三泰虎

中国加工每台iPhone能赚上8.46美元,这就是美国贸易战徒劳无功的原因

China makes $8.46 from an iPhone. That's why a U.S. trade war is futile

中国加工每台iPhone能赚上8.46美元,这就是美国贸易战徒劳无功的原因

The Trump administration's tariffs on China have so far targeted mostly industrial goods like aircraft engines and gas compressors. But the administration has also threatened to slap tariffs on $200 billion in other goods if the dispute continues.

迄今为止,特朗普政府对中国的关税主要针对的是飞机发动机和气体压缩机等工业产品。但特朗普政府威胁说,如果争端持续下去,将对其他商品征收2,000亿美元的关税。

No list of goods has been released, but the list would have to include consumer electronics, such as smartphones, which is the largest single product category in China's exports to the U.S.

目前尚未公布商品清单,但这个清单中肯定会包括消费电子产品,比如智能手机,这是中国对美国出口商品中数量最多的单类产品。

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One well-known product that might be affected is Apple's iPhone, which is assembled in China. When an iPhone arrives in the U.S., it is recorded as an import at its factory cost of about $240, which is added to the massive U.S.-China bilateral trade deficit.

一个可能受到影响的知名产品是在中国组装的苹果iPhone。iPhone作为进口商品运抵美国时的工厂成本约为240美元,这一金额加剧了中美双边贸易逆差的规模。

IPhone imports look like a big loss to the U.S., at least to the president, who argues that "China has been taking out $500 billion a year out of our country and rebuilding China." One estimate suggests that imports of the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus contributed $15.7 billion to last year's trade deficit with China.

在特朗普看来,进口IPhone对美国来说是一个巨大的损失,他说:“中国每年从我们国家赚走了5000亿美元,重振中国。”据估计,iPhone 7和7 Plus的进口为去年美国对华贸易逆差贡献了157亿美元。

Who really makes the iPhone?

究竟是谁制造了iPhone?

Let's examine an iPhone 7 a little more closely to see how much value China is actually getting.

让我们更仔细地研究一下iPhone 7,看看中国究竟赚了多少钱。

Start with the most valuable components that make up an iPhone: the touch screen display, memory chips, microprocessors and so on. They come from a mix of U.S., Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese companies, such as Intel, Sony, Samsung and Foxconn. Almost none of them are manufactured in China. Apple buys the components and has them shipped to China; then they leave China inside an iPhone.

让我们从iPhone最有价值的组件开始分析:触摸屏、内存芯片、微处理器等等。他们来自美国日本、韩国和台湾的公司,如英特尔、索尼、三星和富士康。它们几乎都不是中国制造的。苹果购买零部件并将其运往中国;然后将整装好的iPhone运离中国。

So what about all of those famous factories in China with millions of workers making iPhones? The companies that own those factories, including Foxconn, are all based in Taiwan. Of the factory-cost estimate of $237.45 from IHS Markit at the time the iPhone 7 was released in late 2016, we calculate that all that's earned in China is about $8.46, or 3.6 percent of the total. That includes a battery supplied by a Chinese company and the labor used for assembly.

那么,中国那些拥有数百万工人的知名iphone生产工厂呢?拥有这些工厂的公司,包括富士康,都位于台湾。在2016年末发布iPhone 7时,IHS Markit估计其出厂成本为237.45美元,我们计算得出,中国赚取的利润约为8.46美元,占总利润的3.6%,这个费用包括一家中国公司提供的电池和组装手机的工人工资。

The other $228.99 goes elsewhere. The U.S. and Japan each take a roughly $68 cut, Taiwan gets about $48, and a little under $17 goes to South Korea. And we estimate that about $283 of gross profit from the retail price - about $649 for a 32GB model when the phone debuted - goes straight to Apple's coffers.

另外228.99美元则流向了其他地方。美国和日本各分得约68美元,台湾赚得48美元,韩国赚得17美元。我们测算了下,32GB的手机初次上市时售价为649美元,大约有283美元的利润—直接进入了苹果公司的腰包。

In short, China gets a lot of (low-paid) jobs, while the profits flow to other countries.

简而言之,中国拥有的是很多(低薪)工作,而利润则流向其他国家。

The trade balance in perspective

贸易平衡的前景

Scholars have found similar results for the broader U.S.-China trade balance, although the disparity is less extreme than in the iPhone example. Of the 2017 trade deficit of $375 billion, probably one-third actually involves inputs that came from elsewhere - including the U.S.

学者们在中美贸易平衡的更大范围内也发现了类似的结果,尽管差距没有iPhone的例子那么极端。在2017年3750亿美元的贸易逆差中,可能有三分之一的贸易逆差实际上来自其他国家——包括美国

The use of China as a giant assembly floor has been good for the U.S. economy, if not for U.S. factory workers. By taking advantage of a vast, highly efficient global supply chain, Apple can bring new products to market at prices comparable to its competitors, most notably the Korean giant Samsung.

