2016-07-07 21:21 217个评论 字号:

A silver jubilee to remember: How India has gone from super-beggar to potential superpower in 25 years since reforms



This is a silver jubilee to remember. The economic reforms launched by PV Narasimha Rao in July 1991 have transformed India so much that it’s difficult to recall how bad things used to be.

Back in 1991, lndia pretended to be a Third World leader. In fact, its development model evoked derisive laughter among many developing countries that had grown twice as fast. They found Indians good at drafting resolutions in international meetings, but little else.

Today, India is called a potential superpower by journals ranging from Forbes to The Guardian. India is called the only Asian power that can check China in the 21st century. This is why the US arranged for its entry into the nuclear club and now backs it for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.

In 1991, India was a member of the G77 group of developing countries. In 2016, India is a proud member of the G20, the most-powerful countries in the world.
In 1991, India was infamous as the world’s biggest beggar, a bottomless pit for foreign aid. It soaked up 40% of the funds of the International Development Association (IDA), the soft-loan window of the World Bank. Today, India is as much a donor as a recipient.

It is still a substantial aid recipient in gross terms. But the inflow is barely half-a-billion dollars net of debt service. Meanwhile, India itself has become a substantial donor, including a line of credit of $10 billion to Africa, $2 billion to Bangladesh.

Remittances from NRIs total $73 billion a year, and foreign direct and portfolio investment often exceed $60 billion per year. Commercial loans exceed $35 billion. India now finances itself overwhelmingly on commercial terms, not through aid.

Its per capita income has shot up from $375 in 2011 to $1,700 today, taking it from low-income to middle-income status. However, China is almost six times better off, and has transformed itself far more than India.

Forward March

In 1991, the Indian economy was immaterial to the world. Today, in purchasing power parity terms, India is the third-largest economy in the world after China and the US. It has overtaken all European economies and Japan.

India today is the fastest-growing major economy in the world, touching 7.6% in 2016 after a similar rate in 2015. Against expectations, India has overtaken China. The World Economic Outlook of the International Monetary Fund portrays the US and India as two pillars holding up a wobbling world economy.

India was historically an economic laggard. For decades it grew at just 3.5% per year, derisively called the ‘Hindu rate of growth’. This accelerated in the 1980s to 5.5%, because of creeping liberalisation plus an unsustainable borrowing spree that was ended in tears in 1991. India then embarked on economic reforms in 1991.

All Opposition parties denounced this as a sell-out to the IMF, and predicted that India would suffer a “lost decade” of growth, just as Africa and Latin America had in the 1980s. In fact, India accelerated to become a miracle economy, averaging 8% growth after 2003.

India Rising

Critics say economic reforms have benefited only a thin rich layer. Dead wrong. Between 2004 and 2011, a record 138 million Indians were raised above the poverty line. China was earlier hailed for raising 220 million people above the poverty line between 1978 and 2002. India’s rate of poverty reduction was much faster. Arvind Panagariya and Vishal More have shown that poverty among Dalits and Muslims fell faster than for all communities.

Before 1991, India begged for food aid if the monsoon failed. When it suffered two successive droughts in 1965 and 1966, mass starvation was avoided only by US food aid. India lived a ‘ship-to mouth’ existence.

William and Paul Paddock’s famous 1967 book, Famine 1975! claimed the world was running out of food, so food aid should be conserved for viable countries, and unviable ones like India should be left to starve.

The Green Revolution changed that, and private seed production further improved productivity after 1991. India suffered two successive droughts in 2014 and 2015. Yet this time, it remained a net food exporter. It became the world’s largest rice exporter in 2014.

In 1991, it took years to get a telephone landline. Today, India has a billion cellphones, instant availability and the cheapest telecom rates in the world. Even people below the poverty line have phones. In 1991, only 20% of Indians had a TV set. Now two-thirds do. In 1991, Doordarshan had a TV monopoly. Today, the country has over 900 TV channels.

Many flaws still remain. Thousands of projects remain stuck in red tape. All government services remain lousy. Corruption, waste and sloth are visible everywhere. Education and health remain deplorable. Indian institutions are low-quality, weak and subservient to political interference.

The police-judicial system is moribund, with a backlog of 31 million cases. The future agenda must include much better governance, better social services and high-quality, independent institutions. But for now, let us toast the silver jubilee of economic liberalisation.








文章认为,尽管印度还存在许多缺陷。但未来,印度一定能实现更好的治理,更好的社会服务和更高质量的独立机构。(实习编译 琚燕芳 审稿 谭利娅)


网民评论部分来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/2016070705.html

Communal Award

India is developing due to $135 FDI per year, not due to Congress/BJP;



G Ananthapadmanaban

to understand this one should understand the position in 89-1991. Then will appreciate this article and level of truth in it





Lets hope PM will succeed.People must give full support not giving in for corruption.Also he must unearth money looted along with black money.




Jai Bharat

Its an eye opener for many of us to see what we were in 1991 and what we are today. With Modi as PM we will do much much better in three years before his second term which is guaranteed at the pace he is working he would be there




Udiavar Rao
18 hours ago

Kudos for greater india. Success is not an event it is a process. India will always grow , the question is are we up to it.


分页: 1 2 3

    • 人家说的是“潜在的超级大国”话说对印度来说乞丐大国和潜在超级大国不是一个意思吗

  1. 印度脱贫1.4亿,中国脱贫2.2亿。这数据怎么来的?印度制药出口120亿,中国制药出口69亿。这数据又是怎么来的?据我所知中国脱贫6,7亿了吧?中国制药出口250亿+了吧?这这真让人无语。意思是中国各方面比印度弱呗?

