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隐形战机终极PK:美国F-22猛禽VS俄罗斯苏-57,谁胜谁负

Stealth Death Match: America's F-22 Raptor vs. Russia's Su-57 (Who Wins?)

隐形战机终极PK:美国F-22猛禽VS俄罗斯苏-57(谁胜谁负?)

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Ultimately, the outcome of a Raptor versus Su-57 is an unknown. And it will likely remain an unknown for the foreseeable future. Here's why.

F-22猛禽和苏-57的对决结果是未知的在可预见的未来,这可能仍然是个未知数。原因如下:

The Russians are hoping the Su-57 sensor suite—which includes N036L-1-01 L-band radar arrays—will alert its pilots to the general vicinity of enemy fifth-generation stealth fighters such as the Raptor. Tactical fighter-sized stealth aircraft must be optimized to defeat higher-frequency bands such the C, X and Ku bands as a matter of physics. Those aircraft show up on radar operating at longer frequency wavelengths such the L-band, however, the track is not precise enough to engage a target with a missile.

俄罗斯希望包括N036L-1-01 L波段雷达阵列苏-57传感器套件能够在敌方五代隐形(如猛禽)靠近时其飞行员发出警报。根据物理学常识战术战斗机大小的隐形飞机必须经过优化,才能躲过C、X和Ku等高频波段。然而,这战机会出现在频率波长较长雷达上如L波段,跟踪不够精确,不足以导弹击中目标

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is the king of skies—it combines stealth and eye-watering kinematic performance with a power array of sensors weapons. For over a decade since the Raptor was declared operational in December 2005, the F-22 has been unquestionably the best air superiority fighter ever built.

洛克希德·马丁公司的F-22猛禽是“天空之王”,将隐身和高机动性能与与高敏感的机载传感器及先进机载武器相结合。自从猛禽战机在2005年12月宣布投入使用以来的十多年里,F-22毫无疑问是有史以来最好的空中优势战机。

But challengers are starting to appear. After emerging from its post-Soviet doldrums, Russia has developed a challenger to the mighty F-22 in the form of the Sukhoi Su-57 PAK-FA, which is scheduled to enter limited service in 2019. But does the Su-57 represent a genuine challenge to the Raptor?

不过,挑战者开始出现。从后苏联的低迷状态中走出来之后,俄罗斯已经研制出了强大F-22战机的挑战者——苏-57 PAK-FA,计划于2019年进入有限服役阶段。但苏-57对F-22猛禽来说是真正的挑战吗?

Right now, the answer is no—the initial interim operational test versions of the Su-57 are powered by modified versions of the Su-35S Flanker-E’s engines called the AL-41F1, which produce about 33,000 pounds of thrust. The engine, which runs far hotter than the original AL-31 engines from which they were originally derived, is not proving to be as reliable as initially hoped. But the current engines are only temporary; a second stage version of the PAK-FA is expected to be powered by a new engine called the izdeliye 30, which should enter service in the mid-2020s. The new engine should produce roughly 42,000lbs of thrust, and—from an aerodynamic point of view—put the Su-57 on top, particularly when combined with the aircraft 3D thrust vectoring.

目前来看,答案是否定的苏-57的初始中期运行测试版本采用苏- 35s Flanker-E的改良版发动机AL-41F1提供动力,该发动机能产生约3.3万磅的推力。这款发动机的运行温度远高于其初始版版AL-31,但事实证明,它并不像最初希望的那样可靠。但目前的发动机只是暂时的PAK-FA的第二阶段版本预计将由新引擎izdeliye 30提供动力,该发动机将在2020年中期投入使用能产生大约4.2磅的推力,并且从空气动力学的角度来看,新动力配合-57的3D推力矢量会得到比较好的高机动性能。

However, kinematic performance is not everything—even if the Su-57 might slightly edge out the Raptor once it receives its new engines. The F-22 will continue to retain the edge in terms of stealth over the Su-57, which only has a modest degree of radar cross-section reduction measures. Theoretically, with its powerful AN/APG-77 (V)1 active electronically scanned array radar, the F-22 would be able to see the Su-57 first and shoot it down with an AIM-120D AMRAAM or follow-on missile design before the Russian jet would even know it is under attack.

