从这里了解印度人对中国的看法

对于中国建造的通向海边的新铁路,埃塞俄比亚寄托着很多希望

2016-10-13 13:01 109个评论 字号:

Ethiopia has a lot riding on its new, Chinese-built railroad to the sea

对于中国建造的通向海边的新铁路,埃塞俄比亚寄托着很多希望

By Paul Schemm

保罗·斯盖蒙

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — The sleek, white train glides through the hilly Ethiopian countryside, the first to travel this route in nearly a decade.

亚的斯亚贝巴,埃塞俄比亚——整洁的白色火车滑行穿过丘陵起伏的埃塞俄比亚乡村,在近十年里第一列火车经过这条线路。

The contrast is stark as the new, Chinese-made electric train passes horse-drawn carriages, oxen hauling plows and crowds of curious village children. But soon it crosses over a gleaming six-lane expressway and snakes past a row of newly erected wind turbines — all Chinese-built and, like the train, part of Ethiopia’s ongoing effort to remake itself.

中国制造电气化火车经过马拉的车厢、牛拉犁和成群好奇的村庄孩子,这些景象形成了鲜明的对比。但是火车很快跨越一个瞬息一现六车道高速公路和蛇爬过的一排新建的直立着的风力发电机——这些全部是中国建造的,像火车行驶那样,埃塞俄比亚持续努力的一部分来重塑自己。

The standard-gauge rail line, which will be officially inaugurated this week, stretches 470 miles from the capital, Addis Ababa, to the port of Djibouti, which handles 90 percent of the landlocked country’s trade and is its main window to the outside world. Seventy percent of the $3.4 billion project is financed by China’s Export-Import Bank, and it is one of the biggest of the mega-projects that Ethiopia says will transform its largely agricultural economy — once known for little more than famine and coffee — into East Africa’s manufacturing hub.

这条标准轨距铁路线将会在本周正式揭牌,它从首都亚的斯亚贝巴延绵470英里到吉布提口岸,首都亚的斯亚贝巴处理着该内陆国90%的贸易并且它是对外部世界的主要窗口。34亿美元项目的70%由中国进出口银行提供资金,并且它是最大的大型项目之一,埃塞俄比亚认为该项目将会很大程度上改变农业经济——成为东非制造业中心——该国曾经仅仅是因为饥荒和咖啡而闻名。

“Our economy is one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa and the world, so at the end of the day, when the train is connected to the port and transporting that much freight, . . . it will add value,” said Mekonnen Getachew, the railway’s project manager, speaking after a recent trial run for journalists .

“我们的经济是非洲和世界上增长最快经济体之一,所以在这一天结束时,当火车与港口连接进而运输更多的货物,它会增加价值,”梅克恩·格塔丘说,这位铁路项目经理,在最近一次试车运行之后对新闻记者发表了讲话。

Between 2005 and 2015, Ethiopia’s economy grew at an average rate of 10 percent a year, and the country took pride in its reputation as Africa’s latest success story. But that is starting to unravel, with the worst drought in 50 years halving the growth rate and widespread social unrest erupting in two of the country’s most populous regions.

在2005年和2015年间,埃塞俄比亚经济以每年平均10%速度增长,并且该国因为非洲最新成功故事的名声,而为此骄傲。但是这种情况开始瓦解,随着50年来最严重干旱把增长率减半并且大范围的社会动荡在该国两个人口最稠密的地区爆发。

A finish-line protest at this year’s Olympics in Rio de Janeiro by an Ethio-pian marathon runner alerted the world to the country’s internal problems.

在今年的里约热内卢的奥运会上,一名马拉松运动员伊索·皮安在完成线路上抗议以提醒世界注意该国内部的问题。

The drought’s effect has been so dire that the new railroad was pressed into service in November, before construction was even completed, to get emergency imports of wheat closer to famine-stricken areas.

干旱的影响是非常严峻的,以至于这条新铁路甚至在完工之前在去年十一月被暂时征用,以获得紧急进口小麦去更接近饥荒受灾区域。

Without the train, Ethiopia’s imports and exports must travel between Djibouti and Addis Ababa on a winding, pitted road plied by more than 1,500 trucks daily, a trip that takes two days. When the railroad is fully operational, travel time for freight will be cut to just 12 hours — and 10 hours for the faster passenger trains.

如果没有火车,埃塞俄比亚的进口和出口必须在吉布提和亚的斯亚贝巴之间缠绕行进,维修加油的公路每天被超过1500辆卡车使用,一次行程花费两天。当铁路完全运转时,货运行程时间将会减少到只有12小时而更快的旅客列车只有10小时。

The new line actually replaces a narrow-gauge railroad built by France starting in 1894, when it controlled Djibouti. The French left behind elegant, arcaded train stations, inscribed “Chemin de Fer Djibouto-Ethiopien,” in the heart of Addis Ababa and in the eastern city of Dire Dawa, but the line was largely defunct by the mid-2000s, a victim of war and neglect.

这条新线路实际上取代了由法国始于1894年建造的一条窄轨铁路,当时法国控制着吉布提。法国人在亚的斯亚贝巴中心和东部城市尔达瓦遗留下了优雅的、有拱廊的火车站,火车站题写着“吉布提-埃塞俄比亚铁路”,但是这条线路在2000年代中期大部分报废了,是一场战争的牺牲品和被疏于维护。

The century-old tracks can still be seen in places from the new train, but the Chinese elected to build all new stations. The palatial multistory buildings stand well outside cities and towns, suggesting that the new line will be used more for freight than for passengers.

具有百年历史的轨迹仍然可以在新火车的地方被看到,而中国人委任建造全部新的火车站。这些宏伟多层的建筑良好地矗立在城市和城镇之外,这表明新线路将会被更多用于货物而不是旅客。

The rail link to Djibouti will be just the beginning, the government says. Plans have been made for 1,500 more miles of track to criss-cross the country, including to its borders with Kenya, Sudan and South Sudan — all part of an African Union goal of once more uniting the continent by rail.

政府说,这条连接吉布提的铁路将只是一个开始。超过1500英里的轨道计划已经规划好,该轨道让该国纵横交错,包括与它接壤的肯尼亚、苏丹和南苏丹——一部分非洲联盟目标因为铁路又一次团结成大陆。

Ethiopia is a lot closer to achieving its part of this goal than most African countries, largely because of the massive support and financing from China.

埃塞俄比亚与大多数非洲国家相比很接近完成这个目标的一部分,主要因为大量支援和融资来源于中国。

According to the China Global Investment tracker, Beijing has poured more than $20.6 billion into Ethiopia since 2005, much of it in low-interest loans to build infrastructure, such as roads, rail lines and telecommunication.

根据中国全球投资跟踪系统,北京自2005年以来已经倾入超过206亿美元到埃塞俄比亚,大多数资金以低利率贷款用于建造基础设施,例如公路、铁路线和通信。

On the train, with its clean, blond-wood interiors, loudspeakers announce the stations in three languages: Amharic, English and Chinese. All the attendants are Chinese.

在火车上,它有着干净、金色木质纹理的内部,扩音器用三种语言:阿姆哈拉语、英语和中文播报车站。所有的服务员是中国人。

For its first five years, the new railway will be managed by a Chinese company to allow time to train enough Ethiopians to take over running it.

在最初的五年里,这个新铁路将会由一家中国公司来管理以便有时间去培养足够的埃塞俄比亚人来接管运行它。

The train line is a key part of the government’s strategy to industrialize the country by luring foreign investment — and the 70-mile trip last weekend between Addis Ababa and Adama attests to the plan’s success so far. From the window, the view includes not just traditional farms but also greenhouses marking the country’s burgeoning commercial flower industry and distant plumes of smoke from new factories.

铁路线是政府战略的一个关键部分,从而通过引诱外国投资实现该国的工业化——而上周在亚的斯亚贝巴和阿达玛之间70英里的运行证明到目前为止该计划的成功。从火车窗口上看,视野不仅包括了传统农场而且还有温室,这标志着该国增长迅速的商业花卉产业还有遥远的来自新工厂羽毛状的烟雾。

Chinese cement and shoe companies, Indian painting and textile firms, and numerous Turkish enterprises have set up shop here in recent years, attracted by Ethiopia’s cheap labor and electricity — and eventually, the government hopes, by its superior infrastructure.

中国的水泥和制鞋公司、印度绘画和纺织品工厂,还有许多土耳其企业在最近几年里已经在这里开设商店,这些企业被埃塞俄比亚廉价劳动力和电力所吸引——而最终,政府希望企业被它的优秀的基础设施所吸引。

Foreign direct investment has grown from just $108 million in 2009 to an estimated $2 billion in 2016.

外国直接投资已经从2009年只有108百万美元增长到2016年预估的20亿美元。

A report by the World Bank last year, though, warned that Ethiopia still had far to go in its quest to move labor from agriculture to industrial jobs. About 80 percent of the jobs in the country are still in farming. Meanwhile, unemployment is at 17 percent nationally and at 24 percent in the capital.

尽管,世界银行去年的一份报告,警告埃塞俄比亚寻求把劳动力从农业转移到工业工作上仍然很遥远。在该国,大约80%工作仍然是农业。同时,全国失业率是17%而在首都是24%。

The economy remains closed and state-controlled, and the small and medium enterprises that would probably produce the most jobs are having trouble getting financing. Even foreign firms, which are given preferential treatment, complain about bureaucracy, red tape and the difficulty of repatriating profits and acquiring hard currency.

该国经济保持着封闭和国家控制,并且很可能将会产生更多工作的中小企业正在为获得融资发愁。即使是给予优先对待的外国农场,他们抱怨着官僚主义、繁文缛节还有遣返利润和获得硬通货的困难。

The new factories are also being built on confiscated farm land, which helped spark the protests in the Oromo region that began in November and later spread north to the Amhara region. International rights groups estimate that some 500 people have been killed in the repression that ensued.

另外新工厂正建设在被没收农地上,这导致了在奥罗莫人地区引发抗议,抗议从11月份开始并且后来传播到北方至阿姆哈拉地区。国际人权组织估计大约500人在随后的镇压中丧生。

Just on Sunday, police fired tear gas at a political protest taking place at an Oromo cultural festival in Bishoftu, the next station on the train line after Addis Ababa, and provoked a stampede that killed 52 according to the government — with the opposition saying twice as many died.

就在周日,一场政治抗议发生在德布雷塞特的一个奥罗莫文化节上,德布雷塞特是在火车线路上在亚的斯亚贝巴之后的下一站,警察对抗议发射了催泪瓦斯,并引发了踩踏事故,按照政府说法踩踏导致52人丧生,而反对派说死亡人数是政府说法的两倍。

Linda Thomas-Greenfield, assistant secretary of state for african affairs, last week described the government response as an “intense and somewhat harsh crackdown.”

琳达·托马斯·格林菲尔德,负责非洲事务的助理国务卿,上周形容政府反应是一种“强烈的并且稍微严厉的打击。”

“We think it could get worse if it’s not addressed — sooner rather than later,” she told Voice of America.

“我们认为这可能会变得更糟,如果它得不到解决——宜早不宜迟,”她告诉美国之音。

The unrest poses a threat to Ethiopia’s vision of foreign-driven industrialization.

动荡不安的局面对埃塞俄比亚由外国驱动工业化的愿景形成一种威胁。

On Aug. 29, in the Amhara region, mobs attacked at least seven flower farms belonging to Israeli, Italian, Indian and Belgian companies. In a statement on its website, the Dutch-owned Esmeralda Farms said its entire $11.2 million investment, including machinery and greenhouses, was destroyed.

在8月29日,在阿姆哈拉地区,暴徒袭击了至少7个属于以色列、意大利、印度和比利时公司的花卉农场。在其网站的声明中,荷兰拥有的埃斯梅拉达农场说它全部的11.2百万美元投资,包括机械和温室,被摧毁了。

In the first-person statement, the unnamed author laments how Ethiopia was once a safe country.

在第一人称陈述中,未署名的作者感叹埃塞俄比亚曾经是一个多么安全的国家。

“Last year I traveled 24 times to Ethiopia to start up the farm,” the statement said. “It was one of the most peaceful countries in Africa.”

“去年我行程24次到埃塞俄比亚去开设农场,”声明说。 “这曾是最和平的非洲国家之一。”

以下是华盛顿邮报读者的评论:

译者:lun2000
来源:http://www.santaihu.com/2016101302.html
外文:https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/ethiopia-has-a-lot-riding-on-its-new-chinese-built-railroad-to-the-sea/2016/10/03/c069d4da-84be-11e6-b57d-dd49277af02f_story.html

Addis Aba
5:12 AM GMT+0800
Dear Paul Schemm,
May I ask you a small favor? Please return six months later and tell us if the train is still running. Perhaps you are not aware of the tram line opened with great fanfare two years ago. You may want to talk to citizens in Addis [not to ruling party elite and cadres] how many days the train has been in operation and how many out of commission because electric power was out. Thanks.

亲爱的保罗·斯盖蒙(译注:保罗·斯盖蒙就是该新闻的作者)
我能要求你一个小忙吗?请在六个月之后返回并且如果火车还在运行,请告诉我们。或许你没有注意到两年前大张旗鼓地开设了有轨电车线路。你可能需要和在亚的斯亚贝巴的市民(不是执政党的精英和干部)交谈,火车有多少天在运行并且有多少不能被使用因为电力缺乏。谢谢。

 

Dessalegne Negussie
4:01 AM GMT+0800 [Edited]
It is a big milestone accomplishment in my opinion. Kudos.
Being a son of a railway company (Ethio-Djbouti), Rail means a lot to me and to the residents of Dire Dawa which is the main station of the previous rail way company. So I’m really excited to start traveling by the newly built train once again. Two thumbs up Ethiopia !

在我看来这是一个重要里程碑成就。称赞。

作为一名铁路公司(埃塞俄比亚-吉布提)儿子,铁路对我和对尔达瓦的居民意味着很多,尔达瓦是先前铁路公司主要站点。

所以我真地很兴奋,能开始通过新建成的火车再一次旅行。
太棒啦埃塞俄比亚!

 

Khalid Henriques
12:24 AM GMT+0800
I think it’s the perfect time for blacks from America to start a settlement/community out there. Your future descendants will thank you for it.

我认为对来自美国的黑人来说这是最好的时机到那里去开始定居、沟通。你未来的子孙将会为此感谢你。



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