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印媒:印度视科学为奢侈品,中印对待科学的态度截然不同

India and China’s chalk and cheese approach to science

印度和中国对待科学的态度截然不同

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Like any young scientist, Prasad Hegde had to look hard for research positions around the world after a PhD. But unlike many Indian students in the US, Hegde looked eastward to do postdoctoral research. India was not an option as there were few positions available. He chose Taiwan over the US and EU, but it did not work out. Then he moved to China, which like India did not have a tradition of post-doctoral research, but was creating such jobs in large numbers.

Hegde spent two years in Wuhan, studying exotic states of matter created by collisions of atomic nuclei, before returning to India and a job at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru. Hegde's stint in China gave him insights into Chinese science and state of mind, the Chinese work culture and attitudes towards research. At least in his field of heavy ion physics, India had more scientists than China. "This kind of science was new to them," he says. But China was creating new fields of science and large research teams. The labs had plenty of money and were more flexible in hiring. "They like to do things in large scale and they do things fast," says Hedge, who is now an assistant professor at the Centre for High Energy Physics at IISc.

Over the last four decades, China has been developing the country at a frenetic pace. As it built its bridges and dams, its coal plants and rockets, the country also invested heavily in science and engineering research. Senior Chinese political leaders, most of whom had their basic education in science or engineering, trusted the power of science to transform the country's economy and society.

.....

Unlike in India, it is easy for a foreigner to move and establish a lab in China. Ralf Jauch, a structural biologist from the Max Plank Institute in Germany, found this when he moved to the Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health in 2013. Jauch now has academic freedom, not to speak of good funding and a generous supply of foreign students. But what surprised him was the attitude of the provincial government.

Despite his institute being part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the provincial government and the city of Guangzhou have invested in it. "I think this model of investment is unique to China," says Jauch.

以下是环球网的编译:http://oversea.huanqiu.com/article/2016-07/9181722.html

和很多年轻科学家一样,赫格德必须在读完博士后努力在全世界找工作。不过,与其他印度留美学生不同,赫格德来到中国做博士后研究。那里和印度一样,以前并没有博士后研究的传统,但现在这样的职位比比皆是。

赫格德在武汉待了两年,这段工作经历令他洞悉中国的科学、心境、工作文化以及研究态度。虽然在他研究的重离子物理领域,印度科学家比中国多,但中国正在开创新的科研领域和大型研究团队。实验室资金充裕,在用人上更加灵活。

过去40多年,中国一直在飞速发展,与此同时,他们在科技和工程研究方面投资巨大。中国领导人多数是理工科出身,相信科学改变国家经济和社会的能力。“中国在战略技术方面的主导地位是通过规划实现的,并非碰运气。”印度国家高级研究所名誉教授拉马穆尔蒂说。印度没有这类规划。实际上,在经济发展过程中,印度政治人物视科学为奢侈品,而不是增长引擎。

和在印度不一样,外国科学家很容易在中国建立实验室。结构生物学家拉尔夫·尧赫2013年从德国搬到广州时亦有同感。他现在有充分的学术自由,更不用说资金支持和尽情招募外国学生了。不过,令他惊讶的还是地方政府的态度。尽管他所在的研究所属于中科院,但广东省和广州市都提供了资金支持。尧赫说,这种模式是中国独有的。(作者哈里·普拉卡特,向阳译)

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中国大学是世界级的


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印度和中国的科学表现:

总人口:印度13.3亿,中国13.57亿

GDP:印度2.073万亿美元,中国10.983万亿美元

人均购买力的GDP:印度7.822万亿美元,中国18.828万亿美元

总的研发投资:印度610亿美元,中国3720亿美元

每百万人口的研究人员数:印度137人,中国1071人

研究产出(2014年):印度53733篇论文,中国256834篇论文

专利数量(2014年):印度22458项,中国837897项

以下是印度时报读者的评论:

评论部分来源:http://www.santaihu.com/2016071602.html

外文地址:http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/science/india-and-chinas-chalk-and-cheese-approach-to-science/articleshow/53201796.cms
Gopal
1 days ago
Very exhaustive and informative article
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非常详细、信息量大的文章,

 
Vishwanath Purohit

Good insight in scientific activities and innovations in China.
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很好的洞察了中国的科研活动和创新

 
Padmanabhan
1 days ago

We have elected representatives who are primarily responsible for voicing our concerns and aspirations.when it comes to science and research our politicians for long are ignorant about the need for sustained growth in this field.The will to cite fund availability as a reason towards this prevails more than the commitment towards achievement.Overall thinking about its importance at every governing step contributes heavily to the decline of this cause
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我们选出了代表,本来是用来为我们发声的。

然而,我们的政客对科研表现出无知,不懂得科研持续的必要性。

以资金不足为借口。而不是决心取得成就

 
Khejure

India need to think this very early before it gets too late.
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印度该尽早考虑了,否则就太迟了

 
Suman

it''s absolutely true that in India science regards as a luxury than a growth engine and that''s because majority of politicians don''t know anything about science and always fight for caste, religion and reservation. We are producing quality human capital but not for the country cause we don''t have jobs to begin with and the worst part is the pay-scale. People from IT or management gets lakhs of package while for a research scholar it''s even sometimes hard to pay room rents by month end. People feel like cheated when they try to pursue research in India, even sometimes marriages get cancel due to low income of researchers. Don''t worry, in near future we will even see Indians going for high end research in China than in US. India should at least learn from the neighbor.
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说得完全正确。

在印度,科学被视为奢侈品,而不是被视为经济发展的引擎。

大多数政客不了解科学,而是一味地为种姓、宗教等而斗争。

我们培养出了高素质的人才,结果不是为国贡献,原因是我们没有为人才提供合适的工作,最糟糕的是薪水太低。

IT从业人员拿着几十万的工资,而研究人员有时候到了月底连房租都交不起。

在印度,人们从事科研的时候感觉自己被欺骗了,有时候因为工资低而婚姻被悔婚。

别担心,在不久的将来,我们会看到印度人才去中国从事高端研究,而不是去美国。

印度至少要向邻国学习啊

 
Jayeshkumar Panchal
India suffers from a Unique Situation on this one, with Multi Party Politics. ..oops the Democracy. So either we should Choose to Go like China with a Single Party System, or Go like West. ..Sell Everything in to the Private Hands (and Pockets)
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印度受困于独一无二的国情,受困于多党政治...哦,是民主啦

要么我们选择中国的路,搞一党制,要么学习西方...把一切都卖给私人企业

Jayeshkumar Panchal
22170
22170 Points
Indian Government (and Political parties) barely have money for these Elections. ..coming up all the time.


印度政府连选举的资金都凑不齐...


Jayeshkumar Panchal


In fact having to borrow a lot of money for elections. ..from the other countries. (Jab Election Ladane ke liye hi paise kam padenge, to Science ke liye paise kahan se Aayenge?)
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不得不从其他国家借钱搞竞选



 
Jayeshkumar Panchal

During discussions with my previous Lenders (Banks), I was told, It is good and (kind of) money is not a problem, But the Politicians in India will not allow my research/Product Innovation to grow. Later as it turned out or appeared that even their Parent Bank would also not possibly like to support developments of any Technology that saved the Energy or Fuel in the Automobiles. ..and their Oil.
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上次和银行的人聊天,他们说,钱不是问题

就是印度政府不让科研和创新得到发展

后来,似乎他们的总行也不大喜欢支持节能技术的发展

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