, as depicted here.

尽管歼- 20的雷达能力尚不为人知(应该不太可能拦截AESA雷达),还全身安装了光电和红外传感器阵列,据报道,这是为了将传感器的数据融合成完整的“图片”,甚至还可以与友军通过数据链进行分享,该技术模仿了美国F- 35的先进传感器。这种传感器对于探测能躲避雷达的隐形飞机特别有用。

J-20飞行员的头盔上还配备了瞄准器,使他们能够在观察到目标时,在机头90度角度范围内瞄准大离轴PL-10E热寻导弹。短程导弹存放在小型侧舱中,但可以在发射前巧妙地旋转至外侧,如图所示。

While the J-20 would likely remain outclassed by the F-22, it could potentially prove a dangerous adversary to the F-35, which is not as optimized for within-visual-range engagements. However, both the F-22 and F-35 are believed to have a significantly lower all-around RCS than the J-20, though the Chinese fighter still appears to be significantly stealthier than the Russian Su-57.

A 2011 analysis by Australian aviation expert Carlo Kopp concluded that J-20 probably had strong stealth from a frontal aspect, but a larger radar cross section (RCS) when scanned from the side or rear—a limitation also found in the Russian Su-57 stealth fighter.

尽管J-20可能仍远远不及F-22,但它可能会成为F-35的一个强有力的对手,因为F-35在可视范围内的作战能力并不优秀。然而,F-22和F-35的全面雷达横截面都比J-20少,不过中国战斗机看起来仍然比俄罗斯苏-57隐形得多。

2011年,澳大利亚航空专家卡洛·科普在一份分析报告中得出结论,J-20可能从正面具有强大的隐身能力,但机身侧面或后部的雷达截面要大一些——俄罗斯苏-57隐形战斗机也存在这种缺陷。

But as the extent and type of the radar-absorbent materials used affect RCS, visual analysis alone cannot determine how stealthy an aircraft is. This has not dissuaded the U.S. Marine Corps from a building a full-scale mock-up of a J-20 in Georgia for study and training purposes. The Indian Air Force has boasted its Su-30 Flankers have tracked J-20s on radar, but as stealth fighters often employ emitters called “Luneburg Lens” to enlarge their RCS on routine flights, and thus conceal their true capabilities, it’s difficult to infer much from this either.

Another issue confusing analysis of the J-20 is that it doesn’t yet have the high-thrust WS-15 turbofans the PLAAF envisioned for them, and are making do with Russian AL-31F engines instead. Even China’s fourth-generation jets have been frustrated by deficient jet engines. The WS-15 generates 23 percent more thrust than the AL-31FN, and would enable the J-20 to super-cruise, or sustain supersonic speeds without resorting to fuel-gulping afterburners. Thus, certain more aggressive projections of J-20 performance, such as a top speed of Mach 2.5, may be premised on engines that have yet to be fully developed.

As long as the PLAAF has only a few dozen J-20s in service, it may make sense to reserve them for hit-and-run tactics and special deep strikes. But as the article in the Diplomat points out, there’s ample evidence the J-20 may be intended to grow into a capable all-rounder that can hold its own in a dogfight.

但是由于雷达吸收材料的范围和类型会影响雷达控制系统,仅凭视觉分析并不能确定飞机的隐身能力。这并没有阻止美国海军陆战队在格鲁吉亚建造一个J-20的全尺寸模型用于研究和训练。印度空军吹嘘其苏-30侧翼已经在雷达上跟踪到J -20,但由于隐形战斗机在常规飞行中经常使用“卢尼堡透镜”发射器来扩大雷达横截面,从而隐藏其真实隐身能力,因此也很难据此做出推断。

对歼-20的另一个令人困惑的分析是,它还没有像中国人民解放军空军预想的那样配备高推力WS-15涡扇发动机,目前依然使用俄罗斯的AL-31F发动机。就连中国第四代喷气式飞机也因发动机缺陷而遭遇挫败。WS-15能比AL-31FN多产生23%的推力,能使J-20无需依靠燃料吞吐后燃器实现超级巡航,或维持超音速速度。因此,也有对J-20性能的一些更为大胆的预测,如最高速度可达2.5马赫,可能就是基于尚未完全研发成功的发动机。

只要中国人民解放军空军只有几十架在役歼-20战机,他们可能就只能执行游击战术和深度打击。但正如《外交官》杂志上的文章所指出的,有充分的证据表明,歼-20可能会成为优秀的全能型选手,能够在混战中保持自己的优势。

 美国雅虎网站读者评论:

 译文来源:三泰虎    http://www.santaihu.com/46776.html       译者:Joyceliu

 外文链接:https://news.yahoo.com/f-22-f-35-killer-110000559.html

ken

Canards DO NOT lend themselves towards stealthiness. Unless China has made some serious breakthrough there, this "Song Wecong" doesn't know what he's talking about.