把中国作为巨大的组装基地对美国经济是有好处的,但不利于美国工厂的工人。通过利用庞大、高效的全球供应链,苹果可凭借与竞争对手,尤其是韩国巨头三星相当的价格将新产品推向市场。

Consumers benefit from innovative products, and thousands of companies and individuals have built businesses around creating apps to sell in the App Store. Apple uses its profits to pay its armies of hardware and software engineers, marketers, executives, lawyers and Apple Store employees. And most of these jobs are in the U.S.

消费者从创新产品中获益,成千上万的公司和个人通过开发应用程序、在应用商店中销售而建立起了业务。苹果公司用它的利润来支付硬件和软件工程师、营销人员、高管、律师和苹果商店员工的工资。这些工作大多在美国境内。

Put another way, research has shown globalization hurt some Americans while it made life better for many others. Putting globalization in reverse with tariffs will also create winners and losers - and there could be far more of the latter.

换句话说,研究表明,全球化伤害了一些美国人,却让许多人的生活变得更好。将全球化与关税反向进行,也会产生赢家和输家——但后者可能会更多。

Why not make the iPhone in America?

为什么不在美国生产iPhone呢?

When we discuss these topics with policymakers and the media, we're often asked, "Why can't Apple just make iPhones in the U.S.?"

当我们与决策者和媒体讨论这些话题时,我们经常被问到,“为什么苹果不能在美国生产iphone ?”

The main problem is that the manufacturing side of the global electronics industry was moved to Asia in the 1980s and 1990s. Companies like Apple have to deal with this reality.

主要的问题是,全球电子产业的制造业在上世纪80年代和90年代转移到了亚洲。苹果这样的公司必须面对这一现实。

A flawed response to the challenge from China

对中国挑战的错误回应

There is, of course, plenty for the U.S. to complain about when it comes to China's high-tech industry and policies, whether it's the lack of intellectual property protection or non-tariff barriers that keep major tech companies such as Google and Facebook out of the huge Chinese market. There is room for much tougher and more sophisticated bargaining to address these issues.

当然,谈到中国的高科技产业和政策,美国有很多可抱怨的地方,无论是缺乏知识产权保护,还是非关税壁垒使谷歌和Facebook等大型科技公司无法进入庞大的中国市场。要解决这些问题,还有更艰难、更复杂的交涉空间。

But where trade is concerned, policies should reflect that manufacturing is now a global network. The World Trade Organization has already developed an alternate set of trade numbers that shows each country's trade in value added terms, but the administration seems to have missed the memo.

但就贸易而言,政府的政策应该反省,制造业现在已经是一个全球网络。世界贸易组织已经研究得出一组贸易数据,可显示每个国家的贸易增加值,但特朗普政府似乎忽略了这份备忘录。

Trump's trade war is based on a simplistic understanding of the trade balance. Expanding tariffs to more and more goods will weigh on U.S. consumers, workers and businesses. And there's no guarantee that the final outcome will be good when the dispute ends.

特朗普的贸易战是基于对贸易平衡的简单理解。将关税扩大到越来越多的商品,将给美国消费者、工人和企业带来压力。没有人能保证争端结束后最终的结果会是好的。

美国雅虎读者的评论:

原创翻译:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/45526.html 译者:Joyceliu

外文:https://finance.yahoo.com/m/ad9ac4b1-b6d4-3159-9747-3b472097209a/ss_china-makes-%248.46-from-an.html

Sean22.000 hours ago

And Tim charges 600 USD?

那蒂姆居然卖600美金一台?

 

Fedup20.000 hours ago

Ask yourself is an iphone really worth $800+ ?

问问你自己,一台iphone真得值800多美金么?

 

Ningc21.000 hours ago

After open up an I-Phone, the major parts are from U S(Intel, chip-processor), and Korea, Japan, Taiwan.....Chinese made between $8.46 to $10 on assembling labor cost. According to Wall Street Journal, Apple is assembling some of their I-Phone in India, so the labor cost is much less than $8.46.

I-Phone的主要部件来自美国的(英特尔,芯片处理器),韩国,日本,台湾……中国人的组装成本在8.46到10美元之间。据《华尔街日报》报道,苹果公司还在印度组装了一些I-Phone,因此印度的人工成本远低于8.46美元。

 

Sean22.000 hours ago

Why is Apple not making I phones in the USA?

为什么苹果不在美国生产Iphone呢?

 

Tador19.000 hours ago

For $ 8.46 per i-phone, China can ask US and Apple to return manufacturing to US. Otherwise, a penalty tariff of 100% should charge on all i-phones when exported to US and even anywhere else. WE will see how the share price of Apple will rock the Wall Street.

每一部手机8.46美元,中国可以要求美国和苹果将生产环节交还给美国。否则,我们就对出口到美国或其他国家的所有i-phone征收100%的惩罚性关税。苹果的股价将如何撼动华尔街,拭目以待吧。

 

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