  2. Ravi19 hours agoHAHAHA!India is a super power with the largest beggar population in the world.Indian middle class is living in the fantasy world of their super power utopia.哈哈,印度是有着世界最多乞丐的超级大国印度中产阶级生活在超级大国的乌托邦梦想中

  3. 以购买力平价计算,印度成为继中国和美国之后的世界第三大经济体,超过日本和欧洲国家。现在,印度的经济增长速度也超过中国,成为增速最快的主要经济体。国际货币基金组织在《世界经济展望》中,将美国和印度描绘成支撑世界摇摆经济的两大支柱写这个的人病的好重

  4. 好吧我倒要看看你们如何成为超级大国,我宁愿相信澳大利亚成为超级大国也不相信你们能成为!

  5. 我倒觉得这次阿三的媒体并没有吹,阿三在很多东西的定义上都跟国际通用的解释有很大不同,很显然,对脱贫的定义也不例外……

  6. ronit1 days agoIndia is country of poverty. Reality does not change with media hype.244印度是个贫穷国家媒体的炒作是改变不了现实的这脸抽的啪啪的…. 来人,拖下去灌浓缩恒河水!

  7. 看过之前的文章有说过,中国的贫穷多数是除了温饱之外的物质生活的贫困,而印度的穷则是温饱都无法解决。印度的可用耕地比例比中国要好的多,粮食产能按理说能够解决国民的吃饭问题,但是种种原因,运输过程中被浪费一部分,还有一部分被出口了,剩下的也发不到底层人民的手中。不可想象每年都会饿死那么多人。

  8. 看过之前的文章有说过,中国的贫穷多数是除了温饱之外的物质生活的贫困,而印度的穷则是温饱都无法解决。印度的可用耕地比例比中国要好的多,粮食产能按理说能够解决国民的吃饭问题,但是种种原因,运输过程中被浪费一部分,还有一部分被出口了,剩下的也发不到底层人民的手中。不可想象每年都会饿死那么多人。

  9. 老仙整天这样给小黑人吃伟哥、来掩盖执政无建树的事实、别到下来时把自个搞监狱里去了、

  10. 一直以来我有个问题,看印度人的评论,他们目中无人,狂妄自大,敢于用自已的短处嘲笑别人的长处,到底是他们的智商问题,还是翻译问题?或者说他们的语言语气对应翻译过来,就成了这样无知狂妄的样子?中国都这样子了都是不敢说自己引领世界,印度那屎一样的政治经济居然一直嘲笑中国,这得有多大的勇气啊。。。。

  11. 没希望了印度,两个新内阁明星大佬,印度总理穆迪和印度中央银行行长拉詹都闹翻了。标志着印度经济改革的彻底失败 印度中央银行行长拉詹上台让印度在2015年GDP成长率超过中国。当现在已经确定印度中央银行行长拉詹离职下台回美国一个政治明星都奈何不了印度大家族。印度的黄金组合已经解散。

  12. 其实吧,我觉得只要别人真的有所发展,要用理性的眼光去看,不要像日本人、韩国人和那些西方外国人······否认中国发展一样,不然,这样的自满自大会毁了我们的今后

    • 从人道主义出发,你的话没错,印度政府能让全国12亿人口全部脱贫甚至直奔小康,那真是一件世间的大功德。遗憾的是,印度是一个分种姓的国度,你跟他们讲“人道主义”,可是在上位者眼中,低种姓的人口不一定是“人”。我敢说只要不把这个封建残余的制度废除,印度永远都得不到发展。

  13. 听到耳朵长茧了!这25年印度进步多少?中国进步多少?应该是拉开了惊人的差距吧!中国几乎是超级大国了,必然会超越美国,事实上,实体经济和按照购买力计算,都早已超越美国,是货真价实的世界第一大国了。印度?先搞好基建,开始认真建立工业吧!否则,始终是做梦!

  14. 这么伟大的成就,难道不是从2014年5月才开始的?为什么要把辛格那个老混蛋扯上,他对印度没有任何贡献。一切归功于穆迪姬

  15. 脱贫速度超中国?同样的起点,结局是GDP 相差5倍,印度媒体够了,吹B也吹点能忽悠到人的。

    • 应该比较1978到2016年这38年的脱贫人数,中国这期间有7.6亿人脱贫,印度有多少?中国目前还有7000万贫困人口,印度有多少?世行报告全球三分之一的贫困人口居住在印度约4亿人。

  16. Super power because of all people from all parties, not Bjp alone. But Bjp/ Rss/ Ram sena/ Kambhakts will trumphet that this is due to puppy Modi !!! Ha ha haa21之所以能成为超级大国,那是各政党的功劳,不单是人民党的功劳。 掏肠派,强奸派,荣誉砍头派,种姓派,坠机派,阿琼派,lca派,布朗运动派,屎坑派,“将”派,“如果,就”派。

  17. 今天,印度拥有十亿人使用手机。即使在贫困线以下人都有手机。然后每年人们用手机知道印度每年都有上万农民自杀。印度19年来29万农民自杀。2014数据

  18. 经济增长也让民众受惠。2004年至2011年,1.38亿印度人脱离贫困线。中国此前被称赞从1978到2002之间实现2.2亿人脱离贫困线。但实际上,印度的减贫速度明显比中国“快得多”。印度公布新的贫困线标准:农村32卢比,城市47卢比