三泰虎

中国三大鼎盛王朝

中华文明是世界上最古老的、连续不断的文明之一。事实上,不同于西方文明,伊斯兰,还有印度文明,中国在大部分历史中始终保持着政治上的统一。可人们都通常误认为中国在历史上是间断和虚弱的,(但)中国一些强大的王朝已对全球史产生了深远的影响。没错,这是事实,在明王朝时期,中国海船就数次进行 了远洋探索(1405年-1433年),但到了(1433年)探索却意外终止了。这次远洋几乎没有让中国对历史上的东、南亚、还有中亚的经济政治产生太大 的影响。

译者:bluebit
来源:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-344425-1-1.html
外文:http://nationalinterest.org/feature/chinas-3-most-powerful-dynasties-12726?page=show


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China's3 Most Powerful Dynasties

中国三大鼎盛王朝

China'smighty history continues to shape it...

中国仍在受其浩瀚历史的熏染…

作者:AkhileshPillalamarri ;写于2015年4月26日

Chinesecivilization is one of the world’s oldest continuous civilizations. Indeed, unlike Western, Islamic,and Indian civilizations, China has managed to remain politically unified formuch of its history.
Contraryto the common perception of China being historically isolated and weak, manyChinese dynasties were very powerful and have had a profound impact on globalhistory. Yes, it is true that during the Ming Dynasty, China ships conductedmultiple voyages of exploration beforeabruptly stopping. But this hardly dented the enormous economic and politicalinfluence China wielded for most of its history in East, Southeast, and CentralAsia. Although the people of these regions pursued their own interests asbest as they could, China was always the major power to be dealtwith.
Nonetheless,not all Chinese dynasties were created, and these three stood abovethe rest.

中华文明是世界上最古老的、连续不断的文明之一。事实上,不同于西方文明,伊斯兰,还有印度文明,中国在大部分历史中始终保持着政治上的统一。

可人们都通常误认为中国在历史上是间断和虚弱的,(但)中国一些强大的王朝已对全球史产生了深远的影响。没错,这是事实,在明王朝时期,中国海船就数次进行了远洋探索(1405年-1433年),但到了(1433年)探索却意外终止了。这次远洋几乎没有让中国对历史上的东、南亚、还有中亚的经济政治产生太大的影响。尽管这些地区的人们尽可能地追寻他们的自身的利益,中国也总是尽全力去进行贸易。

但是,并不是所有的中国朝代都这样,以下三个王朝远卓于其他朝代之上。

TheHan Dynasty
TheHan Dynasty ruled China for a solid four centuries, from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.Although the preceding Qin Dynasty unified China, it was the Han Dynasty thatkept it together and developed the institutions that characterized most ofChinese history since.
TheHan Dynasty was able to maintain its bureaucracy and military through a moreefficient and thorough system of taxation than many contemporary empires.Additionally, to gain increased revenue, the Han created monopolies on iron andsalt. The salt monopoly has been a traditional source of revenue for Chinesestates since, one that apparently lasted until 2014.
TheHan’s largecoffers allowed it to expand China’s boundariesoutwards from its traditional heartland in the Yellow Rivervalley toward what is today southern China. Southern China would prove tobe very important to China in the future since it can support a largepopulation through the rice crop. Thanks in part to southern China’s wealth, China’s sociopolitical developmentwas usually greater than its neighbors, allowing China to easily incorporate ordefeat them.
Oneexception to this, however, was China’s perennial problem— namely, nomads to its north.During the Han, these were the Xiongnu. Constant harassment and raids by thesenomads necessitated the first construction of the Great Wall during the QinDynasty. During the Han, China attempted to outflank its enemies, which led toan expedition westward into today’s Xinjiang andCentral Asia.
This process is generally thought to have informed Chinafor the first time of other civilizations, a shocking development for a peoplewho until then believed themselves to be the only state society. Indeed, duringthis time China became aware of the civilizations of India, the Bactrians,the Sogdians, the Persians, and many more, This event isthought to have stimulated the development of trade routes that would later becalled the Silk Road.
Tocontrol trade routes and outflank their enemies, Chinese forces occupied muchof Xinjiang for many decades, allowing them to project their influence deep tothe west. Buddhism also entered China through this route at this time.

汉王朝

汉王朝、公元前206年至220年(注:汉王朝应是公元前202年至220年),汉王朝统治了中国整整四个世纪。尽管之前的秦王朝已统一了中国,但却从是汉王朝开始延续并巩固了最具中国历史特色的制度。为了维持汉王朝的官僚制度和军事力量,相比许多其他同时期的帝国,它所采取的人才选拔和税收制度更为完善。此外,为了增加收入,汉朝创立了官办铁盐进行垄断经营。后来盐业垄断一直是中国的传统收入来源,据说一直延续到2014年。

汉朝庞大的财富促使中国的边界开始从黄河流域向如今的中国南方拓展,后来证明华南对于中国至关重要,因为那里盛产可以养活大量人口的水稻。多亏华南的富饶,才使得中国的社会发展一直领先于其他邻国,使得中国能轻松地吞并或击败他们。