然而,机动性表现好并非万能即使苏-57配备引擎,机动性可能略微超过猛禽。在隐形方面,F-22将继续保持对苏-57的优势,苏-57只有适度的雷达横截面减少措施。从理论上讲,凭借强大的AN / APG-77(V)1有源电子扫描阵列雷达,F-22将能先看到Su-57并用AIM-120D AMRAAM或改进型导弹将其击落,Su-57甚至不知道自己受到攻击。

However, that is in theory—a theory that has never been put to the test. Russia has advanced electronic warfare capabilities—and its fighters are equipped with digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) jammers that can blind the AMRAAM’s active radar seeker. Moreover, while the Su-57 does incorporate some degree of forward sector radar cross section reduction, Moscow does not believe in stealth as a standalone survivability tool. The Russians prefer to use tried and true techniques such a beaming—or exploiting a pulse Doppler radar’s clutter notch to essentially disappear from enemy radar by turning 90 degrees to the direction of the enemy radar. That essentially makes the Su-57 appear as a stationary object relative to the enemy radar and is thus filtered out (pulse Doppler radar have a very difficult time with objects moving side to side). This is simply a matter of physics, there is very little an enemy can do to counter it except to adopt additional sensors—such as infrared search and track—and improve signal processing.

然而,这是一种从未经过验证的理论。俄罗斯拥有先进的电子战能力,战机配备了数字射频存储器(DRFM)干扰,可以使AMRAAM的主动雷达导引头“失明”。尽管苏-57确实包含了一定程度的前向扇形雷达横截面减,但莫斯科并不认为隐形是独立的生存性能。俄国人更倾向于使用经过验证的真实技术,比如波束——或者利用脉冲多普勒雷达的杂波陷波,通过向敌人雷达方向旋转90度,这样可以让自己从敌雷达上基本消失这基本上使得苏-57看起来像一个静止的物体,从而被过滤掉(脉冲多普勒雷达很难探测到左右移动物体)。除了采用额外的传感器(如红外搜索和跟踪)和改进信号处理外,敌几乎无能为力。

However, the L-band radar—part of the N036 Byelka radar suite—narrows the search area down so that the Su-57 can scan a smaller volume of space with its X-band N036-1-01 and N036B-1-01 active electronically scanned array apertures. The radar is further augmented with the 101KS Atoll electro-optical targeting system and the L402 Himalayas electronic countermeasure suite, which would help further refine a track from the L-band radar. The idea is that a focused search by the jet’s other sensors would result in a weapons quality track to engage a fifth-generation fighter such as a F-22. If the technique works, the Russians will have negated the Raptor’s stealth.

然而,N036 Byelka雷达套件的L波段雷达部分缩小了搜索范围,因此-57可以利用有源电子扫描阵列孔径雷达的X波段N036-1-01和N036B-1-01扫描更小的物体。该雷达进一步增加了101KS Atoll电光瞄准系统和L402喜马拉雅电子对抗套件的能力,这将有助于进一步完善L波段雷达的轨迹。其构想是,该战机的其他传感器集中搜索,有效追踪,从而与F-22等第五代战机交战。如果这项技术奏效,俄罗斯人将抹杀猛禽的隐身能力。

That means that if that whomever survives the beyond visual range engagement can meet in a visual dogfight. By the mid-2020s, both the Su-57 and the F-22 will be equipped with a helmet mounted cueing system (HMCS) and highly capable high-off boresight (HOBS) air-to-air missiles, which basically allows the pilot to shoot in the direction he is looking. In the visual arena, victory will come down which aircraft is flown by the better pilots—and frankly luck. In training exercises between aircraft equipped with the AIM-9X and a HMCS, it has been demonstrated over and over again that when both jets are equipped with HOBS missiles, it often comes down to a “mutual kill.” Luck could be the determining factor.

这意味着,如果能在超视距的战斗中幸存下来,们就能在一场视觉混战中相遇。到2020代中叶,苏-57和F-22都将装备头盔指示系统(HMCS)和高性能大离轴角发射(HOBS)空对空导弹,基本上允许飞行员朝他正在寻找的方向射击。在视觉战中由更优秀的飞行员驾驶的战机将获胜——坦白地说,是看谁的运气。在分别装备AIM-9X和HMCS的战机之间进行的训练演习中,已经一再证明,当二者都装备了大离轴角发射导弹时,结局通常是两败俱伤”。运气可能是决定因素。

Ultimately, the outcome of a Raptor versus Su-57 is an unknown. And it will likely remain an unknown for the foreseeable future.

