三泰虎

为什么印度的经济发展速度比中国慢?

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来源:三泰虎 译者:Joyceliu

外文链接:https://www.quora.com/Why-is-India-progressing-so-slow-economically-compared-to-China

Ray Comeau, A decade in China, interest in geopolitics

I will outline the fundamental cause to your question.

Some things that impact long term national growth:

我来大概回答一下这个问题的根本原因。

一些影响国家长期增长的因素,具体如下:

Type of Society or Nation

社会或国家的类型

Homogeneous societies are more stable then heterogeneous ones, where internal conflicts arise at the foundation.

同质社会比多元社会更稳定,因为多元社会会从根本上产生内部冲突。

We can call a homogeneous society a “Nation”.

我们可以把同质社会称为“民族”。

This is a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific area and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity beliefs, and customs. A nation is a cultural entity.

这是一个具有文化特色的群体,他们占据着一个特定的区域,通过共同的种族信仰和习俗而产生的团结感而联系在一起。一个民族就是一个文化实体。

Whereas a “State” is an internally self-governing territory or political unit constituting a federation under one go nment. A state is a political entity.

而“国家”则是在一个政府下组成联邦的内部自治领土或政治单位。国家是一个政治实体。

Then we have Nation States ……. The unification of a cultural entity with a political entity.

然后是民族国家……文化实体与政治实体的统一。

China is a Nation State. a homogeneous society functioning within a self-governing territory. Same thing for France, Iceland, Italy, etc.

中国是一个民族国家。在自治领土内运作的同质社会。法国、冰岛、意大利等国也是如此。

India is a political entity. It is a “state”, which fuses together many cultures and functions with 22 official languages, while 100’s exist within the country.

印度是一个政治实体。它是一个“国家”,它融合了22种官方语言的多种文化和职能,而印度国内还有100种语言存在。

Just based on the above …… you can see the difference of how each country began to set its own direction in 1950.

基于以上,你可以看出这两个国家在1950年开始制定的发展方向的不同之处。

India had to deal with the issues of a huge heterogeneous population while trying to create a democratic form of go nment.

印度必须在努力建立皿煮政府的同时,解决大量的多元人口问题。

As for China, once the decades of war both civil and fighting Japan was over, China could move on in general unity towards a common goal of rebuilding.

至于中国,在经历了几十年的内战和抗日战争之后,中国可以团结一致,朝着共同的重建目标前进。

 

In democracies national policies tend to bounce around with new leadership every 5 to 10 years, and competing ideologies of political parties.

在皿煮国家,国家政策往往每隔5到10年就会随着新的领导阶层的出现而反复,政党意识形态也会相互竞争。

India started out with socialism for a while, then moved into a different direction, all the while seeking to please voters with different and conflicting expectations.

印度从社会主义起步,经历了一段时间,然后转向了不同的方向,一直试图用不同的、相互矛盾的预期来取悦选民。

In Summary:

总而言之:

India chose a much more complicated form of governance at time of independence.

印度在独立时选择了一种更为复杂的治理形式。

Installing a democracy resulted in taking time to sort out national issues, the complications of creating the political structure India wanted, trying socialism, developing the reservation system, the geo-political strategy of non-alignment movement, etc, etc.

建立皿煮制度的结果是需要花时间来解决国家问题,建立印度想要的政治结构的复杂性,尝试社会主义,发展保留制度,不结盟运动的地缘政治战略等等。

India’s pace of advancement since 1950 is not due to economical factors since India and China were nearly identical in 1950, it is due to political issues in governing a heterogeneous society that demands different and sometime contrary expectations.

印度自1950年以来的进步速度不是由于经济因素,因为印度和中国在1950年几乎是一样的,而是由于管理一个多元社会的政治问题需要不同的,有时是相反的预期。

Example - In China secular laws covers all citizens and is the dominant law of the land. This means things like right of gender equality cannot be undermined by religious belief or custom.

在中国,世俗法律覆盖所有公民,是国家的主导法律。这意味着男女平权不会被宗教信仰或习俗所破坏。

India on the other hand has created laws like the right to be governed by religious personal laws which conflicts/undermines secular laws ,,,,,and likely impacts India on how many women are in the labour force ……. which is one factor in long term economics.

另一方面,印度制定了法律,如受宗教个人法管辖的权利,这些法律会对世俗法律产生冲突和破坏,并可能影响到印度劳动力中的妇女比例……这是长期经济学的一个因素。

Mike Eisler, Frequent flyer

India's economic growth rate is about one percent behind China.

印度的经济增长率大约比中国低1%。

India being a democracy has to listen to all points of views which slows progress. If you visit India enough times you will find random days of the week where the office is shut down because of street protests. In China this would be unthinkable.

作为一个皿煮国家,印度必须听取所有阻挠进步的观点。如果你访问印度的次数足够多,你会发现每周有几天都会因为街头抗议而导致政府机关关门。在中国,这是根本不可想象的。

India does stupid things at times. Like replacing its currency notes and turning the old notes into worthless paper.

印度有时会做傻事。比如换掉纸币,把旧纸币变成一堆废纸。

In my experience, foreign investors give their local managers too much control and this impedes growth. For example, I once gave a technical presentation in India and afterword two university students approached me and asked me if my employer was hiring in India. Naively I replied of course and received their resumes via email. Then I gave these resumes to several managers in India. And was told we could not hire them, no matter how qualified, because of exclusivity agreements we had with certain universities. These two resumes were from students not on the list. It turned out that our "exclusive" relationship was one sided. Our company was not allowed to recruit at the certain universities until several days after other companies and so we were getting slim pickings.