可有个例外,一直是中国的心腹之患,那就是北方的游牧民族。他们在汉代被称为匈奴。这些游牧民族的不停地进行骚扰和袭击,迫使秦朝时就开始修长城。到了汉代,中国打算从侧翼包抄敌人,其中一支远征军已向西深入到如今的新疆和中亚。

通常都以为是这次远征让中国首次了解到其他文明,这对于一个自认为唯我独尊的国家社会来说,应该是一个令人震惊的发现。事实上,这个时期的中国发现了印度、大夏,粟特,波斯,等更多的文明,这一事件促进了贸易线路的发展,后来这条路线被称之为丝绸之路。

通过贸易控制以及包抄敌人,汉朝军队在几十年当中控制了新疆大部分地区,这使得他们的影响力逐步深入到西方。与此同时,佛教也正是通过这条路线进入到中国。

Tang
Afterthe Han Dynasty collapsed due to civil war, China entered a period of disunityuntil being reunited by the Sui Dynasty, which was subsequently succeeded bythe Tang Dynasty, which ruled China from 618-907 C.E. The Tang Dynasty was oneof China’smost cosmopolitan and urbane dynasties, opening China up to a period of foreigninfluences. The Tang Dynasty was also likely China’s largest and most powerful dynasty in history and is considered thegolden age of imperial China.
Thepopulation base of the Tang Dynasty was estimated to have been around 80million people, enabling it to completely dominate its neighbors. During thistime, China continued to expand northeast and south, incorporating much ofManchuria and Vietnam. It was also during this period that many other statesocieties developed under Chinese influence, including Korea, Japan, and Tibet.This period thus saw the establishment of thetributary state system to a greater extent than under the Han. Although theydid not rule Tibet, the Tangwere the first Chinese dynasty to exert influence over thepreviouslyforeboding plateau to the southeast.

唐王朝

汉因内战而覆灭,之后,中国进入了一个四分五裂的时期,直到隋朝再次统一,但随即被唐取代,唐统治中国的时期是从618年至907年。唐是中国历史上最具国际化、最为开放的朝代。唐王朝也许是中国历史上最庞大、最强大的王朝,同时它也被认为是中华帝国的黄金时代。

唐代人口估计约有8千万人,在所有的邻国当中首屈一指。在这个时期里,中国持续向东北部和南部拓展,吞并了满洲及越南大部分地区。也正是在这一时期,不少其他国家的社会发展,包括韩国、日本、以及XZ都深受中国的影响。

由此认为,此期间的朝贡体系中的政权势力比起汉朝延伸的更广,但他们还没有控制XZ。唐朝是首个越过蛮荒地带影响到东南方面的中国王朝。(最后这句可给我顶住了,乱写的求指教)

TheTang military was successful because it had learned to fight like the steppenomads in many ways. The Tang were crazy about horses, which had previously been relativelyrare in China, and imported and breed many different breeds, negating the mainadvantage of the nomads to their north. The Tang also promoted and used talentedCentral Asian generals (a decision which would later come back to haunt them).
TheTang’sgrip on Xinjiang was firm during this time (the region had slipped from Chineserule after the Han) and garrisons were established in the “Western Region,” an area thatwas expanding rapidly to dominate all of Central Asia up to the border of thePersian Empire. Until the Arabs defeated the Chinese in the Battle of Talas(751), it looked as thoughCentral Asia’s future was with China. Numerous states near this region such asKabul and Kashmir became direct tributaries to China. The Chinese alsointervened in the affairs of their steppe neighbors and even in the northern heartland of India.
TheTang Dynasty never recovered from the An Lushan Rebellion, when An Lushan, a Tanggeneral of Central Asian origin, revolted and named himself emperor. Up to halfof the empire’s population is said to have perished in the resulting fighting,famines, and diseases in what has been called one of history’s largest man-made disasters.
TheTang Dynasty managed to limp on due to support from Tibetan and Turkishsoldiers but eventually collapsed.

从多方来看,唐朝军队成功原因是它学会了像草原游牧民族那样的战斗。唐朝人对马特别迷恋,相比之前的朝代这相当少见,而且通过引进,培育出很多各种不同品种的马,从而抵消了在面对北方游牧民族时所处的劣势。唐还提倡起用有才干的中亚将领(这一决定后来时常让这些将领感到困惑)。

唐对新疆的控制是在这个期间确定下来(在汉朝之后这个地区渐渐地就被中国统治了),并在“西域”建成了要塞,且以此为据点迅速控制了整个中亚并向波斯帝国边界延伸。直到阿拉伯人在塔拉斯战役中(公园751年)击败了中国。看起来中亚好像要和中国同呼吸共命运了,因为这一地区的大多数国家如喀布尔还有喀什米尔都成了中国的朝贡国。中国还介入他们的草原邻居的事务,手甚至还伸到了印度北部中心地带。

唐在安史之乱中元气大伤,在当时,出身中亚的唐朝将领安禄山自立为帝。据说唐帝国一半以上的人口死于战乱,饥荒和疾病之中,这场灾难被称为是史上最大的人为灾祸。

唐在藏族(注:吐蕃)和土耳其军队(注:东突厥)的维持下苟延残喘,但最终覆灭.

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