三泰虎

黎明报: 巴斯斯坦如何向中国学习

Learning from China?

向中国学习?

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IN a couple of recent public comments, Prime Minister Imran Khan referred to drawing lessons from China. Can we learn from China, given the uniqueness of its historical experience, cultural and civilisational outlook, political discipline and command economy of a one-party system and national cohesion? Are there areas where China’s example offers relevance?

在最近的几次公开评论中,伊姆兰汗总理提到了借鉴中国经验。鉴于中国独特的历史经验、文化文明观念、以及民族凝聚力,我们能向中国学习吗?中国在哪些领域的例子值得借鉴?

China’s experience of the last century has no parallel. The intellectual fervour and debate for national revival and renaissance gripping China’s urban centres at the turn of the 19th century appeared richer than what I observe in present-day Pakistan.

中国上个世纪的经验是无法借鉴的。19世纪初席卷中国城市中心的民族复兴的学术热情和辩论,似乎比我在今天的巴基斯坦看到的更为丰富

The first 15 years of the Chinese revolution brought about four major accomplishments: universal education, female participation in the workforce, organised employment of population, and above all, changing the traditional mindset of the masses to instil a confidence that they were the masters of their own destiny. They can ‘move mountains’, and there was an inexorable progression in human affairs. Compare this to the confusion and crisis that pervade minds in Pakistan. For models, we look backwards, and not forward.

中国革命的前15年取得了四项重大成就:普及教育、妇女参与劳动、有组织的人口就业、还有最重要的一点是改变了群众的传统观念,让他们相信自己能主宰自己的命运,他们能“移山”,这是人类事务中一个不可阻挡的进程。相比之下,巴基斯坦人头脑中弥漫着混乱和危机。对于一些模式,我们总是在回顾过去,而不是向前看。

Deng built on the four accomplishments of the revolution and reoriented society with calls for the ‘Four Modernisations’ and ‘Opening to the West’, and thus set the course for the miracle of China’s rise. Never before has a human society achieved so much development within the span of one generation.

在革命和社会转型的四大成就基础上,倡导“四个现代化”和“对外开放”,为中国崛起的奇迹指明了方向。社会在一代人的时间里取得了前所未有的发展。

In 2003, a Chinese minister told me that there were more than 40,000 US-Chinese joint ventures operating in the country. Today, nearly 400,000 Chinese students are attending American universities mostly to study the sciences. China has been the top beneficiary of globalisation. Such open interaction demands self-confidence and vision at the national level which will be resisted in Pakistan by our increasingly xenophobic security, religious and social concerns.

2003年,一位中国部长告诉我,有4万多家美中合资企业在中国运营。如今,近40万中国学生进入美国大学,主要是学习理科。中国一直是全球化的最大受益者。这种开放的互动需要国家级的自信和远见,而在巴基斯坦这将受到我们日益排外的安全、宗教和社会问题的抵制。

Imran Khan has a charisma untainted by co ption. This asset by itself will not measure up to the challenge of a transformation of the quality of China’s experience. But his motivational appeal can help shape a signature contribution in setting the direction for the normal functioning of the country that frees the energy of the people for progress, development and a better future. Here one can find some relevance in the early experience of China.

伊姆兰汗的拥有未被附败玷污的个人魅力。这种资产本身无法应对中国经历的质量转型的挑战。但是,他的激励性呼吁可以帮助形成一种标志性的贡献,为国家的正常运作指明方向,使人民的精力用于进步、发展和更美好的未来。在这方面,可以从中国早期的经历中找到一些关联。

Just to illustrate the point, the decade of the 1950s saw mass mobilisation in China to construct reservoirs, canals, aqueducts and embankments to overcome the twin menace of cyclical droughts and floods, and to ensure food security. Simultaneously, there were campaigns for literacy, agricultural organisation and population planning. These efforts involved both the party cadres and the Peoples Liberation Army.

为了说明这一点,在20世纪50年代,中国大规模动员建造水库、运河、高架渠和堤坝,以克服周期性干旱和洪水的双重威胁,并确保粮食安全。与此同时,还开展了扫盲、农业组织和人口规划运动。这些努力包含了党的干部和解放军的参与。

The PTI agenda includes many sound plans. However, for clarity it is well worth pointing to a few ideas for directions which can have a consequential long-term impact for the good of society.

正义运动党的议程包括许多合理的计划。然而,为了清晰起见,我们很有必要指出一些对社会有益的长远影响的方向。

Purposeful universal education can be one goal. This will require large-scale teacher training and upgradation of primary and secondary schools with an emphasis on science and technology and civic responsibility. I was delighted to visit in Islamabad two campuses of The Science School, with commendable standards, started with individual initiative and go nment help. Madressahs need to teach science and skills so that the three million enrolled students can have an opportunity to participate in national development.

