三泰虎

中国是如何从一个农业大国一跃成为世界领先大国的

How did China's economy skyrocketed from an agricultural state to a world-leading giant?

中国经济是如何从一个农业大国一跃成为世界领先大国的?

 timg.jpg

Quora评论翻译:

来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46037.html    译者:Jessica.Wu

Adnan Khan, Geopolitical Analyst

China achieved this by realising a few things in the 1970’s:

中国实现了这一跨越是因为它在20世纪70年代就意识到一些问题:

The realization that China possessed many of strengths needed to become a global superpower. It had the agrarian land to be self-sufficient in its food supply. If managed properly, such strengths combined could give China the financial ability to develop

意识到中国拥有成为全球超级大国所需的许多优势。其耕地广袤,可以生产自给自足的粮食。如果管理得当,将这些优势结合起来,可使中国具备发展的财力。

The realization that China would never achieve its potential if it did not increase its knowledge base.

意识到如果不增强其知识基础,中国就永远无法实现其潜力。

The realization that its population, and in particular the growth of its population, could become the nation’s Achilles heal. If China’s population growth was not matched with economic growth and employment then the resulting mass unemployment would cause mass poverty, civil unrest

意识到人口,尤其是人口的增长,可能成为这个国家的致命弱点。如果中国的人口增长与经济增长和就业不匹配,那么随之而来的大规模失业将导致大规模贫困、动荡。

This comprehensive analysis of China’s state of affairs was translated into policy in 1979 and saw the birth of China’s ‘open door’ economic policy that led to rapid economic development. China’s ‘open door’ economic policy gradually opened up China’s economy to foreign companies in a process well controlled by the Communist Party.

对中国事态的全面分析在1979年被制定成政策,见证了中国“开放”经济政策的诞生,这一政策促成了经济的快速发展。中国的“门户开放”经济政策使得中国经济逐渐向外国公司开放济,而且这一过程受到了很好的控制。

The key features of this model were:

该模式的主要特点是:

China created Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in the coastal Guangdong and Fujian provinces, that were designed to attract foreign investment in low-end manufacturing by offering cheap land, labour and a variety of tax and other incentives. This turned China into an export oriented economy and dependent on foreign countries to continue importing from it. The hope was in the future the coastal cities would lead to the development of China’s interior. For most of the last 30 years, these coastal clusters acted as Beijing’s experimental and carefully monitored interface with the outside world.

中国在沿海省份广东和福建设立了经济特区,旨在通过提供廉价的土地、劳动力以及各种税收和其它激励措施,吸引外资进入低端制造业。这使中国变成了一个出口导向型经济,并依赖外国持续从中国进口。期望未来沿海城市能带动中国内陆的发展。在过去30年的大部分时间里,这些沿海集群充当了北京与外界的试验性的接口。

The value of the Yuan, low wages and cheap exports were all controlled by the co unist party to placate the Chinese population. To make Chinese goods more attractive than Japanese and German goods, the Chinese go nment controlled the value of the exchange rate of its currency with the world, rather than let it float freely. China kept the value of its currency artificially low, which made it cheaper to purchase consumer goods – far cheaper for the world than anyone else. By China undercutting the world, aside from keeping Chinese factories open, this also meant most Chinese citizens had a job. Chinese factories made little profits on the goods they export, due to the low exchange rate the potential profit is lost. According to the Chinese Ministry of Finance, Chinese profits on their exports are about 1.7%.

人民币的价值、低工资和廉价出口都被控制。为了让中国商品比日本和德国商品更具吸引力,中国控制了人民币对世界的汇率,而不是让人民币自由浮动。中国人为压低了人民币汇率,使得购买消费品的成本更低——比其他任何国家都要低得多。通过削以低价弱世界其他地区的竞争力,除了保持中国工厂的开放,这也意味着大多数中国公民有工作。中国工厂出口商品几乎没有利润,因为低汇率导致潜在的利润损失。根据中国财政部的数据,中国的出口利润约为1.7%。

At the heart of China’s economic development has been the nation’s banking system. The nation’s large savings were funnelled through banks to firms through subsidized rates. In order to qualify for such loans firms were required to maintain high employment (in order to maintain social cohesion), rates of return on capital, building brands, customer service and profit played no part of this process.

