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中国古代只有四大发明,为何中国人总说自己科技很先进

In ancient China, there was nothing other than the four great inventions. Why do Chinese people always say they are advanced in science and technology?

中国古代只有四大发明中国人总说自己科技很先进?

Quora评论翻译:

Lai Jin Wei, reads a lot of books

You are wrong here. Ancient China has a history of more than 6000, 7000, or even 8000 years. Now the four inventions of China were gunpowder, printing, paper, and compasses. Below are a list of inventions the Chinese have created that are not the four great inventions.

你错了。中国古代有6000多年、7000多年、甚至8000多年的历史。中国的四大发明是火药、印刷术、造纸术和指南针。除此之外,还有:

Seismoscope

In the Han dynasty (220 B.C-202 A.D), a Chinese inventor named Zhang Heng constructed a device called a seismoscope, a device which measures earthquakes. Though it only tells where the earthquake is coming from, it lay down the foundations of the modern seismoscope.

地动仪

在汉朝(公元220年-公元202年),发明家张衡发明了一种叫做地动仪的仪器,可以测地震。虽然只能测出地震的方向,但它奠定了现代地震仪的基础。

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Oil Well

The firsts oil well is located in China, which dates back to 347 AD. The Chinese oil well reached depths of 240 meters and were made of bamboo and metal drills and bits. This invention, frequently attributed to the western world, lay down the foundations of modern oil wells and rigs.

油井

最早的油井出现在公元347年的中国,深达240米,由竹子、金属钻头和钻头制成。这项发明经常被认为是西方世界的发明,奠定了现代油井和钻井平台的基础。

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Silk

8500 years ago, legend has it that a Chinese empress discovered silk when a silk larva’s cocoon fell into her cup of tea in a mulberry grove. When she tried to remove it, she found that it extracted a long shiny thread that was flexible and strong. She found more and wove it into robes and found they were lightweight, attractive, kept heat in winter, and is airy in summer. Since then, silk became China’s source of wealth. For thousands of years, Chinese silk is one of the most prized of all treasures, as no one knew how to make them but the Chinese.

丝绸

8500年前,相传一位中国皇后在桑林里发现了蚕丝,蚕茧掉进了她的茶杯里。当她把它拿开时,发现它抽出了一条又长又亮的线,这条线既柔韧又结实。之后她找到了更多的蚕丝,把它们织成长袍,既轻薄又美观,冬天保暖,夏天透气。从那时起,丝绸成为中国的财富之源。几千年来,中国丝绸一直是所有珍宝中最珍宝,因为除了中国人,没有人知道如何制作丝绸。

译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46539.html    译者:Jessica.Wu

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Blast Furnance

Between 3000 and 1900 BC, the Chinese found a way to melt metals and create weapons so powerful that they kill in one slash. The Chinese were one of the first civilizations to harness fire and melt metals. Many metal vessels from this period still remain today.

鼓风炉

在公元前3000年到1900年之间,中国人找到了熔化金属的方法,制造出威力无比的武器。中国人是最早利用火和熔化金属的文明之一。这一时期的许多金属器皿至今仍保存着。

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There are many more inventions, like machines for mass production powered only by water and a way to stop the rusting of metal, but the list is too long for one answer.

还有更多的发明,比如仅靠水提供动力的大规模生产机械和防止金属生锈的方法,但这个清单太长了,无法一一列出。

 

Andreas Mihardja, PhD from Georg-August University of Göttingen (1969)

That China only invented the big four is for me just misinformation in the western world. People in the west only know what they have invented in second half of the first millennium and the first half of the second millenniums as their comparison standard.

在我看来,说中国只有四大发明是西方世界的错。西方人只知道他们在前一个千年的下半叶和后一个千年的上半叶发明了什么,并以此作为比较标准。

Just to compare in the field of food supply - agriculture and its industry.

我们可以拿食品供应领域--农业及其产业进行比较。

Rice culture: The use of wet rice fields, the terrace system of constructing the rice fields, the transplanting of rice [biological weed control], the irrigation system, the fermentation of rice products into wine, pest control [biological pesticide], biological fertilizing [recycling human and animal waste], the use of plow and buffaloes and many more on which knowledge the Chinese calendar holidays are based. These knowledge were already in use 3000 BCE or older. Without this invention - the world don’t consume rice and rice products and the Asian continent will have nothing to eat.