以我的经验来看,外国投资者对本土基金管理层的控制力过大,这阻碍了它们的增长。例如,我曾经在印度做过一次技术演示,两个大学生随后找到我,问我的雇主是否在印度招聘。当然,我天真地回了信,并通过电子邮件收到了他们的简历。然后我把这些简历给了印度的几位经理。却被他们告知,不管他们有多优秀,我们都不能雇佣他们,因为我们与某些大学签订了排他性协议。这两份简历是来自名单之外的学生。事实证明,我们的“排他性”关系是片面的。我们公司要比其他公司晚几天才被允许在某些大学招聘,所以我们得到的机会很少。

Meanwhile highly qualified and motivated candidates from other universities were ignored.

与此同时,来自其他大学的高素质和积极的候选人被忽略了。

India is far behind China in approving business visas. As an architect supervising the activities of a 100 or so engineers in India, I visited several times a year and India would rarely grant me a multi entry visa good for more than a year and it would require months to be processed.

印度在商务签证的审批方面远远落后于中国。作为一名在印度监督100个多个项目工程的建筑师,我每年都要去几次,而印度很少会给我一年以上的多次入境签证,而且签证审批需要几个月的时间。

Compare this to China where one gets business visas approved and returned in 72 hours or less. Now China has transit without visa which lets one exit the airport for 72 hours or more and India is playing around with electronic tourist visas.

相比之下,在中国,商务签证在72小时或更短的时间内就能获得批准并寄回。现在通过中国转机无需签证,一个人可以在机场停留72小时或更长时间,而印度则开始玩转电子旅游签证。

If I were in charge of where to invest my employer's research and development dollars, India would not be on my list. I would pick a country that was motivated to do business for my benefit.

如果由我决定要把雇主的研发资金投资到哪里,印度绝不在我的考虑范围之列。我会选择一个愿意为了我的利益做生意的国家。

Neena Kumtakar, domain investor, engineer

India is making slow progress because the leaders lack vision, honesty and humanity with co ption,nepotism,hypocrisy, poor status of women, inefficiency and casteism rampant.

印度进步缓慢是因为领导人缺乏远见、不诚实、没人性、附败、搞裙带关系、虚伪、妇女地位低下、效率低下和种姓制度猖獗。

Sandeepan Bose, Electronics Engineer, used to fix Mainframe Hardware, now jobless

Democracy is a big distraction for a country like India which has such huge diversity of its people. The stakeholders find it difficult to be politically right while politicians are interested in keeping the votes.

对于像印度这样人口众多的国家来说,皿煮是一个很大的干扰。当政客们对保留选票感兴趣时,利益相关者发现很难做到政治正确。

A smaller country like Nippon could come back like a spring because it is possible to manage the expectations of a small group of people , not very diverse.

像日本这样的小国可能会像春天一样再次充满活力,因为管理一小群人的期望还是容易办到的事。

Kamal Padam, Co Founder (2010-present)

The growth rates are nearly equal. But in absolute figures, China is growing a three times faster because they are that much bigger.

两个国家的增长率几乎相等。但从绝对数字来看,中国的增长速度是美国的三倍,因为中国的经济规模要大得多。

India opened up its economy in 1992, while China did so in 1978. India cannot build a Three Gorges project displacing a million families, the go nment will get thrown out in the next elections.

印度在1992年开放经济,中国在1978年开放。。印度不能建设三峡工程,让一百万家庭流离失所,否则政府会在下次选举中被赶下台。

Indians have the constitutionally guaranteed right to property. Feudal land holdings were re-distributed to cultivators after independence. China de-collectivized its agriculture, but cultivators only have tilling rights, not ownership of the land.

印度人拥有宪法保障的财产权。独立后,封建土地又重新分配给耕耘者。中国取消了农业集团化,但耕种者只有耕种权,没有土地所有权。

Salman Iqbal

I won't give a list of the factors that negatively affect India. The reason for my reluctance to offer a list is that many of those factors are also present in my country. Hence those people amongst the Indians who believe themselves to be very patriotic can come up with the naive response that I'm biased against India, and am unable to see what's wrong with my own country. Actually I'll be happier if the two neighbours are able to come to better terms between themselves, and reach their respective economic goals.

我不会列出对印度有负面影响的因素。我不愿提供这份清单的原因是,在中国也存在许多这些因素。因此,那些认为自己非常爱国的印度人可能会天真地回答说,我对印度有偏见,我看不出我自己的国家有什么问题。事实上,如果两个邻居能够达成更好的协议,并实现各自的经济目标,我会更高兴。

I'll just mention one factor here that I'm more concerned about.

我在这里只提一个我更关心的因素。

A nation achieves greater economic progress if all of its members are enabled to contribute to national progress. In India, however, there is a large segment of the population, consisting of Indian Muslims and the Dalits (formerly called Achhut, untouchable), that on average lags behind the average of the majority community of India. These people are held back by prejudices of various kinds that go against them, not by law or the Indian constitution.

如果一个国家的所有成员都能够为国家的进步做出贡献,那么这个国家就会取得更大的经济进步。然而,在印度,有很大一部分人口,包括印度和达利特人(以前称为阿克胡特人,贱民),他们的平均水平落后于印度大多数社区。这些人受到各种反对他们的偏见的阻碍,而不是法律或印度宪法。

Their participation in the mainstream will help to speed up India's progress. China is far more realistic as a society, and is thus able to advance more rapidly towards its due place in the nations of the world.

他们若加入主流社会,必将有助于加速印度的进步。中国作为一个社会要实事求是得多,因此能够更快地在世界各国中取得应有的地位。

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