因此,猛禽和苏-57的对决结果是未知的。在可预见的未来,这可能仍然是个未知数。

 

美国雅虎读者评论:

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46601.html   译者:Jessica.Wu

外文:https://www.yahoo.com/news/stealth-death-match-america-apos-004000354.html?tdsourcetag=s_pcqq_aiomsg

Bleekah12 hours ago

The Raptor will out perform the SU-57. Tue Raptor is also battle proven. It's reliable.

猛禽将胜过苏-57,它的战斗力经过证实,是可靠的。

 

John12 hours ago

L Band Radar uses longer wavelengths which is not precise enough to guide a missile

L波段雷达使用的波长较长,不足以精确制导导弹

Shane12 hours ago

Hands down, the F22 wins because we've been developing and training with the aircraft for almost 2 decades

毫无疑问,F-22更胜一筹毕竟经过近20年的研发和训练

 

Mreta11 hours ago

Considering the Sukhoi is a prototype whose production has been ceased, I'm going with our squadron of Raptors.

鉴于-57是一已经停的原型机,我选猛禽

 

CRAIG12 hours ago

No contest, the Su 57 is not a true stealth aircraft, not a true "5th generation" aircraft, but basically a very up graded 4th gen aircraft.

可比性,苏-57不是真正的隐形机,算不上真正的“第五代”战机,基本上是非常高级第四代机。

 

Eric11 hours ago

Russians say the new engine will be ready in the mid-2020's. We'll see about that. India withdrew from their joint development on the Su57, because of the poor engine, but also because of the wing design. Instead they bought French Raphael jets. In the meantime, Russia can't afford to develop, not to mention produce meaningful numbers of these jets. Look how much time & money it took the US to get the F35 into production. Now we're producing hundreds, and routinely getting contracts for more. Russia simply does not have adequate financial resources.

俄罗斯人说,新引擎将在2020年代中期准备就绪,那就走着瞧。印度退出了-57上的联合开发,因为引擎不好,也因为机翼的设计。相反,他们购买了法国的阵风战机此外,俄罗斯负担不起研发费用,更别提生产出数量可观的机了。看看美国花了多少时间和金钱才让F-35投入生产,现在我们生产了数百,而且还获得了越来越多的合同。俄罗斯根本没有足够的财政经费

 

William12 hours ago

Raptor wins. In most scenarios the Russian plane will be grounded for maintenance.

猛禽胜!俄罗斯战机将时不时的停飞待修

 

George12 hours ago

Russia technology is far far behind Western technology. End of story

俄罗斯的技术远远落后于西方技术。

 

John12 hours ago

well the SU-57 isnt really stealth soo... different planes for different uses

不同的战机有不同的用途苏-57不是真正的隐形战机。

 

Stanley10 hours ago

The Raptor is proven and will beat the SU-57 hands down.

猛禽经过考验,将轻而易举地击败苏-57。

 

F12 hours ago

A fighter is only as good as the pilot. As of now f22 wins hands down in the hands of a good pilot.

好战机也得配好飞行员,目前来看由优秀飞行员操控的F-22轻松获胜。

 

Scott12 hours ago

F22 has been one of the best planes ever built, end of story. Should have not been canceled. Obama wanted to save some money for the F35.

F-22是有史以来最好的机之一,就是酱紫。本不该停产的,但是奥巴马想为F-35多留点经费

 

yogajitsu12 hours ago

let's see the US spends 600 billion on defense and Russia spends 50 billion a year.

来比比国防开支美国每年花6000亿美元,俄罗斯每年花500亿美元。

 

JRobert12 hours ago

"Ultimately, the outcome of a Raptor versus Su-57 is an unknown. And it will likely remain an unknown for the foreseeable future."

The first sentence saved me the trouble of reading the entire article.

“猛禽和苏-57的对决结果是未知的。在可预见的未来,这可能仍是一个未知数。

看完第一句话就不用费时间往下看了

 

J12 hours ago

Lets not forget to thank Jimmy Carter who announced stealth techology to the world!

别忘了感谢吉米·卡特向世界宣布了隐形技术!

 

Richie5 hours ago

I don't even need to read this story to say the Raptor wins hands down at distance. American pilots are battle proven, so is the F-22. The SU-57 is not. In fact it is not battle tested. The stealth no proven. It is more of a demo aircraft than actual battle platform with only a handful made, and NO one wants to buy one.

不用看文章,我都敢说猛禽胜。美国飞行员和F-22都是经过实战考验的。苏-57不是事实上,它没有经过实战考验隐形技能也没有得到证实。它更像是一演示飞机,而不是真正战斗机而且造了几架,没人想买。

 

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