中国经济发展的核心是银行体系。国家的大量储蓄通过银行以补贴利率流入企业。为了有资格获得这类贷款,公司必须保持高就业率(为了保持社会凝聚力)、资本回报率、建立品牌,在这一过程中客户服务和利润没有起到任何作用。。

China’s growth also came from both huge state investment in infrastructure and heavy industry. 159 large State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), provide the key inputs from utilities, heavy industries and energy resources that facilitate the private sector. The aggressive outward investment strategy, driven by SOEs and state banks with massive pools of cash allowed China to spread across the world looking to expand markets, employ services and buy up resources.

中国的增长还得益于国家对基础设施和重工业的巨额投资。159家大型国有企业,提供了公用事业、重工业和能源资源的关键投入,而这些资源恰恰为私营企业提供了便利。在国有企业和国有银行的大力推动下,加上拥有庞大的现金储备,中国采取了积极的对外投资战略,这使中国得以在世界各地扩大市场、聘用服务和购买资源。

 

Arman Siani, Engineer, Entrepreneur, Traveler

To be pithy, the following reasons:

ŸA go nment that’s more meritocratic than ideological..

ŸA massive population with a high average IQ (higher than Western Europe and the US).

ŸA work culture that prioritizes hard work. China is a dog-eat-dog world which is hypercompetitive and the Chinese are absolutely aware that no one would cut them any slack and there are no free meals.

简而言之,出于以下原因:

以精英管理为主导的政府。

平均智商高的庞大人口(高于西欧和美国)。

注重努力工作的工作文化。中国是一个竞争极其激烈的国家,中国人绝对清楚天下没有免费的午餐,没人能让他们松懈。

 

Jason Wills-Starin, Former CTO, Software Developer, Writer, Gardener, Eccentric, Aspie

They didn't, they really didn't.

他们并没有一跃成为世界领先大国

China was wrecked by WW2 and colonialism before it. The issue is, China actually has recovered from disasters dozens of times to become the most powerful nation on the planet. The Glorious Revolution was a disaster, and by 1970, China and Russia weren't even really friends. In 1979, China fought a war with Vietnam, and they'd been the best of allies.

中国在第二次世界大战和之前的殖民统治下遭到了破坏。中国实际上已经从灾难中恢复了几十次,成为世界上最强大的国家。英国的光荣革命是一场灾难,到1970年,中国和俄罗斯甚至还不是真正的朋友。1979年,中国与越南打了一场战争,他们曾是最好的盟友。

China watched India growing Dwarf Wheat, buying American tractors and Taiwan, Japan and South Korea growing and thriving, while 60% of China had to work in the fields to feed the nation.

中国看着印度种植矮秆小麦,购买美国拖拉机,台湾,日本和韩国发展繁荣,而中国60%的人口不得不在地里干活养活国家。

Next, they harnessed the rivers for power Dams reached 20GW by 1980, and with that much power, you can run cities.

接下来,他们利用河流建造水电站,到1980年发电量达到20亿瓦,有了这么多的电力,就可以让城市运转了。

They opened up to the West, admittedly on their terms. 1978 was the year the door opened, but by 1982 the Chinese marketplace was opened. They could buy gold to cover currency swaps, buy industrial equipment from the East and West, and build for the Japanese who were on a bull run.

他们向西方开放,当然是按照他们的条件。1978年,中国打开了大门,到了1982年,中国市场也开放了。他们购买黄金来进行货币互换,从西方购买工业设备,并为那些处于牛市的日本人建造房屋。

How did they do it? They disrupted and replaced huge chunks of the revolution with a shrewd pass at Mercantilism and Growth Capitalism.

他们是怎么做到的?他们用精明的重商主义和增长资本主义来取代改革。

 

三泰虎原创译文,禁止转载!:首页 > 美国 » 中国是如何从一个农业大国一跃成为世界领先大国的

()
分享到: