三泰虎

中国城市正在塑造中国并影响世界

中国的城市正在塑造中国并影响世界

In 2014, Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz said that two significant forces would shape global prosperity in the 21st century:

U.S. technological innovation
urbanization in China.

2014年,诺贝尔奖得主、经济学家约瑟夫•斯蒂格利茨(Joseph Stiglitz)表示,两股重要力量将在21世纪促进全球繁荣:

1、美国的技术创新

2、中国的城市化

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The Brookings Institute has an updated look at 103 cities in China that are the global top 300 in terms of PPP GDP.

布鲁金斯研究所(Brookings Institute)对中国103个城市进行了最新考察,这些城市位列购买力平价GDP全球300强。

The Economist has a look at how China is turning into 19 super-regions. The population of China’s cities has quintupled over the past 40 years and has reached 813 million. By 2030 roughly one in five of the world’s city-dwellers will be Chinese. (Over 1 billion in urban areas)

《经济学人》研究了中国是如何转变为由19个超级区域组成的国度的。过去40年里,中国城市人口增长了五倍,增长达8.13亿。到2030年,全球约五分之一的城市居民将生活在中国。(市区人口将超过10亿)

China has a new urban plan. The new plan calls for 19 clusters in all, which would account for nine-tenths of economic activity.

Five city clusters about two to four times bigger than Tokyo

中国有一项新的城市规划,旨在打造19个城市群,将占中国经济总量的9/10。

五个城市群的规模是东京的两到四倍。

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The biggest existing city cluster in the world is greater Tokyo, home to some 40 milloin people. The Yangzi delta will be almost four times as big, with 150 million people. The average population of the five biggest clusters that China hopes to develop is 110 million. Part of the reason is that the physical area of most of the Chinese clusters will also be bigger. The most prosperous, the Pearl delta, is expected to cover 42,000 square kilometers, about the same as the Netherlands.

目前世界最大的城市群是大东京,拥有4000万的人口。长江三角洲的人口将达到1.5亿,几乎是东京的四倍。中国希望发展的五大产业群的平均人口为1.1亿。部分原因在于,中国大部分城市群的切实覆盖面积会更大。最繁荣的珠江三角洲面积预计将达到4.2万平方公里,大概和荷兰国土面积相当。

High Speed Connections

高速连接

The Jingjinji region around Beijing has five high-speed train lines today. By 2020 there should be 12 more intercity lines, and another nine by 2030.

北京周边的京津冀地区目前有五条高铁线路。到2020年,城际铁路线将增加12条,到2030年将再增加9条。

In advanced countries, the doubling of a city’s population can increase productivity by 2-5%, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

根据经济合作与发展组织(OECD)的数据,在发达国家,城市人口翻番能使生产率提高2-5%。

Alain Bertaud of New York University says that, if integrated well, China’s city clusters could, thanks to their size, achieve levels of productivity never seen in other countries. He says it would be comparable to the differences between England and the rest of the world during the Industrial Revolution.

纽约大学的阿兰•贝托(Alain Bertaud)表示,若能有效融合,中国的城市群可凭借其庞大规模,实现别国前所未有的生产力水平。他说,这将类似于英国在工业革命期间和世界其他地区的差异。

Evidence about economic gains from clustering in China is promising, if limited. Counties enjoy a 6% boost in productivity from being tied into the Yangzi super-region.

即便如此,有关中国城市群经济收益的迹象仍令人鼓舞。被纳入长三角超级区域的很多地方,生产率已经提高了6%。

The main concern for those trying to lead productive lives across the vast super-regions is more mundane: how easy it is to get from A to B. The go nment classifies clusters as “one-hour economic zones” or “two-hour economic zones”, depending on the time it takes to cross the cluster by high-speed rail. But it often takes longer to get to train stations within cities than to travel by train between cities. People can spend four hours a day commuting within Shanghai.

对于那些试图在巨大的超级区域过高效生活的人来说,最主要的问题是:如何能轻松在A处和B处往返。政府将城市群划分为“一小时经济圈”或“两小时经济圈”,这取决于高铁在城市群之间往返所需要的时间。但是在市区,去火车站的时间通常要比坐火车到另一个城市的时间还长。在上海,人们每天得花4个小时上下班。

It seems clear that China will continue to leverage technology to enable faster commuting within city regions.

* more high-speed rail lines

* robotic buses

* robotic cars and ridesharing with high-speed roads and tunnels

* ultra-fast elevators without cables to commute from skyscraper to skyscraper and to speed the last 300 meters

显然,中国将继续利用科技加快城市区域间的通勤速度。

*更多的高铁线路

*无人驾驶公交车

*无人驾驶汽车、高速公路和隧道

*摩天大楼间通勤的无电缆超高速电梯,并实现最后300米的加速。

China will do what takes to get the potential 50% GDP boost from truly efficient one-hour connections.

中国将尽一切努力,通过真正有效的一小时连接,实现GDP的50% 潜在增长。

In 2014, China accounted for fewer than 50 metro areas within the top 300 cities based on purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP. With 2016 data, China’s has 103 metros areas in the global top 300 which is more than North America and Western Europe combined. There was corrected PPP GDP calculations that boosted China’s PPP by about 30-40%.

2014年,购买力平价GDP300强城市中,中国不到50个。根据2016年的数据,中国有103个城市进入全球300强,超过了北美和西欧的总和。修正后的购买力平价GDP的计算结果,使中国的购买力平价提高了约30-40%。

Two Chinese Giants, Beijing and Shanghai, are economically dominant, together housing 26 million workers and generating over $1.6 trillion in real output.

中国的两大巨头,北京和上海在经济上占主导地位,它们共容纳了2600万工人,实际产出超过1.6万亿美元。

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Anchor Cities are 14 other metro areas that generated at least $200 billion in real output. They make up a quarter of the nation’s GDP in 2016, including nine provincial-level municipalities or provincial capitals (Tianjin, Chongqing, Zhengzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Changsha, Chengdu) and five coastal cities that are home to some of the world’s busiest container ports (Qingdao, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Shenzhen).

“锚城市”包含14个城市,实际产出至少为2,000亿美元。2016年,它们占全国GDP的四分之一,包括9个省级城市或省会城市(天津、重庆、郑州、南京、杭州、广州、武汉、长沙、成都),以及5个沿海城市(青岛、苏州、无锡、宁波、深圳)。

Rust Belt contains six metro areas (Harbin, Daqing, Changchun, Jilin, Shenyang, Dalian) in Northeast China, struggling to counter the decline of the nation’s coal and steel industry.

“铁锈带”是指中国东北的6个城市(哈尔滨、大庆、长春、吉林、沈阳、大连),正在努力应对中国煤炭和钢铁工业的衰落。

China’s has 81 mid-sized metro areas (average employment of 1.6 million and average GDP of $106.9 billion)—based on their industrial structure:

中国有81个中等城市(平均就业-160万,平均GDP-1069亿美元),其产业结构如下:

In 24 metro areas, services account for a higher share of the economy than industry. Brookings categorize these as Service Cities.

其中24个城市,服务业在经济中所占的比重高于工业。布鲁金斯研究所将这些城市归类为服务城市。

In 57 metro areas, industry accounts for a higher share of the economy than services. Brookings categorize these as Industry Cities.

其他57个城市,工业在经济中所占的比重高于服务业。布鲁金斯研究所将这些城市归类为工业城市。

Cities like Fuzhou, Xiamen, Wenzhou—the three Service Cities that ranked among the top 10 on the Economic Performance Index—have benefited largely from booming financial services and e-commerce, despite their heavy reliance on manufacturing less than a decade ago. On the other hand, Zhanjiang—the only Service City ranked in the bottom 10—has been unable to find a new growth industry to counteract the decline of its industrial base.

在经济实效指标排名前10位的城市中,像福州、厦门、温州这三个服务业城市,很大程度上得益于蓬勃发展的金融服务和电子商务,尽管十年前还严重依赖制造业。另一方面,在排名倒数10位的服务业城市中,只有湛江无法找到一个新的增长型产业来缓解其衰落的产业基础。

A closer look at the Pearl River Delta—a region of nine cities and 60 million people—exemplifies this dynamic. Once the “factory of the world,” the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is in the midst of a dramatic economic transition. In some parts of the region, cities are thriving. Guangzhou leads the nation in cross-border e-commerce, and Shenzhen has emerged as the Silicon Valley of China. At the same time, in other corners of the region’s cities—such as Dongguan, Foshan, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, and Zhuhai—are experiencing slow growth or decline as they struggle to evolve their economies away from competing on low costs towards new product innovation. The losses in these cities have been gains for cheaper nearby cities such as Huizhou and Zhaoqing, which are still rooted in industry. Like China itself, the PRD is not a monolith, and whether its economy will remain rooted in the past or embrace a high-tech rebirth remains to be seen.

仔细观察珠江三角洲,这个由九座城市和六千万人口组成的地区,例证了这种转型。珠三角地区曾经是“世界工厂”,现在正处于经济转型的过程中。在其部分地区,城市正在蓬勃发展。广州在跨境电子商务领域处于全国领先地位,深圳已成为中国的硅谷。与此同时,该区域的其他城市如东莞、佛山、江门、中山和珠海等,正经历经济的缓慢增长或下滑,因为它们正努力使其经济摆脱低成本竞争,转向新产品创新。这让惠州和肇庆等邻近城市获益,这些城市仍植根于工业。就像中国自身一样,珠三角并不是一个庞然大物,它的经济是否会继续扎根于过去还是接受高科技复兴,还有待观察。

美国雅虎读者评论:

原创翻译:三泰虎  http://www.santaihu.com/45480.html 译者:Jessica.Wu

PEPE-11 hours ago

Wealth is important. But so are rule of law, h an rights, fre m of speech, civil and public participation. If China can achieve all this, it will be truly a great nation. If not, it will be lacking.

财富固然很重要,但法治、人全、言论紫游、公民和公众的参与也同样重要。如果中国能够实现这一切,它将成为一个真正伟大的国家。如果不能,那就美中不足。

Mike-16 hours ago

A long way to go . Average Chinese wage about $ 1000.00 USD per year.

中国还有很长的路要走,平均工资每年只有大约1000美元左右。

Greg-15 hours ago

China has a rapidly aging population dues to the one Child policy. Where as in the 1990's China had 7 working aged people for every retiree, by 2035 that number will down to 2! working aged people for every retiree. China will no longer be the worlds factory as they will not have the workforce to man those factories. On top of that China is ridiculously over developed. They have a 20 year housing surplus! Much of the cheap housing they build crumbles apart before it is even sold! China is due for a huge economic collapse and this trade war is all it is going to take!

中国的人口迅速老龄化归咎于一孩政策。就像1990年代,中国每7个劳动年龄人口要赡养一个退休人员,到2035年,这一数字将降至每2个劳动年龄人口将要赡养1个退休人员。中国将不再是世界工厂,因为他们将没有足够的劳动力来管理这些工厂。最重要的是,中国过度发展到了荒谬的程度。他们有20年的住房过剩!他们建造的大部分廉价房屋还没卖出去就倒了!中国即将迎来一场巨大的经济崩溃,而这场贸易战就是冲这个来的!

Tom-15 hours ago

China's cities are shaping China? You dont say? It's ground breaking journalism like that that keeps me coming back to Yahoo. Notice how no one else has this story? Cutting edge.

中国的城市正在塑造中国?真的吗? 这种开创性的新闻把我带回了雅虎。怎么没发现别家有这种新闻?雅虎够前沿的。

Dingedarmor-16 hours ago

The 'sleeping dragon' is awake....and hungry....

这只“沉睡中的巨龙”已经醒了,而且雄心勃勃的

Ray-15 hours ago

What ever happened to those fake news about ghost cities?

那些关于鬼城的假新闻怎么样了?

Phillipe-16 hours ago

China's per-capita GDP is 6-7 times lower than in the US.

中国的人均GDP比美国低6-7倍。

Blair-14 hours ago

Seems won't be long when China's consumer total purchase power will exceed the US. Like it or not they got an increasing buying power mass population.

中国消费者总购买力不久将超过美国,不管你喜欢与否,他们的购买力越来越强。

Ion-16 hours ago

The analytical rise, and fall of Economic Powers shows, that to sustain in time ahead they needs Markets. As it is now the Chinese Society it is not based on Markets then to a level that being controlled by the Chinese Government. Thus the rise of the Economic Power of China, having to do with the existence of Markets on which Chinese Products to be sold (and thus to foster prosperity) it is not existing without the Chinese Government to give-up to the Communist Tendencies of Control. Thus China "glory" of now, soon-or-later it is destined to fade. First are coming convulsions of all kind, then the Chinese Government will have to stand-up either Military against a possible Foreign Power, or to use the Military against own people.

对经济大国的崛起和衰落的分析表明,要想在未来保持发展下去,它们就需要市场。由于现在的中国社会不以市场为基础,在某种程度上受中国的控制。因此,中国经济实力的崛起与中国产品的销售市场的存在有关(从而促进繁荣),如果中国不放弃的控制倾向,市场就不存在了。因此,中国现在的“荣耀”迟早注定会褪去。首先面临的是各种各样的动荡,然后中国将不得不对可能的外国势力采取军事行动,或者对自己的人民使用武力。

Chung-17 hours ago

I believe "technological innovation" is also on China's mind, so folks of the world, China is coming and coming fast to help reshape global prosperity whilst USA is killing itself with its current MAGA & America first policy.

我相信中国也在思考“技术创新”,中国正在快速帮助重塑全球繁荣,而美国正在用其目前的“让美国再次伟大和美国优先”的政策扼杀自己。

Jes-14 hours ago

I lived in China. The cities there are the most polluted in the world without question.

我曾在中国住过,那里的城市无疑是世界上污染最严重的城市。

FreeTruth1945-12 hours ago

We do not need any more people in America.

Automation is replacing workers.

Water shortages are increasing.

We should be working to reduce our population to 250 million by the year 2100; not increase it to 500 million by the year 2100.

美国人口已经够多了

自动化将取代工人。

水资源短缺正在加剧。

我们应该努力在2100年前把人口减少到2.5亿; 而不是增加到5亿。

KHSimagesdotcom-10 hours ago

The only way that the US will remain the largest economy for the next 100 years is to embrace and capitalize on it's main advantages it has over China. 1. Greater civil liberties - Embrace the idea that we can all hold the gov't accountable. Don't hate on anyone who criticizes Obama or Trump (or any other politician). NEVER blindly follow a politician just to protect yourself from the alternative. Not all regulations, laws, policies, program and expenditures are universally good or bad. Get involved, do the research and hold your gov't accountable. Don't just pick a team based on what your family or favorite media personality says. Learn for yourself and participate!

Diversity - There are available business opportunities everywhere. If you only look to deal with others who are like you because it's easier, your opportunities will be limited and so will your growth. If everyone does this, America will remain limited. People have mental blocks when it comes to dealing with strangers of other races because of the racial backdrop.

在未来100年,美国维持其最大经济体的唯一途径,是利用其相对于中国的主要优势:

1.更大的公民紫游——信奉这样的理念:我们可以向政府问责。不要憎恨任何那些批评奥巴马或特朗普(或任何其他政客)的人。永远不要为了保护自己而盲目追随政客。并非所有的法规、法律、政策、计划和支出都能说出个好坏,你得参与进来,做好调查,然后再向政府问责。不要仅仅根据你的家人或者你最喜欢的媒体人的意见来站队。要自己多学习并积极参与其中!

2.多元化——美国到处都是商机。如果你只想和那些跟你一样的人打交道(因为这更容易),那么你的机会就会有限,你的成长也会有限。如果每个人都这么做,美国的发展也将是有限的。但是由于种族背景的原因,人们在与其他种族的陌生人打交道时都会有心理障碍。

CaptainKKK-16 hours ago

China takeover

中国要接管世界了

Stupid Flanders-12 hours ago

Whenever I see these comments, it makes me think that we might not actually have much of a chance. Sure, there are paid trolls like "Greg" who literally have no interest in anything else (and for all we know he could be a RUSSIAN troll trying to add enemies to our lengthy list), but what's worse is that the comments seem to serve no purpose other than to insult people who are starting to do pretty well for themselves.

每当我看到这些评论的时候,我就会觉得我们其实并没有多少机会了。当然,也有像这种网名叫“Greg”的评论员,他们实际上对这些新闻并没有什么兴趣(我们都知道他其实是个俄国佬,只是试图帮我们树更多敌人)。但更糟糕的是, 这些评论仅仅是为了侮辱那些开始做得不错的人。

OK - so you want to insult them, and MAYBE they might read a comment, but then what? They'll feel insulted for a few seconds and then go back to work because WORKING HARD gets you places. Sitting on your rear end typing insults? That's a guarantee that you're not even in the race.

好吧,你发表评论想侮辱他们,也许他们会读到你的评论,然后呢?他们会觉得被侮辱了,但几秒钟后他们又会回去继续工作,因为努力工作才能获得成功。如果只是坐在那一个劲儿的打字侮辱别人,你连跟别人比的资格都没有。

So what is it? Are they shaping public perception by doing this? All that manages to do is make other people bitter and lazy too.

所以,他们这样做是在塑造公众的看法吗?他们所做的一切都只是为了让别人感到难受。

Maybe at the end of the day, it's just a cheap kind of therapy for people who have too much hate to think straight, and too much lard on their butts to actually get up and make their own lives better. Maybe it makes them feel better about how much they hate the people that are NOT like themselves.

也许在一天工作的结束之时,对于他们了来说这只是一种廉价的疗法,尤其是对于那些不喜欢思考、不愿付诸行动让自己的生活变得更好的人。也许这会让他们感觉好点,因为他们太讨厌那些比他们更优秀的人了。

Anyway...China has a bunch of these awesome modern cities, and high speed trains...and that's because they're NOT sitting around typing hate-speech. WE...have a bunch of people who complain about everyone else...and pretend that it's someone else's fault that our infrastructure is decrepit, and our water isn't clean.

不管怎样,中国有很多令人敬畏的现代化城市还有高铁,那是因为他们不会一味坐在那里发表仇恨言论,他们都在努力工作。而我们呢,却有一群喜欢抱怨他人的人们,就连我们自己的基础设施老化、水变得不干净都要怪别人。

Emilio-13 hours ago

China will be hurting big. Gradually their economy will slow down and millions of people will be unemployed. China has never anticipate that the United States will challenge unfair practices, IP theft and many other things. China got used to telling other countries what to do. Not anymore, because China is loosing its power. The world can see now how China has been abusing many countries of unfairness. Like I said, it only takes one country to defy China and the rest will follow. Many countries will not fear of China anymore. It is time that China needs to follow the rule of the law, not break the WTO rules of the law. China needs to obey the UNCLOS not break it. China thinks they are powerful that they are above the Law. Time is changing against China and XI Jing Ping.

中国将会受到重创。他们的经济增长将逐渐放缓,数百万人将失业。中国从没料到美国会挑战他们的不公平贸易行为、窃取知识产权等。中国总是习惯于告诉其他国家该怎么做。现在不能了,因为中国的实力正在变弱。全世界都看到中国是如何不公平的对待其他国家的。就像我说的,需要有一个国家去挑战中国,然后其他国家也会效仿。大家一起就不用怕中国了。是时候让中国遵守世贸组织的法规和《联合国海洋法公约》了。中国自以为他们很强大,可以凌驾于法律之上。对中国和习来说,时代在变了。

J-16 hours ago

Recent estimates put the introduction of ocean plastics at 0.25% European union, 1% North American content and about 90% form china. Even if you don't care for "buy American" we all need to look at this great horrible beast called china. The destruction of the oceans needs to stop.

最近估算数据显示,欧盟向海洋排放的塑料占0.25%,北美占1%,中国占约90%。即使你不喜欢“买美国货”,我们也要留神中国这个可怕的怪兽。需要停止破坏海洋的行为。

El Vato-12 hours ago

Much better for us that China, takes over VS Muslims, Africans or the Deep State.

对我们来说更好的是,中国接管了,非洲人或深层国家(是国家安全权势集团,其核心是情报部门、国防部和国务院等政府机构)。

Mingo-13 hours ago

Trump supporters want Trump to stop them. lol

特朗普的支持者们希望特朗普能阻止他们。哈哈

Leondro-8 hours ago

China paid for this article, but it's worthless.

中国花钱买了这篇文章,但这毫无价值。

Lay-3 hours ago

If you want to see the real difference between China and the developed world. Travel first to Hong Kong then get a train from HK to Guangzhou.

As soon as you get off the train in Guangzhou you will see the difference. People spitting, shouting into their phones, smoking where it says no smoking, coughing without covering their mouths, burping and eating with their mouths open. Disgusting stinking toilets.

如果你想看看中国和发达国家的真正区别,就先去香港,然后坐火车从香港到广州。

一旦你在广州下车,你就会看到差别。人们在那吐痰,对着手机大喊大叫,在禁止吸烟的地方吸烟,咳嗽时不捂住嘴,打嗝,吃东西的时候嘴都不合上。还有令人作呕的臭气熏天的厕所。

Perfecto-8 hours ago

More lie and more fake article... Lol

越来越多谎言和假文章了……哈哈

KN-7 hours ago

We need to grow our population. People start making babies if you don't want immigrants.

我们需要增加人口,如果你不想要更多移民,就开始生孩子吧。

Duong-12 hours ago

World are world, they don't like cheater commies. Periods!

一句话,全世界都不喜欢骗子!

Freedom-16 hours ago

china city= thief city

中国城市=小偷城市

三泰虎原创译文,禁止转载!:首页 > 美国 » 中国城市正在塑造中国并影响世界

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