从这里了解印度人对中国的看法

北京和新德里在雾霾治理上的差距

2015-03-01 20:57 109个评论 字号:

如果想在新德里深呼吸一下,请三思而后行,新德里的空气污染日益恶化,已经可以和世界污染的典型相比较。对于拥堵的印度首都来说,最近的日子可不好过,由于空气太过模糊,能见度很低,令到交通异常缓慢。人们的对话伴随着刺耳的咳嗽声。阳光穿过斑驳不清的天空,显得非常微弱。遍布印度首都的大气质量检测仪器在最近几个月都显示大气中的颗粒物含量为“危险”级别,超过了新德里制定标准的3到4倍,足以和北京媲美。

译者:荷兰豆
来源:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-266498-1-1.html
外文:http://news.yahoo.com/delhi-beijing-both-polluted-39-045844032.html

India Air Pollution

Smog and fog envelop the Rajpath, the ceremonial boulevard, behind, as a police man, center, controls traffic in the morning in New Delhi, India, Wednesday, Feb. 5, 2014. On bad days in India’s congested capital, the air is so murky it slows traffic to a crawl because visibility is so poor. Conversations are punctuated with rasping coughs. Weak bands of sunlight filter through a grainy sky. (AP Photo/Tsering Topgyal)

上图,雾霾包围了国王大道,这可是国家庆典时使用的大道,2014年2月5日清晨,在大道后方的中间,一名警察正在指挥着印度新德里的交通。对于拥堵的印度首都来说,最近的日子可不好过,由于空气太过模糊,能见度很低,令到交通异常缓慢。人们的对话伴随着刺耳的咳嗽声。阳光穿过斑驳不清的天空,显得非常微弱。(美联社图)

NEW DELHI (AP) — Think twice before taking a deep breath in New Delhi, where worsening air pollution has drawn comparisons with Beijing, the world’s pollution poster child.

On bad days in India’s congested capital, the air is so murky it slows traffic to a crawl. Conversations are punctuated with rasping coughs. Weak bands of sunlight filter through a grainy sky.

Air monitoring sensors around the landlocked Indian capital have routinely registered levels of small airborne particles at “hazardous” levels in recent months — three to four times New Delhi’s own sanctioned limit, rivaling Beijing.

美联社新德里消息—如果想在新德里深呼吸一下,请三思而后行,新德里的空气污染日益恶化,已经可以和世界污染的典型:北京相比较。

对于拥堵的印度首都来说,最近的日子可不好过,由于空气太过模糊,能见度很低,令到交通异常缓慢。人们的对话伴随着刺耳的咳嗽声。阳光穿过斑驳不清的天空,显得非常微弱。

遍布印度首都的大气质量检测仪器在最近几个月都显示大气中的颗粒物含量为“危险”级别,超过了新德里制定标准的3到4倍,足以和北京媲美。

While it’s uncertain which city has worse smog — there are various toxins to measure and methods differ, among other things — one thing is clear: China’s capital is taking steps to improve air quality but New Delhi hasn’t done much in recent years to tackle the problem, largely because there’s been little public outcry.

Doctors overwhelmingly agree that more people in New Delhi are getting sick from the air pollution, although there is scant data to show it. Air pollution is proven to exacerbate chronic lung ailments, and there is mounting evidence it also leads to stress, coronary diseases and inflammation.

“It seems incredible that the politicians and judges living in Delhi would not be worried about how their families and children are suffering from the bad air,” said Dr. K. Srinath Reddy, head of the Public Health Foundation of India. “People have to recognize the extent of the damage happening. That’s where the outrage will come in. That’s when the action will happen.”

现在还不能确定这两个城市哪个的雾霾更严重,因为两地对各种毒素的衡量和界定不一样,还有其他的一些不同,但是有一件事是确定的:中国的首都正在对改善空气质量采取措施,而新德里在近几年并没有为大气污染做过什么,很大程度上是因为在新德里有小范围的强烈抗议。

医生们普遍认为越来越多的人由于新德里的大气污染而患病,尽管很少有这方面的数据统计。大气污染已经被证明会加剧慢性肺部疾病,而很多证据也证明了大气污染会导致人有压力,管状动脉疾病以及引起炎症。

印度公共卫生基金会主席,K·瑞迪博士表示:“很难相信那些住在新德里的官员们,竟然不会为他们的家人和孩子正在遭受大气污染的伤害而担心。民众们应该意识到这种伤害的范围正在扩大。那么大气问题才会引起民愤,到时政府就会有所行动了。”

India Air Pollution

Indians burn the leftover food after a wedding in New Delhi, India, Wednesday, Feb. 5, 2014. New Delhi’s worsening air pollution has drawn comparisons with Beijing, the world’s pollution poster child. (AP Photo/Tsering Topgyal)

上图,2014年2月5日,一群印度人正在烧煮婚宴过后剩余的食物。(美联社图)

This week, Reddy co-chaired the first meeting of a new Health Ministry committee, formed two months ago with academics, officials and health workers, tasked with recommending ways to protect the public from dirty air.