鸭翼是无法让自己隐身的。除非中国在这方面取得重大突破,否则这个“宋伟聪”就压根不知道自己在说什么。

 

Talon

Just because it looks stealthy doesn't mean it is. The F22 would work it over while the F35 is a 'stand off' weapon. It will interlink with other systems and nail the J20 long before it sees the F35... That is if it every gets completed. Still, 11 prototypes/demonstrators are a long way from fielding and actual airforce.

仅仅因为看起来隐形,并不意味着它就隐形。F22可以解决这个问题,而F35是一种“远程”武器。它可以与其他系统连接,在J20发现F35之前就能锁定J20……如果每件事都完成了。尽管如此,11个原型/模型距离部署和实际空战还有很长的路要走。

 

Jeffery

Yes, the details of the J20 are sketchy,

是的,J20的细节经不起推敲

 

ΜΟΛΩΝ ΛΑΒΕ

For the love of... It's not about the actual aircraft, it's about the avionics and targeting systems. When these "arm chair pilots" do research, they'll find that out. As of right now, China's got nothing for us. Not saying they won't, just not right now.

关键不在于飞机,而在于航空电子设备和目标系统。当这些“扶手椅飞行员”开始研究时,他们会发现这一点的。到目前为止,中国对我们来说什么都不是。不是说他们永远不会,但目前暂时还不会。

 

GXY10 hours ago

If the airframe has Chinese bolts, if the landing gear has Chinese tires... we're good for a while.

只要机身上有中国造的螺栓,起落架上有中国造的轮胎……我们暂时就还安全。

 

michael7 hours ago

the aircraft comes into play - but wait until you encounter an american pilot.

飞机开始下场了——但还得等你遇到美国飞行员才能见分晓。

 

Lijuan5 hours ago

China's only technological advancement occurs from what they steal.

中国唯一的技术进步就来自他们的剽窃。

 

bob5 hours ago

Why do you people at the National Interest write these articles? You know that the J-20 will be just as bad as everything else China makes because it's based on technology they stole 20 years ago that was at the time 30 years old. And, they don't have the engine technology to make a fourth generation, not to mention a fifth generation, fighter viable.

你们这些国家利益集团的人为什么要写这种文章?你明知道J-20和中国制造的一切一样糟糕,因为它是基于20年前他们剽窃来的技术,那是在30年前的技术了。而且,他们也没有引擎技术来制造第四代战机,更不用说第五代战机了。

 

Ralf Walter7 hours ago

It'll work OK for about a week then utterly fall apart.

它大概可以正常工作一周,然后就散架了。

 

Big Time5 hours ago

Ancient Chinese : The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step. - Lao Tzu

中国古语曰:千里之行,始于足下。——老子

 

S.Roshan Babu2 days ago

China is growing much faster. At this pace soon they will overtake US in no time

中国的进步要快得多。以这样的速度,他们很快就会超过我们

 

Kenny D5 hours ago

For the last time, China does not have a Stealth fighter. It's design is inferior to Western Aircraft. It can be seen on radar easily and there seems to be engine issues with it too.

最后说一次,中国没有隐形战机。它的设计不及西方飞机。在雷达上很容易被发现,而且它的引擎似乎也有问题。

 

Bill7 hours ago

unlikely,.. we spend the combined next 10 nations military budget for ours,...

不太可能,. .我们的军事预算可是后10个国家加起来的总和

 

Kenneth L4 hours ago

The F22 and F35 are not only next generation in design, they are next generation in thinking of the battlefield. They have the ability to be interconnected. Now the enemy is not dealing one on one as in the conventional dogfights. They will face aircraft that will be able to determine who has the best shot and take that shot before the enemy has a chance to engage. All these military hardware writers must be from Vietnam era or something. These aircraft are not designed to dogfight! That is so 1980's!!

F22和F35不仅在设计上属于新一代,在战场上也拥有新一代的战斗实力。它们有相互联系的能力。现在,常规空战不再是一对一了。他们将在敌人有机会攻击之前决定哪架飞机是最有优势的,进行攻击。这些军事作家肯定是越南时代来的吧。这些飞机不是专为空战设计的!那是80年代的事了!!

 

fredrick2 days ago

The plane is only as good as the pilot. They better bring it.

