Ray Comeau, A decade in China, interest in geopolitics
I will outline the fundamental cause to your question.
Some things that impact long term national growth:
Type of Society or Nation
Homogeneous societies are more stable then heterogeneous ones, where internal conflicts arise at the foundation.
We can call a homogeneous society a “Nation”.
This is a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific area and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity beliefs, and customs. A nation is a cultural entity.
Whereas a “State” is an internally self-governing territory or political unit constituting a federation under one go nment. A state is a political entity.
Then we have Nation States ……. The unification of a cultural entity with a political entity.
China is a Nation State. a homogeneous society functioning within a self-governing territory. Same thing for France, Iceland, Italy, etc.
India is a political entity. It is a “state”, which fuses together many cultures and functions with 22 official languages, while 100’s exist within the country.
Just based on the above …… you can see the difference of how each country began to set its own direction in 1950.
India had to deal with the issues of a huge heterogeneous population while trying to create a democratic form of go nment.
As for China, once the decades of war both civil and fighting Japan was over, China could move on in general unity towards a common goal of rebuilding.
In democracies national policies tend to bounce around with new leadership every 5 to 10 years, and competing ideologies of political parties.
India started out with socialism for a while, then moved into a different direction, all the while seeking to please voters with different and conflicting expectations.
India chose a much more complicated form of governance at time of independence.
Installing a democracy resulted in taking time to sort out national issues, the complications of creating the political structure India wanted, trying socialism, developing the reservation system, the geo-political strategy of non-alignment movement, etc, etc.
India’s pace of advancement since 1950 is not due to economical factors since India and China were nearly identical in 1950, it is due to political issues in governing a heterogeneous society that demands different and sometime contrary expectations.
Example - In China secular laws covers all citizens and is the dominant law of the land. This means things like right of gender equality cannot be undermined by religious belief or custom.
India on the other hand has created laws like the right to be governed by religious personal laws which conflicts/undermines secular laws ,,,,,and likely impacts India on how many women are in the labour force ……. which is one factor in long term economics.
Mike Eisler, Frequent flyer
India's economic growth rate is about one percent behind China.
India being a democracy has to listen to all points of views which slows progress. If you visit India enough times you will find random days of the week where the office is shut down because of street protests. In China this would be unthinkable.
India does stupid things at times. Like replacing its currency notes and turning the old notes into worthless paper.
In my experience, foreign investors give their local managers too much control and this impedes growth. For example, I once gave a technical presentation in India and afterword two university students approached me and asked me if my employer was hiring in India. Naively I replied of course and received their resumes via email. Then I gave these resumes to several managers in India. And was told we could not hire them, no matter how qualified, because of exclusivity agreements we had with certain universities. These two resumes were from students not on the list. It turned out that our "exclusive" relationship was one sided. Our company was not allowed to recruit at the certain universities until several days after other companies and so we were getting slim pickings.
Meanwhile highly qualified and motivated candidates from other universities were ignored.
India is far behind China in approving business visas. As an architect supervising the activities of a 100 or so engineers in India, I visited several times a year and India would rarely grant me a multi entry visa good for more than a year and it would require months to be processed.
Compare this to China where one gets business visas approved and returned in 72 hours or less. Now China has transit without visa which lets one exit the airport for 72 hours or more and India is playing around with electronic tourist visas.
If I were in charge of where to invest my employer's research and development dollars, India would not be on my list. I would pick a country that was motivated to do business for my benefit.
Neena Kumtakar, domain investor, engineer
India is making slow progress because the leaders lack vision, honesty and humanity with co ption,nepotism,hypocrisy, poor status of women, inefficiency and casteism rampant.
Sandeepan Bose, Electronics Engineer, used to fix Mainframe Hardware, now jobless
Democracy is a big distraction for a country like India which has such huge diversity of its people. The stakeholders find it difficult to be politically right while politicians are interested in keeping the votes.
A smaller country like Nippon could come back like a spring because it is possible to manage the expectations of a small group of people , not very diverse.
Kamal Padam, Co Founder (2010-present)
The growth rates are nearly equal. But in absolute figures, China is growing a three times faster because they are that much bigger.
India opened up its economy in 1992, while China did so in 1978. India cannot build a Three Gorges project displacing a million families, the go nment will get thrown out in the next elections.
Indians have the constitutionally guaranteed right to property. Feudal land holdings were re-distributed to cultivators after independence. China de-collectivized its agriculture, but cultivators only have tilling rights, not ownership of the land.
I won't give a list of the factors that negatively affect India. The reason for my reluctance to offer a list is that many of those factors are also present in my country. Hence those people amongst the Indians who believe themselves to be very patriotic can come up with the naive response that I'm biased against India, and am unable to see what's wrong with my own country. Actually I'll be happier if the two neighbours are able to come to better terms between themselves, and reach their respective economic goals.
I'll just mention one factor here that I'm more concerned about.
A nation achieves greater economic progress if all of its members are enabled to contribute to national progress. In India, however, there is a large segment of the population, consisting of Indian Muslims and the Dalits (formerly called Achhut, untouchable), that on average lags behind the average of the majority community of India. These people are held back by prejudices of various kinds that go against them, not by law or the Indian constitution.
Their participation in the mainstream will help to speed up India's progress. China is far more realistic as a society, and is thus able to advance more rapidly towards its due place in the nations of the world.