Their report is due in a year.

Comparing pollution levels between the two megacities, home to a combined 29 million people, seems natural given their iconic status representing Asia’s opportunity and growth. They both have gone through breakneck economic development that has transformed their landscapes within a generation, raising living standards but also spewing out loads of pollution.

本周,瑞迪博士共同主持了一个新成立的卫生部委员会的第一次会议,这个委员会成立于两个月前,由学者,官员和医护工作者组成,委员会的职责是为防止公众受大气毒害建言献策。

委员会的报告有效期是一年。

对比两个特大城市的污染水平,这两个城市是2900万人的家园,似乎很自然就会给予这两个城市亚洲机遇和发展的标志性地位。两城的经济都有了爆发式的发展,而且用一代人的时间就改变了城市的面貌,生活水平也不断提高,但是同时也制造出了大量的污染。

Decades of policies that favored economic decisions over environmental concerns have taken their toll. Cars now represent the middle-class dream for thousands digging out of poverty, and decades of booming construction has kicked up countless clouds of dust.

There are various ways to measure pollution, but comparisons have generally focused on the microscopic particulate matter, sometimes called black carbon or soot, which can lodge in a person’s lungs and fester over time.

几十年来优先发展经济而忽略环境保护的政策已经让他们付出了代价。脱贫的民众希望拥有汽车,实现中产梦,而几十年来爆发性的建设则制造了巨量的灰尘。

有很多种方法来测量污染程度,但是人们通常只注重比较空气中的细颗粒物数量,有时我们叫这些黑碳粉或者煤烟,它们会进入人体的肺部,而且会在一段时间后腐败。

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Smog and fog envelop the Indian Presidential Palace, behind, as commuters cross a street in the morning in New Delhi, India, Wednesday, Feb. 5, 2014. On bad days in India’s congested capital, the air is so murky it slows traffic to a crawl because visibility is so poor. Conversations are punctuated with rasping coughs. Weak bands of sunlight filter through a grainy sky. (AP Photo/Tsering Topgyal)

上图,雾霾包围了印度总统府广场,在早晨的雾霾中,印度的上班族正在穿过马路。

In New Delhi, levels of PM 10 — particulate matter that is 10 micrometers in size — have routinely bounced around 400 micrograms per cubic meter the past several months. That’s four times the city’s legal limit of 100, and well above the World Health Organization’s recommended limit of 20. In 2011, the average level rose to about 280.

In Beijing, average annual PM 10 levels have declined to just above 100 last year, according to the Center for Science and Environment, a Delhi-based research and advocacy group that crunched the official numbers.

The Chinese capital is way ahead of its Indian counterpart in terms of in informing citizens about the dangers of pollution. Beijing has launched a health alert system that advises caution on smoggy days, and the term PM 2.5 — particles even smaller than PM 10 and considered more dangerous to health — has become a common part of the vocabulary among citizens, with many checking smartphone apps for the hourly readings.

在新德里,空气测量的级别是pm10,即以10微米的颗粒物为测量对象,最近几个月,新德里测得的数值一直是在每立方米400微克左右。这是这个城市所定空气标准的4倍,也大大超过了世卫组织所定的20微克标准。2011年,印度的平均大气污染数值达到了280微克每立方米。

根据印度科学与环境中心的数据,北京去年的pm10平均数值已经降低到了100微克左右。这个中心是一个位于新德里的研究和游说团体,专门处理官方数据。

中国首都在向市民公示大气污染危害信息方面也大大领先新德里。北京建立了一个健康预警系统,用以向市民提示注意雾霾天气,而pm2.5的测量标准,也比pm10来的更加精准和更关乎健康,pm2.5也成为了北京市民的常用词汇,中国还在智能手机上推出了很多可以每小时更新显示pm2.5数值的手机软件。



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