三泰虎

印媒:25年来印度从超级乞丐变成潜在超级大国,脱贫速度超中国

A silver jubilee to remember: How India has gone from super-beggar to potential superpower in 25 years since reforms

改革开放25年来,印度如何从超级乞丐变成潜在的超级大国

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This is a silver jubilee to remember. The economic reforms launched by PV Narasimha Rao in July 1991 have transformed India so much that it's difficult to recall how bad things used to be.

Back in 1991, lndia pretended to be a Third World leader. In fact, its development model evoked derisive laughter among many developing countries that had grown twice as fast. They found Indians good at drafting resolutions in international meetings, but little else.

Today, India is called a potential superpower by journals ranging from Forbes to The Guardian. India is called the only Asian power that can check China in the 21st century. This is why the US arranged for its entry into the nuclear club and now backs it for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.

In 1991, India was a member of the G77 group of developing countries. In 2016, India is a proud member of the G20, the most-powerful countries in the world.
In 1991, India was infamous as the world's biggest beggar, a bottomless pit for foreign aid. It soaked up 40% of the funds of the International Development Association (IDA), the soft-loan window of the World Bank. Today, India is as much a donor as a recipient.

It is still a substantial aid recipient in gross terms. But the inflow is barely half-a-billion dollars net of debt service. Meanwhile, India itself has become a substantial donor, including a line of credit of $10 billion to Africa, $2 billion to Bangladesh.

Remittances from NRIs total $73 billion a year, and foreign direct and portfolio investment often exceed $60 billion per year. Commercial loans exceed $35 billion. India now finances itself overwhelmingly on commercial terms, not through aid.

Its per capita income has shot up from $375 in 2011 to $1,700 today, taking it from low-income to middle-income status. However, China is almost six times better off, and has transformed itself far more than India.

Forward March

In 1991, the Indian economy was immaterial to the world. Today, in purchasing power parity terms, India is the third-largest economy in the world after China and the US. It has overtaken all European economies and Japan.

India today is the fastest-growing major economy in the world, touching 7.6% in 2016 after a similar rate in 2015. Against expectations, India has overtaken China. The World Economic Outlook of the International Monetary Fund portrays the US and India as two pillars holding up a wobbling world economy.

India was historically an economic laggard. For decades it grew at just 3.5% per year, derisively called the 'Hindu rate of growth'. This accelerated in the 1980s to 5.5%, because of creeping liberalisation plus an unsustainable borrowing spree that was ended in tears in 1991. India then embarked on economic reforms in 1991.

All Opposition parties denounced this as a sell-out to the IMF, and predicted that India would suffer a "lost decade" of growth, just as Africa and Latin America had in the 1980s. In fact, India accelerated to become a miracle economy, averaging 8% growth after 2003.

India Rising

Critics say economic reforms have benefited only a thin rich layer. Dead wrong. Between 2004 and 2011, a record 138 million Indians were raised above the poverty line. China was earlier hailed for raising 220 million people above the poverty line between 1978 and 2002. India's rate of poverty reduction was much faster. Arvind Panagariya and Vishal More have shown that poverty among Dalits and Muslims fell faster than for all communities.

Before 1991, India begged for food aid if the monsoon failed. When it suffered two successive droughts in 1965 and 1966, mass starvation was avoided only by US food aid. India lived a 'ship-to mouth' existence.

William and Paul Paddock's famous 1967 book, Famine 1975! claimed the world was running out of food, so food aid should be conserved for viable countries, and unviable ones like India should be left to starve.

The Green Revolution changed that, and private seed production further improved productivity after 1991. India suffered two successive droughts in 2014 and 2015. Yet this time, it remained a net food exporter. It became the world's largest rice exporter in 2014.

In 1991, it took years to get a telephone landline. Today, India has a billion cellphones, instant availability and the cheapest telecom rates in the world. Even people below the poverty line have phones. In 1991, only 20% of Indians had a TV set. Now two-thirds do. In 1991, Doordarshan had a TV monopoly. Today, the country has over 900 TV channels.