第一,有目的的普及教育可以是一个目标。这需要大规模的教师培训和中小学的升级,强调科学技术和公民责任。我很高兴在ysl堡参观了理学院的两个校区,它们的标准值得称赞,这两个校区是在个人主动行动和政府帮助下开始的。ysl学校需要教授科学和技能,以便300万在校学生有机会参与国家发展。

The second is large-scale grass-root water management encompassing small-scale reservoirs, water filtration and treatment plants, clean water, cleansing and dredging of waterways and drainage. We need to modernise the usage of water in the agricultural sector which will also boost the allied low-tech industries. Speaking of agriculture, I recall from years ago a response to my query by a pioneering Belgian investor who said, “Ambassador, have you seen the physical map of the world? How many places can you find on the map with such vast stretch of plains and availability of water? I have risked my capital because I see great potential in your country.”

第二,大规模的基层水管理,包括小型水库、水过滤处理厂、净水、排水沟的清洗和疏浚。我们需要使农业用水现代化,这也将促进低技术产业的发展。谈到农业,我回想起多年前一位比利时先驱投资者回答我的问题时说:“大使先生,你看到世界的实物地图了吗?你能在地图上找到多少地方有如此广阔的平原和水源?我已拿我的资本冒险,因为我看到了贵国的巨大潜力。”

Third, afforestation and environmental awareness have become an imperative for coping with future challenges such as climate change. The PTI has plans for countrywide tree plantation and clean neighbourhoods. Clean renewable energy, including cascade power generation, ought to be integral to this effort.

第三,植树造林和提高环保意识已成为应对气候变化等未来挑战的当务之急。正义运动党计划在全国范围内种植树木并清理居民区。可再生清洁能源,包括梯级发电,也是不可或缺的一部分。

We can add to this catalogue and draw upon a wealth of practical experience from China and other countries. Progress in these sectors essentially depends on education and mobilisation of resources at the local levels rather than on foreign inputs and high-tech. The effort will generate employment and can dovetail into any go nment developmental plans. It is not a substitute for mega projects or FDI or for setting up industrial zones under CPEC or reforms for improved governance. It is also not under discussion that China is the most reliable source of investment and advanced technology for Pakistan.

我们可以增添其它方面,吸取来自中国和其他国家的丰富实践经验。这些领域的进展基本上取决于教育和地方一级资源的调动,而不是外国投入和高科技。这一努力将创造就业机会,并与政府的任何发展计划相吻合。它不是大型项目或外国直接投资的替代品,也不是在中巴经济走廊或改善治理的改革下建立工业区的替代品。也不是在讨论中国是巴基斯坦最可靠的投资和先进技术来源。

There is a caveat, however, to achieve any of this. We must help stabilise Afghanistan where the conflict is not only destroying that country but continually debilitating Pakistan too. Also, with prudence and firmness, we must counter fanaticism, obscurantism and militancy which, regardless of the professed motives, inflict the greatest damage on the host society.

然而,要做到这一点,有一个警告。我们必须帮助稳定阿富汗局势。阿富汗的冲突不仅在摧毁这个国家,而且还在不断削弱巴基斯坦。此外,我们必须谨慎和坚定地反对狂热、蒙昧主义和好战主义,因为它们无论声称的动机如何,都对东道国社会造成最大的破坏。

The writer is an author and a former foreign secretary.

Published in Dawn, September 25th, 2018

本文作者是一位作家和前外交秘书。

2018年9月25日发布于《黎明报》

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巴基斯坦黎明报读者评论:

来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46146.html  译者:Jessica.Wu

SkS

The last few lines in the concluding part seem to be panacea for the nation's long standing ills.

最后几句话似乎是这个国家长期顽疾的灵丹妙药。

 

Praveen

Be careful for what you wish for.

当心事与愿违

 

ravi vancouver

Very good article. Comparison between China and Pakistan is futile because China give no importance to religion whereas in Pakistan Religion has topmost importance. Rigid lines between different sects makes thing even more complicated. For all Pakistanis to make progress to gether religion and politics hasto be sparated, for which Pakistanis have to prepare themselves.

很好的文章。拿中国和巴基斯坦相比是没有意义的,因为中国不重视宗教,而在巴基斯坦,宗教是最重要的。不同教派之间的刚性线条使事情变得更加复杂。为了让所有巴基斯坦人都能在宗教和政治上取得进步,必须要有所节制,为此巴基斯坦人必须做好准备。

 

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