这架飞机就和飞行员一样。他们最好放马过来。

 

Koolmoedee5 hours ago

The Chinese J-20 is way under-powered do some research. It would not survive long in a dog-fight. To be honest it will probably get shot down long before a dog fight.

中国的歼-20动力不足,需要做些研究。在空战中,它撑不了多久的。说实话,它很可能在空战之前就被击落了。

 

aaron7 hours ago

Ever since Trump was elected, the media openly cheers for our enemies. It’s disgusting.

自从特朗普当选以来,媒体就公然为我们的敌人摇旗呐喊了。太恶心了。

 

Curtis C6 hours ago

Dog fighting is a dead art.. stealth and advanced radar makes it obsolete

空战已经是死亡的艺术了。隐形技术和先进的雷达已经使其没落了

 

TWMan5 hours ago

J-20 equipped with WS-15 thrust vectoring engines will be shown in public by Q3 2019.

J-20装备了WS-15推力矢量发动机,将在2019年第三季度公开展示。

 

chuck f6 hours ago

it can JUST AS SOON AS THEY FIND THE KICK STARTER

他们先找到脚踏起动器再说吧

 

John4 hours ago

I can take a Ford pinto and wrap really cool sheet metal all around it, install Lazer lights and fancy digital guages in it. And..... It's still a Ford pinto!

我可以把一辆福特车用很酷的金属薄板包起来,装上激光灯和花哨的数字显示器。但是,它还只是福特车!

 

Lee4 hours ago

Another quote: "A journey of 100 leagues is half-completed after traveling 90 leagues."

再送你们一句名言:“100里的路,走完90里也就是走了一半。”

 

Diane J6 hours ago

With all the Countries beefing up their military, planes and nukes another World War will be inevitable. (They aren't making them for show)

现在所有国家都加强了军事力量,飞机和核武器将不可避免地引发新的世界大战。(它们可不是为了炫耀而生的)

 

John9 hours ago

I am sure that question will be raised come military budget time, and the answer will be oh yeah we are in eminent danger and need to increase spending to handle this threat.

我相信这个问题会在军事预算的时候被提出来,答案会是,是的,我们处于非常危险的境地,需要增加开支来应对这一威胁。

 

m6 hours ago

The days of dog flight is over. One can even fly a WWII propeller plane but a very potent modern missile, they can make a kill over 20 miles away without even see the enemy.

空战的时代已经过去了。一个人可以驾驶二战的螺旋桨飞机,携带非常强大的现代导弹,就可以在20多英里外看不见敌人时就消灭他们。

 

n7 hours ago

It may or may not matter. If both aircraft are stealth and they work as well as the pilots described in the 5 v 1 air to air tests the 5 F15 Pilots couldn’t see them. Then the aircraft cannot see eachother when both are stealth, radar guided missiles won’t work, and the aim-9x missed in its one real engagement. They will have to visually identify enemy aircraft and use a gun. That is just sneaking up behind whoever sees the other first and shooting them in the engines.

也许能,也许不能,但这不重要。如果这两架飞机都是隐形的,而且性能和5对1空战实验中描述的飞行员一样好,那么5名F15飞行员就看不到它们了。那么当两架飞机都是隐形时,雷达制导导弹不起作用,aim-9x在真正交战中失手时,飞机就无法看到对方。他们必须目视识别敌机并使用大炮。谁先看到对方,谁就会从后面偷偷摸摸地朝他们开枪。

 

TIM6 hours ago

Seriously you have bought things made in China before right? It cant turn cant climb its underpowered made from inferior materials about as stealthy as a brick. The f35 cant climb cant turn but its made from frontline materials by front line manufacturing. It will be surrounded by f22 f15 and the American Airforce. Not to mention piloted by American Pilots. Chinas biggest threat in the air is 100 thousand suicide drones! That is going to be the air war in 10 years AI controlled drone swarms...

说真的,你以前买过中国制造的东西,对吧?它不能转弯也不能爬升,它的动力不足,是由质量低劣的材料制成的,像砖头一样悄无声息。F35不能爬升不能转弯,但它是由前线制造的最好材料。它将被F22、 F15和美国空军包围。更不用说由美国飞行员驾驶了。中国空中最大的威胁是10万架自杀式无人机!这将是10年后的空战,人工智能控制的无人机群……

 

Mr Bill2 days ago

What difference would it make, it’s never going to happen

那又有什么关系呢?那是永远不会发生的

 

FLOYD IN FLORIDA6 hours ago

More Fake news! Might, could, possibly, maybe? Just the Facts Jack!!

又是假新闻!也许,可能,大概,应该?我只要事实,杰克!!

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