从这里了解印度人对中国的看法

印媒:美国测完北京上海PM2.5,还决定到印度去测

2015-03-28 13:56 56个评论 字号:

污染最严重城市。在世界上污染最严重的20个城市中,印度就占了13个。美国决定对德里以及印度的其他城市的空气质量进行监测,这让(印)环境与森林部深感震惊。(印)环境联盟部长,普拉卡什·雅瓦德卡尔对于美国的声明不与置评,但毫无疑问,这条声明令人相当难堪。美国已对中国首都——世界上污染最严重的城市——北京,其次上海,已进行了好几年的空气质量监测。现在,两千万德里人也可以享受与之相同的待遇了,因为在我们外出购物、散步或驱车上班时,会有吸入被称为PM2.5细微颗粒的危险。

译者:bluebit
来源:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-340089-1-1.html
外文:http://www.rediff.com/news/special/us-wants-to-monitor-air-quality-india-stunned/20150220.htm

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US wants tomonitor Air Quality; India stunned

美国欲测印度空气质量:印惊呆了

Last updated on:February 20, 2015 14:04 IST

13 out of theworld’s 20 most polluted cities are in India.
Most shockingly,thelatest Central Pollution Control Board statistics reveal that thepollution levels in Gwalior, Raipur and even little known Kashipur are higherthan that of Delhi which means we have some of the most polluted zones in theworld.
‘Half of the 252cities in India have already crossed critically polluted levels. The governmentmust declare a national emergency on air pollution and treat this on a warfooting.’
Rashme Sehgalreports for Rediff.com

在世界上污染最严重的20个城市中,印度就占了13个

最令人震惊的是,据中央污染控制委员会最新统计显示,瓜廖尔市,赖布尔市、甚至不太为人知的卡希普尔市的污染程度均高于德里,这说明我们有着不少世界上污染最严重的地区。

“印度的252个城市中,其中有半数城市污染水平已严重超标准。对于空气污染政府必须宣布国家正处于紧急状态,并采取应对措施、打赢这场(污染)战争。”

The United Statesdecision to monitor air quality levels in Delhi and other Indian cities hassent shock waves in the ministry of environment and forests.
UnionMinister for the Environment Prakash Javadekar refuses to comment on this USannouncement, but there is no doubt that this has come as a majorembarrassment.
The US mission hasbeen monitoring air quality in Beijing and for several years, the Chinesecapital was dubbed the most polluted city in the world followed by Shanghai.
Delhi now enjoysthis distinction with 20 million Delhites having to inhale dangerous airborneparticles known as PM2.5 while going out to do their shopping, takinga walk or simply driving to their place of work.
These smallparticles, which are less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter, get embedded in thelungs and are known to cause lung cancer and heart disease.

美国决定对德里以及印度的其他城市的空气质量进行监测,这让(印)环境与森林部深感震惊。
(印)环境联盟部长,普拉卡什·雅瓦德卡尔对于美国的声明不与置评,但毫无疑问,这条声明令人相当难堪。
美国已对中国首都——世界上污染最严重的城市——北京,其次上海,已进行了好几年的空气质量监测。
现在,两千万德里人也可以享受与之相同的待遇了,因为在我们外出购物、散步或驱车上班时,会有吸入被称为PM2.5细微颗粒的危险。
这种细微颗粒,其直径小于2.5微米,吸入后会附着在肺脏内,引起肺癌和心脏病。

Delhi’s air hasbeen found to have PM2.5 concentrations of 153 micrograms andPM10 concentrations of 286 micrograms — four times permissible limits.
The World HealthOrganisation has issued regular warnings to the Indian government about risingparticulate levels.
What has been a greatersource of concern for WHO officials has been the fact, pointedout in its 2014 study on air pollution, that13 out of the world’s 20 most polluted cities are in India.
These includeLudhiana, Gwalior, Patna, Vapi, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kanpur, Raipur and Pune.
Most shockingly,the latest Central Pollution Control Board statistics reveal that the pollutionlevels in Gwalior, Raipur and even little known Kashipur are higher than thatof Delhi which means we have some of the most polluted zones in the world.
Beijing andShanghai’s thick smog saw schools and offices being closed down and itsmunicipality taking strict measures including taking cars off the roads inorder to ensure pollution levels came down. No such strict action has beentaken by the Indian State.

德里的PM2.5和PM10浓度分别达到了153微克和286微克(每立方米),几乎达到了极限允许值的四倍。

世界卫生组织已就细微颗粒物的增加频频向印度政府发出警告。

究竟是什么原因引起世界卫生组织的极大关注,事实上,世卫组织在2014年通过对大气污染的研究指出,世界上20个污染最严重的城市中,有13座在印度。

这些城市包括有,卢迪亚纳,巴特那,瓜廖尔,VAPI,海得拉巴,古瓦哈提,坎普尔,赖布尔和浦那。

最令人震惊的是,据中央污染控制委员会最新统计显示,瓜廖尔市,赖布尔市、甚至不太为人所知的卡希普尔市的污染水平均远高于德里,这说明我们还有着不少世界上污染最严重的地区。

当北京和上海出现雾霾时,学校停课公司放假,而且这些城市为了降低污染,采取了包括车辆限行等严厉措施。但印度各邦还没采取类似的严厉措施。

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Javadekar recently launched a new National AirQuality Index, AQI, to indicate the quality of air in a city and its impact onhealth.
Said Javadekar,’We realise the situation is very serious. The government will not allow abusiness as usual scenario,’ adding that the AQI, was a ‘One Number-OneColour-One Description’ for people to judge air quality.
In the initialphase the monitoring of AQI will take place in 46 cities with a million pluspopulation and 20 state capitals.
Later, it will beexpanded to another 200 cities with categories being divided into Good,Satisfactory, Moderately Polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
Dr Mukesh Sharmafrom the Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, who helped created the AQI,emphasises this is the first time India will have its own index across cities.But health experts question how far state governments and local municipalitiesare empowered to bring down pollution levels.

最近,杰瓦德卡推出了一项新的国家空气质量标准,即AQI(空气质量指数),用来标明城市空气质量对健康的影响。
杰瓦德卡表示“我们已认识到事态的严重性。政府不会对企业作为采取放任态度”,新增的AQI是由“数字、颜色、类型(组成的)”让人们对空气质量一目了然。
AQI监测初步设置在具有百万人口的46座城市以及20个邦的首府中
来自印度坎普尔学院的穆克什夏尔马博士,曾协助创立AQI,并强调这是印度首次拥有涵盖本国各市的数据指数。但这些邦政府和地方政府是否具有整治污染的能力,健康专家们对此表示怀疑。

“Half of the252 cities in India have already crossed critically polluted levels,”warns Anumita Roychowdhary, deputy director general, Centrefor Science and Environment.
“Thegovernment must declare a national emergency on air pollution and treat this ona war footing,” she says
“India is notthe only country who needs to take tough measures,” she adds. “It isbeing done across the globe. Very recently, the municipality of Paris refusedto allow outside diesel vehicles to enter the city. They have also shut downfactories in the city in order to reduce pollution levels.”
The situation inIndia’s capital has become so dire that the American embassy presently issuesdaily smog warnings to inform its diplomats and staff aboutthe toxic air as they do in Beijing and Shanghai.
US officialsconfirm that they plan to extend the AirNow USmissions to other cities across the globe.

科学与环境中心副主任AnumitaRoychowdhary 警告说“印度的252个城市中,其中半数城市污染水平已严重超标”。
他说道,“对于空气污染政府必须宣布国家正处于紧急状态,并采取应对措施、打赢这场(污染)战争”
“印度不是一个唯一需要采取强硬措施的国家”她补充道。”这种做法全世界都在用。就在不久前,巴黎市政府拒绝外国柴油车驶入本市。为了减少空气污染他们还关闭了一批工厂。”
鉴于印度首都的严峻现状,日前,美国大使馆宣布,打算效仿在北京和上海做的那样,每日提供雾霾警告,向外交官和使馆人员发布关于空气污染情况的通报。
美国官方证实,他们打算将美国的AIRNOW业务推广到其他城市,直至全球。(注:AIRNOW ,环境空气质量信息管理和发布系统)

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Air pollution hasjumped to the number five spot amongst the top killers accordingto India-specific data released by the Global Burden of Disease whichhas stated that it caused over 600,000 deaths and a loss of 17.7 million healthyears of life in 2010.
Worldwide, outdoorair pollution caused 3.2 million premature deaths and over 74 million years ofhealthy life lost in 2010.
Dr Vinod Raina,who heads the oncology department at Fortis hospital,notes that during his three decade-long tenure at the All India Institute ofMedical Sciences, “We were getting 10 lakh (1 million) new cancer casesevery year out of which approximately one lakh (100,000) were lung cancerscases”
“We have toquantify how many of these lung cancer cases are pollution-related, but theindicators are there,” adds Dr Raina.
The seriousness ofthe problem can be best understood if we look at the PM2.5 levels of Gwalior,Patna and Raipur which have reported 144, 149 and 134 levels respectively. Bycomparison, London has an annual PM2.5 reading of 16.
WHO’s 2014 studylooked at 1,600 cities across 91 countries and showed Delhi had the world’sdirtiest air.
Officials at theIndian Meteorological Department remain in denial, insisting that atmosphericdust which blows in from Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana is responsible for thispollution and that yearly averages in the last four years show that the airquality of Delhi remains better than that of Beijing.
Officials in thegreen ministry also insist, unlike China, they do not hide data andif the debate around air pollution has intensified, itis because the government has been so upfront with its data.

据全球疾病评估报告发布的印度统计数据显示,大气污染已跃升至(该国)第五位头号杀手,2010年,空气污染造成60多万人死亡,并致使1770万人健康受损、寿命缩减。

在世界范围内,户外空气污染已造成320万人死亡,7400多万人健康受损、寿命缩减。

富通医院肿瘤科主管,Vinod Raina博士指出,他在全印度医学科学研究所就职的三十几年里,“我们每年接到的百万例癌症中就有十万例是肺癌”
“我们必须弄清究竟有多少肺癌是与(空气)污染有关,可数据指标就在那,“Raina博士补充道。

当我们看到瓜廖尔、巴特那,和赖布尔市的PM2.5值分别处于144、149、134的水平时,就会深刻地意识到这个问题的严重性了。相比之下,伦敦年均PM2.5读数仅为16.

但印度气象部门官员仍在否认,坚称这是由于大气尘埃落到了拉贾斯坦,旁遮普和哈里亚纳邦而造成的污染,而且,前四年年均值显示,德里的空气质量始终优于北京。

环保部门官员也坚持认为,与中国不同,他们从不隐瞒数据,若是围绕着空气污染的争论变得越来越激烈,这全都是因为政府用的都是较早之前数据的原因。



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