Many flaws still remain. Thousands of projects remain stuck in red tape. All government services remain lousy. Corruption, waste and sloth are visible everywhere. Education and health remain deplorable. Indian institutions are low-quality, weak and subservient to political interference.

The police-judicial system is moribund, with a backlog of 31 million cases. The future agenda must include much better governance, better social services and high-quality, independent institutions. But for now, let us toast the silver jubilee of economic liberalisation.

以下是来自环球网的编译:http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2016-07/9137789.html

印度前总理纳拉辛哈•拉奥1991年进行经济改革至今已25年。《印度经济时报》7月6日刊文对此表示纪念,文章指出,这25年间,印度发生了天翻地覆的变化,尤其是经济迅速增长,已从当年贫穷国一跃成为世界潜在的超级大国。

文章称,印度现已“自豪地”成为G20成员国,世界最强国家之一。而1991年,印度还只是G77发展中国家集团的一员。还是世界上最臭名昭著的“乞丐国”,是吸纳外国援助款的一个“无底洞”。但如今,印度已摇身变为救助款捐赠国。

1991年,印度在世界上的地位无足轻重。如今,以购买力平价计算,印度成为继中国和美国之后的世界第三大经济体,超过日本和欧洲国家。现在,印度的经济增长速度也超过中国,成为增速最快的主要经济体。国际货币基金组织在《世界经济展望》中,将美国和印度描绘成支撑世界摇摆经济的两大支柱。

文章说,印度在历史上一直是经济落后的国家。几十年来,每年增长率仅3.5%,一度被嘲弄地称为“印度经济增长率”。1991年,印度开始实行经济改革,经济迅速增长。2003年后,平均增长速度达8%。

经济增长也让民众受惠。2004年至2011年,1.38亿印度人脱离贫困线。中国此前被称赞从1978到2002之间实现2.2亿人脱离贫困线。但实际上,印度的减贫速度明显比中国“快得多”。

文章说,1991年前,如果没有季风,印度就会请求粮食援助。粮食的绿色革命改变了这种现状。1991年之后,印度的私人种子产量进一步提高。即使遭受连续干旱,印度仍然能实现粮食出口。2014年,印度成为世界上最大的稻米出口国。1991年,印度才有固定电话。今天,印度拥有十亿人使用手机。即使在贫困线以下人都有手机。

文章认为,尽管印度还存在许多缺陷。但未来,印度一定能实现更好的治理,更好的社会服务和更高质量的独立机构。(实习编译 琚燕芳 审稿 谭利娅)

印度经济时报读者的评论:


网民评论部分来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/2016070705.html
外文地址:http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/a-silver-jubilee-to-remember-how-india-has-gone-from-super-beggar-to-potential-superpower-in-25-years-since-reforms/articleshow/53073244.cms



Communal Award
19017

India is developing due to $135 FDI per year, not due to Congress/BJP;
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印度是靠每年135亿美元的外资发展起来的,不是国大党的功劳,也不是人民党的功劳

 
G Ananthapadmanaban

to understand this one should understand the position in 89-1991. Then will appreciate this article and level of truth in it
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为了更好地理解,你应了解1989-1991年印度当时的国情

只有这样,你才会欣赏这篇文章

 
JKVR SETTY

Lets hope PM will succeed.People must give full support not giving in for corruption.Also he must unearth money looted along with black money.
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希望莫迪能成功。

人们必须给以权力支持,不要对腐败让步

 
Jai Bharat

Its an eye opener for many of us to see what we were in 1991 and what we are today. With Modi as PM we will do much much better in three years before his second term which is guaranteed at the pace he is working he would be there
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看了1991年和我们今天的对比后,许多人大开眼界

有了莫迪当总理,我们未来3年会好很多。

 
Udiavar Rao
18 hours ago

Kudos for greater india. Success is not an event it is a process. India will always grow , the question is are we up to it.
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成功是一个过程。印度一直在发展。

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