水稻栽培:湿稻田、梯田、水稻移植[杂草生物防治]、灌溉系统、大米酿酒、害虫防治[生物农药]、生物施肥[回收利用人畜排泄物]、犁和耕牛、节气知识等等,早在公元前3000年或更早的时候中国就已经利用这些东西了。如果没有水稻栽培这项发明,大家就吃不上大米和大米制品,亚洲大陆就没东西可吃了。

The cultivation of soybean originated around the same period as rice and the production of soymilk, the doufu and soybean cooking oil was at least a millnnium before the CE era. The archeological evidence of soybean cultivation was found in the 11th century BCE and must be in cultivation long before. [Written in Shen Nung annals]

大豆种植起源于与水稻相同的时期,豆浆、豆腐和大豆油至少在公元前四世纪以前就有了。大豆栽培的考古佐证追溯于公元前11世纪,在那很久以前就开始栽培大豆了。

The production of millet in the northern part of China and the production of millet noodles was also found a millennium before CE. [The used of Wheat flour is not from China but from central Asia - the Hindukush region]

中国北方的小米和面条也在公元前一千年就有了。[使用的小麦粉不是来自中国,而是来自中亚——兴都库什地区]

The evidence of the domestication of our chicken was found around 10 millenniums BCE This was found in the central plains around the Yellow river basin. The gen pool of Gallus gallus [=chicken]. Next to it, the domestication of pigs was around the 6th millennium BCE, and of course the water buffalo for the rice culture.

鸡驯养在公元前1万年左右就开始了,这是在黄河流域的中原地区发现的。养猪以及在水稻栽培中使用耕牛大约是在公元前6000年左右开始。

There is also evidence of drilling equipment for drilling 100’s of meter deep. they used the rotation movements by using cattle and the vertical drilling by jumping on the drill. They have been using this for their clean drinking water supply and also for petroleum [natural oil]

还有证据表明,古代中国有100米深的钻井设备,用牛拉动,一直以来他们以此来获得清洁的饮用水和石油(天然石油)。

In the field of business or trade, China has the oldest banking system. Cheque for transporting wealth over long distance is done by paper money. [Coins and silver or gold bullion are dangerous to transport - remember Marco Polo wrote about it]. The abacus was the computer system since ages until even the second world war. This meant that the decimal counting systems was already in used more than 3 millenniums ago. Proof of the used could be observed in the Chinese counting boards, since the era of the yellow emperor. It is proven that the Persian decimal system came from the Chinese. The simplified writing of counting was however invented by the people from old Persia incl. modern mathematics [algebra]. Europe was starting to used the decimal around the time of the crusades. Before that era European people was still counting in dozens [bible - Sumerian era] and could not describe thousands or millions while Chinese already could used their 10 000 units counting system [萬].

在商业或贸易领域,中国拥有最古老的银行体系。用于长途携带财富的支票是纸币。[硬币。银条或金条都不安全,关于这点我记得马可波罗写过]。算盘自古以来就是计算系统,直到第二次世界大战。这意味着十进位计数系统在3000多年前就已经在使用了。有证据表明,从黄帝时代就开始使用算盘了。波斯十进制是从中国传入的,然而,古代波斯人发明了简化的计数法,包括现代数学[代数]。欧洲在十字军东征时期开始使用小数点。在此之前,欧洲人仍然只能计算到数十(圣经——苏美尔时期),不能计算成千上万,而中国已经可以能使用以万为单位的计数系统[萬]。

We could find many more things that was invented in China and that we now accepted as granted and even believe it was a western invention. Just remember western civilization in Europe came after the crusades, when the serfs and slaves were becoming free people and the middle class started to develop. [people tend to forget history]

还有很多的东西都是中国发明的,而且我们现在却认为这是理所当然的,甚至认为这是西方发明。请记住,欧洲的西方文明是在十字军东征之后出现的,那时农奴和奴隶正获得自由,中产阶级开始发展。[人们总是容易忘记历史]

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